Luzon - Wikipedia Luzon From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the Philippine island. For other uses, see Luzon (disambiguation). LuzonLuzon mainland in red;its associated islands in maroonLuzonLocation within the PhilippinesGeographyLocationSoutheast AsiaCoordinates16°N 121°E / 16°N 121°E / 16; 121Coordinates: 16°N 121°E / 16°N 121°E / 16; 121ArchipelagoPhilippinesAdjacent bodies of waterBabuyan ChannelBurias PassPhilippine SeaPolillo StraitSamar SeaSan Bernardino StraitSibuyan SeaSouth China SeaTicao PassVerde Island PassageMajor islands List Luzon Mindoro Palawan Masbate Catanduanes Busuanga Marinduque Romblon Polillo Burias Ticao Alabat Sibuyan Tablas Culion Balabac Bugsuk DumaranArea109,965 km2 (42,458 sq mi)[1]Area rank15thCoastline3,249.6 km (2,019.21 mi)[1]Highest elevation2,922 m (9,587 ft)Highest pointMount PulagAdministrationPhilippinesRegionsBicolCagayan ValleyCalabarzonCentral LuzonCordilleraIlocosMimaropaNational Capital RegionProvinces List AbraAlbayApayaoAuroraBataanBatangasBenguetBulacanCagayanCamarines NorteCamarines SurCaviteIfugaoIlocos NorteIlocos SurIsabelaKalingaLa UnionLagunaMountain ProvinceNueva EcijaNueva VizcayaPampangaPangasinanQuezonQuirinoRizalSorsogonTarlacZambalesOutlying island provinces BatanesCatanduanesMarinduqueMasbateOccidental MindoroOriental MindoroPalawanRomblonLargest settlementQuezon City (pop. 2,936,116 [2])DemographicsDemonymLuzonian (modern), Luzonese (contemporary), Luções (archaic)Population53,336,134[a] (2015)[2]Pop. density490 /km2 (1,270 /sq mi)Ethnic groups List AetaBicolanoGaddangIbanagIgorot (BontocIbaloiIfugaoIsnegKalingaKankanaeyKalanguya)IlokanoIlongotItawesKapampanganPangasinanSambalTagalogLuzon (/luːˈzɒn/ (listen); Tagalog: [luˈson]) is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern region of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015[update],[2] it is the fourth most populous island in the world (after Java, Honshu, and Great Britain), having about 53% of the country's total population. Luzon may also refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country. As such, it includes the Luzon mainland, the Batanes and Babuyan groups of islands to the north, Polillo Islands to the east, and the outlying islands of Catanduanes, Marinduque, Masbate, Romblon, Mindoro and Palawan, among others, to the south.[3] Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 3.1 Physical 3.1.1 Northern Luzon 3.1.2 Central Luzon 3.1.3 Southern Luzon 3.1.4 Outlying islands 3.2 Administrative divisions 3.2.1 Table note(s) 3.3 Tectonics 4 Demographics 4.1 Cities 4.2 Ethnic groups 4.3 Languages 4.4 Religion 5 Economy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Etymology[edit] Bangkang Pinawa, ancient Philippine mortar and pestle. The name Luzon is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[4][5] History[edit] Further information: History of Luzon, Tondo (historical polity), Namayan, and Rajahnate of Maynila Luzon was originally inhabited by Negrito people before Austronesians from Taiwan displaced them. The Austronesian groups were divided further into two types of nations; coastal maritime states or highlander civilizations based on the mountains and which had built up plutocracies based on agriculture, plutocracies such as the Igorot Society which is responsible for building the Banaue Rice Terraces. Meanwhile, the maritime states were split among Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Muslim principalities, and ethnoreligious tribes, who had trading connections with Borneo, Malaya, Java, Indochina, India, Okinawa, Korea, Japan and China before the Spanish established their rule. From just before the first millennium, the Tagalog and Kapampangan peoples of south and central Luzon had established several major coastal polities, most notable among them those of Maynila, Tondo and Namayan. The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the first Philippine document written in 900AD, names places in and around Manila Bay as well as Medan in Indonesia.[6] These kingdoms were based on leases between village rulers (Datu) and landlords (Lakan) or Rajahs, to whom tributes and taxes were levied. These kingdoms were coastal thalassocracies based on trade with neighboring Asian political entities at that time. There was also a Sino-Buddhist country in nearby Mindoro called the country of Ma-i. According to sources at the time, the trade in large native Ruson-tsukuri (literally Luzon made, Japanese:呂宋製) clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan flourished in the 12th century, and local Tagalog, Kapampangan and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in. Certain kilns were renowned over others and prices depended on the reputation of the kiln.[7][8] Of this flourishing trade, the Burnay jars of Ilocos are the only large clay jar manufactured in Luzon today with origins from this time. During the 1300s, the Javanese-centered Hindu empire of Majapahit briefly ruled over Luzon as recorded in the epic poem Nagarakretagama, which stated that they had colonies in the Philippines at Saludong (Manila) and Solot (Sulu). Eventually, the kingdoms of Luzon regained independence from Majapahit during the Battle of Manila (1365) and Sulu also reestablished independence and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni (Brunei) before a fleet from the capital drove them out.[9]The Yongle Emperor instituted a Chinese Governor on Luzon during Zheng He's voyages and appointed Ko Ch'a-lao to that position in 1405.[10][11] China also had vassals among the leaders in the archipelago.[12][13] China attained ascendancy in trade with the area in Yongle's reign.[14]Afterwards, some parts of Luzon were Islamized when the former Majapahit province of Poni broke free, converted to Islam, imported an Arab prince from Saudi Arabia, in the person of Sharif Ali, and became the Sultanate of Brunei, a nation that then expanded its realms from Borneo to the Philippines and set up the Kingdom of Maynila as its puppet-state[15] as well as incorporate the newly converted Sultanate of Sulu by a royal marriage. However, other kingdoms resisted Islam, like the Wangdom of Pangasinan which had remained a tributary state to China and was a largely Sinified kingdom which maintained trade with Japan.[16]In the 1500s, people from Luzon were called Lucoes and they established many overseas communities within the Indo-Pacific and were actively employed in trading, seafaring and military campaigns across Southeast Asia. The Portuguese were the first European explorers who recorded it in their charts as Luçonia or Luçon and inhabitants were called Luçoes.[17]Edmund Roberts, who visited Luzon in the early 19th century, wrote that Luzon was "discovered" in 1521.[5] Many people from Luzon had active-employment in Portuguese Malacca. Lucoes such as the Luzon spice magnate Regimo de Raja, based in Malacca, was highly influential and the Portuguese appointed him as Temenggong (Sea Lord) or a governor and chief general responsible for overseeing of maritime trade, at Malacca. As Temenggung, he was also the head of an armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea,[18] and the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines.[19][20] His father and wife carried on his maritime trading business after his death. Another important Malacca trader was Curia de Raja who also hailed from Luzon. The "surname" of "de Raja" or "diraja" could indicate that Regimo and Curia, and their families, were of noble or royal descent as the term is an abbreviation of Sanskrit adiraja.[21]Pinto noted that there were a number of Lucoes in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511.[22] Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.[23]However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.[22]On Mainland Southeast Asia, Lusung/Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.[24]Scholars have thus suggested that they could be mercenaries valued by all sides.[25][26][27]The Spanish arrival in the 16th century saw the incorporation of the Lucoes people and the breaking up of their kingdoms and the establishment of the Las Islas Filipinas with its capital Cebu, which was moved to Manila following the defeat of the local Rajah Sulayman in 1570. Under Spain, Luzon also came to be known as the Nueva Castilla or the New Castile. In Spanish times, Luzon became the focal point for trade between the Americas and Asia. The Manila Galleons constructed in the Bicol region, brought silver mined from Peru and Mexico to Manila, which was used to purchase Asian commercial goods like Chinese silk, Indian gems and Indonesian spices which were exported to the Americas. Luzon then became a focal point for global migration. The walled city of Intramuros was initially founded by 1200 Spanish families.[28] The nearby district of Binondo became the center of business and transformed into the world's oldest Chinatown.[29] There was also a smaller district reserved for Japanese migrants in Dilao. Cavite City also served as the main port for Luzon and many Mexican soldiers and sailors were stationed in the naval garrisons there.[30][31] When the Spanish evacuated from Ternate, Indonesia; they settled the Papuan refugees in Ternate, Cavite which was named after their evacuated homeland. After the short British Occupation of Manila, the Indian Sepoy soldiers that mutinied against their British commanders and joined the Spanish, then settled in Cainta, Rizal. After many years of Spanish corruption and resistance to reform, the Philippine Revolution against Spain erupted in Cavite and spread all throughout Luzon and the Philippines. Consequently, the First Philippine Republic was established in Malolos, Bulacan. In the meantime, Spain sold the Philippines to the United States and the First Philippine Republic resisted the new American colonizers in the Philippine-American War which the Republic lost due to its diplomatic isolation (No nation recognized the First Republic) as well as due to the numerical superiority of the American army. The Americans then set up the cool mountain city of Baguio as a summer retreat for its officials. The Americans also rebuilt the capital, Manila, and established American military bases in Olongapo and Angeles.[32] Further information: Spanish East Indies U.S. Navy ships under attack while entering Lingayen Gulf, January 1945 In World War II, the Philippines were considered to be of great strategic importance because their capture by Japan would pose a significant threat to the U.S. As a result, 135,000 troops and 227 aircraft were stationed in the Philippines by October 1941. Luzon was captured by Imperial Japanese forces in 1942 during their campaign to capture the Philippines. General Douglas MacArthur—who was in charge of the defense of the Philippines at the time—was ordered to Australia, and the remaining U.S. forces retreated to the Bataan Peninsula.[33]A few months after this, MacArthur expressed his belief that an attempt to recapture the Philippines was necessary. The U.S. Pacific Commander Admiral Chester Nimitz and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Ernest King both opposed this idea, arguing that it must wait until victory was certain. MacArthur had to wait two years for his wish; it was 1944 before a campaign to recapture the Philippines was launched. The island of Leyte was the first objective of the campaign, which was captured by the end of December 1944. This was followed by the attack on Mindoro and later, Luzon.[33] Further information: Battle of Luzon The end of the World War necessitated decolonization due to rising nationalist movements across the world's many empires. Subsequently, the Philippines gained independence from the United States. Luzon then arose to become the most developed island in the Philippines. However, the lingering poverty and inequality caused by the long dictatorship of US-supported dictator, Ferdinand Marcos, gave rise to the Philippine diaspora and many people from Luzon have migrated elsewhere and had established large overseas communities; mainly in the United States, Hong Kong, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. Eventually, the People Power Revolution led by Corazon Aquino and Cardinal Jaime Sin, removed Marcos and his cronies from power and they fled to Hawaii where the US granted them asylum. The following administrations are subsequently managing the political and economic recovery of the Philippines with the particular aim of spreading development outside of Luzon and into the more isolated provinces of the Visayas and Mindanao. Geography[edit] Further information: Geography of Luzon Satellite image of Luzon Luzon island alone has an area of 109,964.9 square kilometres (42,457.7 sq mi),[1] making it the world's 15th largest island. It is bordered on the west by the South China Sea (Luzon Sea in Philippine territorial waters), on the east by the Philippine Sea, and on the north by the Luzon Strait containing the Babuyan Channel and Balintang Channel. The mainland is roughly rectangular in shape and has the long Bicol Peninsula protruding to the southeast. Luzon is roughly divided into four sections; Northern, Central and Southern Luzon, and the National Capital Region. Regions Six divisions Four divisions Three divisions Two divisions Ilocos Region Ilocandia Northern Luzon North and Central Luzon North and Central Luzon Cagayan Valley Cordillera Administrative Region Cordilleras Central Luzon Central Luzon National Capital Region Metro Manila Southern Luzon Calabarzon Southern Tagalog Southern Luzon Southern Luzon Mimaropa Bicol Region Bicolandia Physical[edit] Northern Luzon[edit] The northwestern portion of the island, which encompasses most of the Ilocos Region, is characterized by a flat terrain extending east from the coastline toward the Cordillera Central mountains. The Cordillera mountain range, which feature the island's north-central section, is covered in a mixture of tropical pine forests and montane rainforests, and is the site of the island's highest mountain, Mount Pulag, rising at 2,922 metres. The range provides the upland headwaters of the Agno River, which stretches from the slopes of Mount Data, and meanders along the southern Cordillera mountains before reaching the plains of Pangasinan. The northeastern section of Luzon is generally mountainous, with the Sierra Madre, the longest mountain range in the country, abruptly rising a few miles from the coastline. Located in between the Sierra Madre and the Cordillera Central mountain ranges is the large Cagayan Valley. This region, which is known for being the second largest producer of rice and the country's top corn-producer, serves as the basin for the Cagayan River, the longest in the Philippines. Along the southern limits of the Cordillera Central lies the lesser-known Caraballo Mountains. These mountains form a link between the Cordillera Central and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges, separating the Cagayan Valley from the Central Luzon plains.[34] North coast of Luzon along the Cagayan-Ilocos Norte boundary Summit of Mount Pulag, Luzon's highest mountain West coast of Luzon at San Juan overlooking the South China Sea The Cagayan Valley at Cabagan with the Sierra Madre mountains in the background Canoes along upstream Cagayan River at Quirino province Central Luzon[edit] The Central Luzon plain with Mount Arayat in the background The central section of Luzon is characterized by a flat terrain, known as the Central Luzon plain, the largest in the island in terms of land area. The plain, approximately 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi) in size, is the country's largest producer of rice, and is irrigated by two major rivers; the Cagayan to the north, and the Pampanga to the south. In the middle of the plain rises the solitary Mount Arayat. The western coasts of Central Luzon are typically flat extending east from the coastline to the Zambales Mountains, the site of Mount Pinatubo, made famous because of its enormous 1991 eruption. These mountains extend to the sea in the north, forming the Lingayen Gulf, and to the south, forming the Bataan Peninsula. The peninsula encloses the Manila Bay, a natural harbor considered to be one of the best natural ports in East Asia, due to its size and strategic geographical location. The Sierra Madre mountain range continues to stretch across the western section of Central Luzon, snaking southwards into the Bicol Peninsula. Southern Luzon[edit] 1234567891Manila Bay2Laguna de Bay3Taal Volcano / Taal Lake4Bataan Peninsula5Balayan Bay6Batangas Bay7South China Sea8Mindoro Island9Lamon BayThe northern section of Southern Luzon is dominated by the Laguna de Bay (Old Spanish, "Lake of Bay town"), the largest lake in the country. The 949-square-kilometre (366 sq mi) lake is drained into Manila Bay by the Pasig River, one of the most important rivers in the country due to its historical significance and because it runs through the center of Metro Manila. Located 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of Laguna de Bay is Taal Lake, a crater lake containing the Taal Volcano, the smallest in the country. The environs of the lake form the upland Tagaytay Ridge, which was once part of a massive prehistoric volcano that covered the southern portion of the province of Cavite, Tagaytay City and the whole of Batangas province. South of Laguna Lake are two solitary mountains, Mount Makiling in Laguna province, and Mount Banahaw, the highest in the region of Calabarzon. The southeastern portion of Luzon is dominated by the Bicol Peninsula, a mountainous and narrow region extending approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southeast from the Tayabas Isthmus in Quezon province to the San Bernardino Strait along the coasts of Sorsogon. The area is home to several volcanoes, the most famous of which is the 2,460-metre (8,070 ft) high symmetrically shaped Mayon Volcano in Albay province. The Sierra Madre range has its southern limits at Quezon province. Ultra-prominent mountains dot the landscape, which include Mount Isarog and Mount Iriga in Camarines Sur, and Mount Bulusan in Sorsogon. The peninsula's coastline features several smaller peninsulas, gulfs and bays, which include Lamon Bay, San Miguel Bay, Lagonoy Gulf, Ragay Gulf, and Sorsogon Bay. The nearly perfectly shaped Mayon Volcano and the city of Legazpi in Albay province Outlying islands[edit] Several outlying islands near mainland Luzon are considered part of the Luzon island group. The largest include Palawan, Mindoro, Masbate, Catanduanes, Marinduque, Romblon and Polillo. Further information: Island groups of the Philippines Administrative divisions[edit] The island is covered by 8 administrative regions, 30 provinces and, as of 2014[update], 68 cities (8 regions, 38 provinces and 71 cities if associated islands are included). One of the regions, Mimaropa, is geographically part of the Visayas according to the non-centric view. This is contested by imperial Manila through the Manila-centric view. Majority of scholars in the Philippines consider Mimaropa as part of the Visayas, in line with the non-centric view. Location Region(designation) Population(2015)[2] Area[i][35][36] Density Regionalcenter Component LGUs     Province     Independent city or municipality ∗  Associated island[ii] Ilocos Region(Region I) 5,026,128(7000500000000000000♠5.0%) 7010130126000000000♠13,012.60 km2(5,024.19 sq mi) 6996390000000000000♠390/km2(1,000/sq mi) San Fernando(La Union) 5 Dagupan[iii]Ilocos NorteIlocos SurLa UnionPangasinan Cagayan Valley(Region II) 3,451,410(7000340000000000000♠3.4%) 7010282288300000000♠28,228.83 km2(10,899.21 sq mi) 6996119999999999999♠120/km2(310/sq mi) Tuguegarao 6 Batanes*CagayanIsabelaNueva VizcayaQuirinoSantiago[iii] Central Luzon(Region III) 11,218,177(7001111000000000000♠11.1%) 7010220146300000000♠22,014.63 km2(8,499.90 sq mi) 6996509999999999999♠510/km2(1,300/sq mi) San Fernando(Pampanga) 9 Angeles[iv]AuroraBataanBulacanNueva EcijaOlongapo[iv]PampangaTarlacZambales Calabarzon(Region IV-A) 14,414,774(7001143000000000000♠14.3%) 7010168733100000000♠16,873.31 km2(6,514.82 sq mi) 6996850000000000000♠850/km2(2,200/sq mi) Calamba 6 BatangasCaviteLagunaLucena[iv]QuezonRizal Mimaropa[ii](Region IV-B) 2,963,360(7000290000000000000♠2.9%) 7010296209000000000♠29,620.90 km2(11,436.69 sq mi) 6996099999999999999♠100/km2(260/sq mi) Calapan 6 Marinduque*Occidental Mindoro*Oriental Mindoro*Palawan*Puerto Princesa*[iv]Romblon* Bicol Region(Region V) 5,796,989(7000570000000000000♠5.7%) 7010181558200000000♠18,155.82 km2(7,010.00 sq mi) 6996320000000000000♠320/km2(830/sq mi) Legazpi 7 AlbayCamarines NorteCamarines SurCatanduanes*Masbate*Naga[iii]Sorsogon CordilleraAdministrativeRegion(CAR) 1,722,006(7000170000000000000♠1.7%) 7010194220300000000♠19,422.03 km2(7,498.89 sq mi) 6995890000000000000♠89/km2(230/sq mi) Baguio 7 AbraApayaoBaguio[iv]BenguetIfugaoKalingaMountain Province National CapitalRegion(NCR) 12,877,253(7001128000000000000♠12.8%) 7008611390000000000♠611.39 km2(236.06 sq mi) 6998209999999999999♠21,000/km2(54,000/sq mi) Manila 17 CaloocanLas PiñasMakatiMalabonMandaluyongManilaMarikinaMuntinlupaNavotasParañaquePasayPasigPaterosQuezon CitySan JuanTaguigValenzuela Region 2015 census Area Density Regional center Component LGUs Table note(s)[edit] ^ Land area figures are the sum of each region's component provinces (and/or independent cities), derived from the National Statistical Coordination Board (Philippine Statistics Authority) official website. ^ a b The list includes the associated islands of Luzon (provinces of Marinduque, Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Palawan, Romblon, Batanes, Catanduanes and Masbate). ^ a b c An independent component city, not under the jurisdiction of any provincial government. ^ a b c d e A highly urbanized city, independent from any province Back to contents Tectonics[edit] Main article: Philippine Mobile Belt Lake Pinatubo in Zambales Luzon is part of the Philippine Mobile Belt, a fast deforming plate boundary zone (Gervasio, 1967) hemmed in between two opposing subduction zones, the west-dipping Philippine Trench-East Luzon Trench subduction zone, and the east-dipping north-south trending Manila Trench-Negros Trench-Cotabato Trench.[37] The Philippine Sea Plate subducts under eastern Luzon along the East Luzon Trench and the Philippine Trench, while the South China Sea basin, part of the Eurasian plate, subducts under western Luzon along the Manila Trench. The North-Southeastern trending braided left-lateral strike-slip Philippine Fault System traverses Luzon, from Quezon province and Bicol to the northwestern part of the island. This fault system takes up part of the motion due to the subducting plates and produces large earthquakes. Southwest of Luzon is a collision zone where the Palawan micro-block collides with SW Luzon, producing a highly seismic zone near Mindoro island. Southwest Luzon is characterized by a highly volcanic zone, called the Macolod Corridor, a region of crustal thinning and spreading. Using geologic and structural data, seven principal blocks were identified in Luzon in 1989: the Sierra Madre Oriental, Angat, Zambales, Central Cordillera of Luzon, Bicol, and Catanduanes Island blocks.[38] Using seismic and geodetic data, Luzon was modeled by Galgana et al. (2007) as a series of six micro blocks or micro plates (separated by subduction zones and intra-arc faults), all translating and rotating in different directions, with maximum velocities ~100 mm/yr NW with respect to Sundaland/Eurasia. Demographics[edit] Population census of LuzonYearPop.±% p.a.1990 30,782,432—    2000 39,584,158+2.55%2010 48,520,774+2.06%2015 53,336,134+1.82%Source: National Statistics Office[2][39][a]As of the 2015 census, the population of Luzon Island is 53,336,134 people,[2][a] making it the 4th most populated island in the world. Cities[edit] Metro Manila is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. as of 2007[update], census data showed it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population.[40] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.[40][41]  vte Largest cities and municipalities in LuzonPSA Census August 2015 Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop. Quezon CityManila City 1 Quezon City National Capital Region 2,936,116 11 Las Piñas City National Capital Region 588,894 Caloocan CityTaguig City 2 Manila City National Capital Region 1,780,148 12 Makati City National Capital Region 582,602 3 Caloocan City National Capital Region 1,583,978 13 San Jose del Monte City Central Luzon 574,089 4 Taguig City National Capital Region 804,915 14 Muntinlupa City National Capital Region 504,509 5 Antipolo City Calabarzon 776,386 15 Calamba City Calabarzon 454,486 6 Pasig City National Capital Region 755,300 16 Pasay City National Capital Region 416,522 7 Parañaque City National Capital Region 665,822 17 Angeles City Central Luzon 411,634 8 Dasmariñas City Calabarzon 659,019 18 Imus City Calabarzon 408,112 9 Valenzuela City National Capital Region 620,422 19 Mandaluyong City National Capital Region 386,276 10 Bacoor City Calabarzon 600,609 20 Rodriguez, Rizal Calabarzon 369,222 Ethnic groups[edit] An Ifugao warrior with some of his trophies, Cordillera Mountains, circa 1912 Seven major Philippine ethnolinguistic groups predominate Luzon. Ilocanos dominate northern Luzon, while Kapampangans and Pangasinenses, as well as Tagalogs and Sambals, populate Central Luzon. Tagalogs dominate the National Capital Region, CALABARZON and the island provinces of Marinduque and Mindoro, while Bicolanos populate the southern Bicol peninsula. Visayans mainly predominate in the island provinces of Masbate, Palawan and Romblon. Other ethnic groups lesser in population include the Aetas of Zambales and Bataan, the Ibanags of Cagayan and Isabela and the Igorot/Cordillerans of the Cordilleras. Further information: Ethnic groups of the Philippines Due to recent migrations, populations of Chinese and Moros have also been present in urban areas. Mixed-race populations of Spanish, Americans, Japanese, Koreans, Indians, Mexicans and Arabs are also visible. The Chinese and their mixed-raced descendants are spread all across Luzon. According to old Spanish censuses, around 1/3rd of the population of Luzon are admixed with either Spanish or Latino descent (Mostly in Cavite and Manila)[42] Most Americans have settled in Central Luzon's highly urbanized cities of Angeles and Olongapo due to the former presence of the U.S. air and naval bases in there, while a majority of the Koreans and Japanese have mainly settled in the major cities and towns. Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of the Philippines Tagalog, Ilocano and Bicolano languages predominate Luzon. Almost all of the languages of Luzon belong to the Borneo–Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian language branch of the Austronesian language family. Major regional languages include: Tagalog, Ilocano, Bicolano, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan. English is spoken by many inhabitants. The use of Spanish as an official language declined following the American occupation of the Philippines. Almost inexistent among the general populace, Spanish is still used by the elderly of some families of great tradition (Rizal, Liboro...). Saint Augustine Catholic Church in Paoay Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in the Philippines Like most of the Philippines, the major religion in Luzon is Christianity, with Roman Catholicism being the major denomination. Other major sects includes Jehovah's Witnesses, Protestantism, the Philippine Independent Church (Aglipayans), the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), and the Iglesia ni Cristo.[43] Indigenous traditions and rituals, though rare, are also present. There are also sizable communities of Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims in Metro Manila and in other, especially, urban areas due to the immigration of Moros and Chinese to the island. EDSA, a major thoroughfare in Metro Manila Economy[edit] The economy of the island is centered in Metro Manila with Makati serving as the main economic and financial hub. Major companies such as Ayala, Jollibee Foods Corporation, SM Group, and Metrobank are based in the business districts of Makati, Ortigas Center, and Bonifacio Global City. Industry is concentrated in and around the urban areas of Metro Manila while agriculture predominates in the other regions of the island producing crops such as rice, bananas, mangoes, coconuts, pineapple, and coffee.[44] Other sectors include livestock raising, tourism, mining, and fishing. See also[edit] Philippines portal Islands portal Geography portal Regions of the Philippines Provinces of the Philippines Battle of Luzon Visayas MindanaoNotes[edit] ^ a b c Figure composed of the 8 administrative regions excluding the island provinces of Batanes, Catanduanes, and Masbate and the region MIMAROPA. References[edit] ^ a b c "Islands of Philippines". Island Directory Tables. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 18 April 2016. ^ a b c d e f Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016. ^ Zaide, Sonia M. The Philippines, a Unique Nation. p. 50. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 798. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. ^ a b Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 59. ^ Laguna Copperplate Inscription – Article in English Archived 2008-02-05 at the Wayback Machine.. (2006-07-14). Retrieved on 2010-12-19. ^ Kekai, Paul. (2006-09-05) Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan: Luzon Jars (Glossary). Retrieved on 2010-12-19. ^ South East Asia Pottery – Philippines. Retrieved on 2010-12-19. Archived October 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ History for Brunei 2009, p. 44 ^ Ho 2009, p. 33. ^ "In Our Image". Retrieved 24 August 2015. ^ Yust 1949, p. 75. ^ Yust 1954, p. 75. ^ "Philippine Almanac & Handbook of Facts" 1977, p. 59. ^ Frans Welman (1 August 2013). Borneo Trilogy Brunei: Vol 1. Booksmango. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-616-222-235-1. ^ Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8. ^ Pires, Tomé, A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodriguez: Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão [1512–1515], translated and edited by Armando Cortesao, Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1944. ^ Antony, Robert J. Elusive Pirates, Pervasive Smugglers: Violence and Clandestine Trade in the Greater China Seas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010. Print, 76. ^ Junker, Laura L. Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawaiì Press, 1999. ^ Wilkinson, R J. An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary (romanised). London: Macmillan and Co, 1948. Print, 291. ^ Junker, 400. ^ a b Pinto, Fernao Mendes (1989) [1578]. "The travels of Mendes Pinto". Translated by Rebecca Catz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) [1524]. "First voyage round the world". Translated by J.A. Robertson. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. ^ Pigafetta 1524, p. 195. ^ Pires, Tomé (1944). Armando Cortesao (translator), ed. A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodriguez: Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão [1512–1515] (in Portuguese). Cambridge: Hakluyt Society. ^ Lach, Donald Frederick (1994). "Chapter 8: The Philippine Islands". Asia in the Making of Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46732-5. ^ Reid, Anthony (1995). "Continuity and Change in the Austronesian Transition to Islam and Christianity". In Peter Bellwood; James J. Fox; Darrell Tryon. The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, The Australian National University. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or “arrabales,” all occupied by Spaniards (“todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles”). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes. ^ New discoveries in the world's oldest Chinatown GMA news ^ Galaup "Travel Accounts" page 375. ^ "Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World" By Eva Maria Mehl, page 235. ^ "Clark Air Base History". Retrieved 2009-07-14. ^ a b "The Philippines". Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2008. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Triumph in the Philippines (Transcribed and formatted by Jerry Holden for the HyperWar Foundation). Honolulu, HI: University Press of the Pacific. p. 450. ISBN 1410224953. Retrieved 25 December 2014. ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2016. ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Cities". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2016. ^ Hashimoto, M, ed., Accretion Tectonics in the Circum-Pacific Regions, ISBN 90-277-1561-0 p299 ^ Rangin and Pubellier in Tectonics of Circum-Pacific Continental Margins ISBN 90-6764-132-4 p148 fig 4 ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016. ^ a b Philippine Statistics Authority (April 2008). "Total Population and Annual Population Growth Rates by Region: Population Censuses 1995, 2000, and 2007". Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2010. ^ Demographia. (July 2010). Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections (Edition 6.1). Retrieved March 29, 2011. ^ Jagor, Fëdor, et al. (1870). The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes ^ PHILIPPINES: ADDITIONAL THREE PERSONS PER MINUTE Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine., National Statistics Office Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback Machine.. Last revised: July 18, 2003. Retrieved November 27, 2006. ^ Index of Agriculture and Fishery Statistics. Retrieved on 2010-12-19. Archived February 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Further reading[edit] Agoncillo, Teodoro A.; Guerrero, Milagros (1975). History of the Filipino People (4 ed.). R. P. Garcia. ISBN 9712345386. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1962). Philippine History. Inang Wika Publishing Company. ISBN 9712345386. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Alip, Eufronio Melo (1954). Political and Cultural History of the Philippines, Volumes 1-2 (revised ed.). Alip & Sons. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Antonio, Eleanor D.; Dallo, Evangeline M.; Imperial, Consuelo M.; Samson, Maria Carmelita B.; Soriano, Celia D. (2007). Turning Points I' 2007 Ed (unabridged ed.). Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 9712345386. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Bishop, Carl Whiting (1942). War Background Studies, Issues 1-7. Contributor: Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Bishop, Carl Whiting (1942). Origin of Far Eastern Civilizations: A Brief Handbook, Issues 1-7. Contributor: Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Corpuz, Onofre D. (1957). The bureaucracy in the Philippines. Institute of Public Administration, University of the Philippines. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Demetrio, Francisco R. (1981). Myths and Symbols: Philippines (2 ed.). National Book Store. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Del Castillo y Tuazon, Antonio (1988). Princess Urduja, Queen of the Orient Seas: Before and After Her Time in the Political Orbit of the Shri-vi-ja-ya and Madjapahit Maritime Empire : a Pre-Hispanic History of the Philippines. A. del. Castillo y Tuazon. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Farwell, George (1967). Mask of Asia: The Philippines Today. Praeger. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick (1966). A concise history of East Asia. Praeger. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Ho, Khai Leong, ed. (2009). Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China (illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812308563. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Karnow, Stanley (2010). In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines (unabridged ed.). Random House LLC. ISBN 0307775437. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Krieger, Herbert William (1942). Peoples of the Philippines, Issue 4. Volume 3694 of Publication (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Lucman, Norodin Alonto (2000). Moro Archives: A History of Armed Conflicts in Mindanao and East Asia. FLC Press. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Liao, Shubert S. C., ed. (1964). Chinese participation in Philippine culture and economy. Bookman. Archived from the original on Nov 9, 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Manuel, Esperidion Arsenio (1948). Chinese Elements in the Tagalog Language: With Some Indication of Chinese Influence on Other Philippine Languages and Cultures, and an Excursion Into Austronesian Linguistics. Contributor: Henry Otley Beyer. Filipiniana Publications. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Ostelius, Hans Arvid (1963). Islands of Pleasure: A Guide to the Philippines. G. Allen & Unwin. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Panganiban, José Villa; Panganiban, Consuelo Torres (1965). The literature of the Pilipinos: a survey (5 ed.). Limbagang Pilipino. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Panganiban, José Villa; Panganiban, Consuelo Torres- (1962). A Survey of the Literature of the Filipinos (4 ed.). Limbagang Pilipino. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Quirino, Carlos (1963). Philippine Cartography, 1320-1899 (2 ed.). N. Israel. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Ravenholt, Albert (1962). The Philippines: A Young Republic on the Move. Van Nostrand. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Sevilla, Fred; Balagtas, Francisco (1997). Francisco Balagtas and the roots of Filipino nationalism: life and times of the great Filipino poet and his legacy of literary excellence and political activism. Trademark Pub. Corp. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Spencer, Cornelia (1951). Seven Thousand Islands: The Story of the Philippines. Aladdin Books. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Tan, Antonio S. (1972). The Chinese in the Philippines, 1898-1935: A Study of Their National Awakening. R. P. Garcia Publishing Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Yust, Walter, ed. (1949). Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 9. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 9. Volume 9 of EncyclopÆdia Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge. Contributor: Walter Yust. EncyclopÆdia Britannica. 1954. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). The Philippines since pre-Spanish times.-v. 2. The Philippines since the British invasion. Volume 1 of Philippine Political and Cultural History (revised ed.). Philippine Education Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Zaide, Gregorio F. (1979). The Pageant of Philippine History: Political, Economic, and Socio-cultural, Volume 1. Philippine Education Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Philippines (Republic). Office of Cultural Affairs (1965). The Philippines: a Handbook of Information. Contributor: National Economic Council (Philippines) (revised ed.). Republic of the Philippines, Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Philippine Chinese Historical Association (1975). The Annals of Philippine Chinese Historical Association, Volumes 5-8 (revised ed.). Retrieved 24 April 2014. IAHA Conference (1962). Biennial Conference Proceedings, Issue 1. Philippine Historical Association. Retrieved 24 April 2014. The Philippines: A Handbook of Information. Contributor: Philippine Information Agency. Philippine Information Agency. 1955. Retrieved 24 April 2014. University of Manila Journal of East Asiatic Studies, Volume 7. Contributors: Manila (Philippines) University, University of Manila (revised ed.). University of Manila. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Unitas, Volume 30, Issues 1-2. Contributor: University of Santo Tomás. University of Santo Tomás. 1957. Retrieved 24 April 2014. The Researcher, Volume 2, Issue 2. Contributors: University of Pangasinan, Dagupan Colleges. Dagupan Colleges. 1970. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Philippine Social Sciences and Humanities Review, Volumes 24-25. Contributor: University of the Philippines. College of Liberal Arts. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Philippine Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews, Volume 24, Issues 1-2. Contributors: Philippine Academy of Social Sciences, Manila, University of the Philippines. College of Liberal Arts. College of Liberal Arts, University of the Philippines. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Studies in Public Administration, Issue 4. Contributor: University of the Philippines. Institute of Public Administration. Institute of Public Administration, University of the Philippines. 1957. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Proceedings [of The] Second Biennial Conference, Held at Taiwan Provincial Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. Republic of China, October 6-9, 1962. Tʻai-pei. 1963. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Yearbook. 1965. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Philippine Almanac & Handbook of Facts. 1977. Retrieved 24 April 2014. External links[edit] Wikinews has news related to: Luzon Media related to Luzon at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Luzon at Wiktionary Luzon travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Luzon at OpenStreetMap  "Luzon". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.vteRegions of the PhilippinesLuzon I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa – Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital RegionVisayas VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern VisayasMindanao IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim MindanaoFormer regions NIR – Negros Island Region IV – Southern Tagalog vteThe 40 largest islands of the Philippines Alabat Balabac Basilan Biliran Bohol Bucas Grande Bugsuk Burias Busuanga Calayan Camiguin Camiguin de Babuyanes Cebu Catanduanes Culion Dinagat Dumaran Guimaras Jolo Leyte Lubang Luzon Masbate Marinduque Mindanao Mindoro Negros Olutanga Palawan Panaon Panay Polillo Samal Samar Siargao Sibuyan Siquijor Tablas Tawitawi Ticao See also Geography of the Philippines Island groups of the Philippines List of islands vte  Administrative divisions of the PhilippinesCapital Manila (National Capital Region)Island groups Luzon Visayas MindanaoRegionsAdministrative I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa – Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital RegionAutonomous Autonomous Region in Muslim MindanaoProvinces Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga SibugayCities List of cities in the PhilippinesMunicipalities List of cities and municipalities in the PhilippinesBarangays Lists of barangays by province PoblacionOther subdivisions Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areasProposed Formally proposed provinces Autonomous regions Cordillera BangsamoroHistorical Former provinces Sub-provinces Regions Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog vtePrincipal Geographical Divisions of the Philippines Luzon Visayas Mindanao Authority control BNF: cb12044636w (data) GND: 4114887-3 NARA: 10046186 NDL: 00629428 VIAF: 153232489 WorldCat Identities: 153232489 Retrieved from "" Categories: LuzonIsland groups of the PhilippinesIslands of the PhilippinesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Portuguese-language sources (pt)Coordinates on WikidataArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2014Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007Commons category link is on WikidataWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American CyclopaediaWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource referenceWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with NARA identifiersWikipedia articles with NDL 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