dolmen

Dolmen - Wikipedia Dolmen From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search "Cromlech" redirects here. For the place in Wales, see Cromlech, Mechell. For other uses, see Dolmen (disambiguation). Poulnabrone dolmen, the Burren, County Clare, Ireland. In Andhra Pradesh, India, there is an evidence of dolmens existence in Indian Town of Amadalavalasa, Megalithic Dolmen (said to be world's large single capstone as a dolmen with 36 ft in length and 14 ft in width and 2 ft thickness) of early Iron Age at Dannanapeta near Amadalavalasa. A dolmen (/ˈdɒlmɛn/) or cromlech is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic (4000–3000 BC) and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between the cap and supporting stones to achieve a level appearance.[1] In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact. It remains unclear when, why and by whom the earliest dolmens were made. The oldest known are found in Western Europe, dating from c 7,000 years ago. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it. They are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these remains date from the time when the stones were originally set in place.[2] Contents 1 Etymology 2 Types 3 See also 4 References 4.1 Sources 5 Further reading 6 External links Etymology[edit] The word dolmen has an unclear history. The word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises (1796) using the spelling dolmin (the current spelling was introduced about a decade later and had become standard in French by about 1885).[3][4] The Oxford English Dictionary does not mention "dolmin" in English and gives its first citation for "dolmen" from a book on Brittany in 1859, describing the word as "The French term, used by some English authors, for a cromlech ...". The name was supposedly derived from a Breton language term meaning "stone table" but doubt has been cast on this, and the OED describes its origin as "Modern French". A book on Cornish antiquities from 1754 said that the current term in the Cornish language for a cromlech was tolmen ("hole of stone") and the OED says that "There is reason to think that this was the term inexactly reproduced by Latour d'Auvergne [sic] as dolmen, and misapplied by him and succeeding French archaeologists to the cromlech".[5] Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, when the more technical and descriptive alternatives are not used. Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages, including Irish: dolmain, Galician and Portuguese: anta, German: Hünengrab/Hünenbett, Afrikaans and Dutch: hunebed, Basque: trikuharri, Abkhazian: Adamra, Adyghe Ispun, dysse (Danish and Norwegian), dös (Swedish), Korean: 고인돌 goindol (mordenized word: stacked stone), "dol (stone)", "dolmaengi (pebble-stones, varied stones)", and Hebrew: גַלעֵד‎. Granja is used in Portugal, Galicia, and Spain. The rarer forms anta and ganda also appear. In the Basque Country, they are attributed to the jentilak, a race of giants. The etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried (bett/bed/grab = bed/grave)there. Of other Celtic languages, Welsh: cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is commonly used in English in Cornwall. Types[edit] Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur, Kerala, India. The dolmen Er-Roc'h-Feutet in Carnac, Brittany, France Crucuno dolmen in Plouharnel, Brittany, France Kilclooney More dolmen near Ardara, County Donegal, Ireland Lancken-Granitz dolmen, Germany T-shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands Dólmen da Aboboreira, Baião, Portugal Dolmen of Avola, Sicily Dolmen of Monte Bubbonia, Sicily Dolmen of Cava dei Servi, Sicily Dolmen of Oleiros, Galicia Dolmen Sa Coveccada, Mores, Sardinia See also[edit] Celts portal Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites Antequera Dolmens Site Irish megalithic tombs Kistvaen List of megalithic sites Megalithic art Neolithic Europe Nordic megalith architecture Taula References[edit] ^ Murphy (1997), 43 ^ Lewis, S. (2009) Guide to the Menhirs and other Megaliths of Central Brittany, Nezert Books, ISBN 978-952-270-595-2 ^ Bakker, Jan Albert (2009). Megalithic Research in the Netherlands, 1547–1911. Sidestone Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-9088900341. ^ Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne, Origines gauloises. Celles des plus anciens peuples de l'Europe puisées dans leur vraie source ou recherche sur la langue, l'origine et les antiquités des Celto-bretons de l'Armorique, pour servir à l'histoire ancienne et moderne de ce peuple et à celle des Français, p. PR1, at Google Books, 1796–97. ^ OED "Dolmen", 1st edition, 1897 Sources[edit] Holcombe, Charles (2011). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. Piccolo, Salvatore (2013). Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily. Thornham/Norfolk: Brazen Head Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4. Murphy, Cornelius. The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork. Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, 1997Further reading[edit] Trifonov, V., 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St.Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from [1] Kudin, M., 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path – Russian Megaliths. Available from [2] Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996.External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dolmen. Look up dolmen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.World heritage site of dolmen in Korea Piccolo, Salvatore. "Dolmen." Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Dolmen Museum in Italian and English Goindol: Dolmen of Korea Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland "Dolmen (Goindol) sites in Korea". on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Jersey Heritage Trust Dolmen Pictures by Robert Triest.vteEuropean megalithsArmenia Metsamor Zorats KarerAzerbaijan Gobustan RocksBulgaria Beglik Tash GarloFrance Barnenez Tumulus of Bougon Caixa de Rotllan Carnac Menhir de Champ-Dolent Dolmen de Bagneux Broken Menhir of Er Grah Filitosa Gallardet Dolmen Gavrinis Harrespil Kerzerho Locmariaquer megaliths Mane Braz Paddaghju Peyre-Brune Tremeca Verziau of GargantuaGermany Altendorf Denghoog Fraubillen cross Harhoog Lancken-Granitz dolmens Lohra Megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedertiefenbach Oldendorfer Totenstatt Riesenstein Route of Megalithic Culture Sieben Steinhäuser Wotanstein ZüschenIreland Ardgroom Beltany stone circle Bohonagh Brownshill Dolmen Brú na Bóinne Carrigagulla Carrowmore Castlestrange stone Creevykeel Court Tomb Drombeg Gaulstown Portal Tomb Glantane East Grange stone circle High cross Knocknakilla Meehambee Dolmen Piper's Stones Poulnabrone dolmen Reask Templebryan Stone Circle Turoe stone Uragh Stone CircleJersey Jersey Dolmens La Hougue BieMalta Megalithic Temples (Borġ l-Imramma Borġ in-Nadur Buġibba Debdieba Ġgantija Ħaġar Qim Ħal-Ġinwi Kordin Mnajdra Qortin l-Imdawwar Santa Verna Skorba Ta' Ħaġrat Ta' Marżiena Ta' Raddiena Tal-Qadi Tarxien Tas-Silġ Xemxija Xrobb l-Għaġin) Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni Xagħra Stone CircleNetherlands HunebedPoland Brąchnówko Grzybnica Odry WęsioryPortugal Almendres Cromlech Anta Grande do Zambujeiro Cunha Baixa DolmenRussia Dolmens of North Caucasus Thunder Stone Megaliths in the Urals Russian GeoglyphScandinavia Picture stones Runestones Stone circles Stone shipsUkraine Boundary stonesUnited KingdomEngland: Arbor Low Avebury Barbrook One Birkrigg Boscawen-Un Boskednan Brown Willy Cairns The Bull Ring Burnmoor stone circles Castlerigg Craddock Moor Devil's Arrows Doll Tor Drizzlecombe Duloe Fernacre Gardom's Edge Goodaver Grey Wethers Hoarstones Hordron Edge Hurlers Leper Stone Long Meg and Her Daughters Mên-an-Tol The Merry Maidens Mitchell's Fold Nine Ladies Nine Stones, Altarnun Pipers Rollright Rudston Monolith Scorhill Stannon Stanton Drew Stonehenge Stripple Swinside TrippetNorthern Ireland: Aughlish Ballynoe Beaghmore Corick Drumskinny Legananny Giant's RingScotland: Balquhain Callanish I II III IV VIII X Carlin Cat Stane Clach an Trushal Colmeallie Drybridge Easter Aquhorthies Lochmaben Stone Pictish Ring of Brodgar Sheldon Stenness Steinacleit Strichen Yonder BognieWales: Barclodiad y Gawres Bedd Arthur Bedd Taliesin Bodowyr Bryn Cader Faner Bryn Celli Ddu Bryn Gwyn stones Capel Garmon Carreg Coetan Arthur Carreg Samson Coetan Arthur Foel Chwern Llanfechell Lligwy Burial Chamber Maen Llia Maen Madoc Meini Hirion Moel Tŷ Uchaf Parc Cwm long cairn Penrhos Feilw Pentre Ifan St Lythans burial chamber Trefignath Tinkinswood Tŷ Newydd Burial Chamber WhetstonesGeneral articles Standing stone Dolmen Henge Menhir Stone circle Stone row Concentric stone circle Recumbent stone circle Chambered cairn Harrespil Photographs of stone circles Middle Eastern megaliths vteNeolithic Europe (including the Chalcolithic)↑ Mesolithic Europe ↑Horizons Cardium pottery Corded Ware culture First Temperate Neolithic Linear Pottery culture (LBK)Cultures Baden Beaker Boian Cernavodă Cerny Chasséen Cortaillod Coțofeni Cucuteni–Trypillia Decea Mureşului Dudești Funnelbeaker Gaudo Globular Amphora Gorneşti Gumelnița–Karanovo Hamangia Horgen Karanovo Lengyel Narva Petreşti Pit–Comb Ware Pitted Ware Pfyn Rössen Seine–Oise–Marne Sesklo Sredny Stog Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș StarčevoKörösCriş Tisza Tiszapolgár Varna Vinča Vučedol Wartberg Windmill HillMonumental architecture Bank barrow Causewayed enclosure Cist Cursus Dolmen Great dolmen Guardian stones Henge Long barrow Megalith Megalithic entrance Menhir Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular dolmen Rondel Round barrow Simple dolmen Statue menhir Stone circle Stone row Timber circle Tor enclosure Unchambered long barrowTechnology Grooved ware Lithic industries Metallurgy Neolithic long house Unstan wareConcepts Danubian culture Secondary products revolution Old Europe Proto-Indo-Europeans↓ Bronze Age Europe ↓ vtePrehistoric technology Prehistory Timeline Outline Stone Age Subdivisions New Stone Age Technology historyToolsFarming Neolithic Revolution founder crops New World crops Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle TerracingFood processing Fire Basket Cooking Earth oven Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth Aşıklı Höyük Qesem cave Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pitHunting Arrow Boomerang throwing stick Bow and arrow history Nets Spear Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen spearsProjectile points Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowheadSystems Game drive system Buffalo jumpToolmaking Earliest toolmaking Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian culture Hafting Hand axe Grooves Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction analysis debitage flake Lithic technology Magdalenian culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu techniqueOther tools Adze Awl bone Axe Bannerstone Blade prismatic Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe Oar Pesse canoe Chopper tool Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper side Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel illustrationArchitectureCeremonial Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones megalith row Stonehenge PyramidDwellings Neolithic architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut Quiggly hole Jacal Longhouse Mud brick Mehrgarh Neolithic long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house Alp pile dwellings Wattle and daubWater management Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water wellOther architecture Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound fulacht fiadh Causewayed enclosure Tor enclosure Circular enclosure Goseck Cursus Henge Thornborough Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway Sweet TrackArts and cultureMaterial goods Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles timeline Cosmetics Glue Hides shoes Ötzi Jewelry amber use Mirrors Pottery Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware Sewing needle Weaving Wine Winery wine pressPrehistoric art Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic Blombos Cave List of Stone Age art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved stone balls Cave paintings painting pigment Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art Stone carving Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle list British Isles and Brittany Venus figurinesBurial Burial mounds Bowl barrow Round barrow Mound Builders culture U.S. sites Chamber tomb Cotswold-Severn Cist Dartmoor kistvaens Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen Great dolmen Funeral pyre Gallery grave transepted wedge-shaped Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow unchambered Grønsalen Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairnOther cultural Astronomy sites lunar calendar Behavioral modernity Origin of language trepanning Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology music archaeology Prehistoric music Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use Prehistoric warfare Symbols symbolismPortal Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133307271 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dolmen&oldid=871104541" Categories: DolmensBurial monuments and 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