Mallorca - Wikipedia Mallorca From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Majorca) Jump to navigation Jump to search "Majorca" redirects here. For other uses, see Majorca (disambiguation). MallorcaMajorcaFlag of MallorcaMallorcaMajorca Location in the autonomous community of the Balearic IslandsGeographyLocationMediterraneanCoordinatesCoordinates: 39°37′N 2°59′E / 39.617°N 2.983°E / 39.617; 2.983ArchipelagoBalearic IslandsTotal islands5Major islandsBalearic IslandsArea3,640.11 km2 (1,405.45 sq mi)Highest elevation1,445 m (4,741 ft)Highest pointPuig MajorAdministration SpainProvinceBalearic IslandsCapital and largest cityPalma (pop. 404,681)DemographicsDemonymMajorcanPopulation859,307[1] (2015)Pop. density240.45 /km2 (622.76 /sq mi)Mallorca (Catalan: [məˈʎɔɾkə], Spanish: [maˈʎoɾka]) or Majorca (English: /məˈjɔːrkə, -ˈdʒɔːr-/ mə-YOR-kə, -⁠JOR-)[2][3] is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish. The capital of the island, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. The Balearic Islands have been an autonomous region of Spain since 1983.[4] There are two small islands off the coast of Mallorca: Cabrera (southeast of Palma) and Dragonera (west of Palma). The anthem of Mallorca is "La Balanguera". Like the other Balearic Islands of Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera, the island is an extremely popular holiday destination, particularly for tourists from Germany and the United Kingdom. The international airport, Palma de Mallorca Airport, is one of the busiest in Spain; it was used by 28.0 million passengers in 2017, increasing every year since 2012.[5]The name derives from Classical Latin insula maior, "larger island". Later, in Medieval Latin, this became Maiorica, "the larger one", in comparison to Menorca, "the smaller one". Contents 1 History 1.1 Prehistoric settlements 1.2 Phoenicians, Romans, and Late Antiquity 1.3 Middle Age and Modern history 1.3.1 Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages 1.3.2 Moorish Mallorca 1.3.3 Medieval Mallorca 1.3.4 Modern era 1.4 20th century and today 1.5 Palma 2 Climate 3 Geography 3.1 Regions 3.2 World Heritage Site 3.3 Municipalities 4 Culture 4.1 Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria 4.2 Chopin in Mallorca 4.3 Literature and painting 4.4 Music and dance 4.5 Art 4.6 Film 4.7 Mallorcan cartographic school 4.8 Cuisine 5 Language 6 Population 7 Economy 7.1 Top 10 arrivals by nationality 8 Politics and government 8.1 Regional government 8.2 Spanish Royal Family 9 Mallorcans 9.1 Notable residents, alive in modern times 10 Transport 10.1 Water transport 10.2 Cycling 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 External links History[edit] Prehistoric settlements[edit] Example of prehistoric talaiot in Mallorca Archeological evidence indicates the presence of the porc negre (black pig) in pre-Roman settlements.[6] Little is recorded of the earliest inhabitants of the island. Burial chambers and traces of habitation from the Neolithic period (6000–4000 BC) have been discovered, particularly the prehistoric settlements called talaiots, or talayots. They raised Bronze Age megaliths as part of their Talaiotic culture.[7] A non-exhaustive list is the following: Capocorb Vell (Llucmajor municipality) Necròpoli de Son Real (east of Can Picafort, Santa Margalida municipality) Novetiforme Alemany (Magaluf, Calvià) Poblat Talaiòtic de S'Illot (S'Illot, Sant Llorenç des Cardassar municipality) Poblat Talaiòtic de Son Fornés (Montuïri municipality) Sa Canova de Morell (road to Colònia de Sant Pere, Artà municipality) Ses Païsses (Artà municipality) Ses Talaies de Can Jordi (Santanyí municipality) S'Hospitalet Vell (road to Cales de Mallorca, Manacor municipality)Phoenicians, Romans, and Late Antiquity[edit] Ruins of the Roman city of Pollentia The Phoenicians, a seafaring people from the Levant, arrived around the eighth century BC and established numerous colonies.[8][better source needed] The island eventually came under the control of Carthage in North Africa, which had become the principal Phoenician city. After the Second Punic War, Carthage lost all of its overseas possessions and the Romans took over.[citation needed]The island was occupied by the Romans in 123 BC under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus. It flourished under Roman rule, during which time the towns of Pollentia (Alcúdia), and Palmaria (Palma) were founded. In addition, the northern town of Bocchoris, dating back to pre-Roman times, was a federated city to Rome.[9] The local economy was largely driven by olive cultivation, viticulture, and salt mining. Mallorcan soldiers were valued within the Roman legions for their skill with the sling.[10]In 427, Gunderic and the Vandals captured the island. Geiseric, son of Gunderic, governed Mallorca and used it as his base to loot and plunder settlements around the Mediterranean,[11][better source needed] until Roman rule was restored in 465. Middle Age and Modern history[edit] Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages[edit] In 534, Mallorca was recaptured by the Eastern Roman Empire, led by Apollinarius. Under Roman rule, Christianity thrived and numerous churches were built. From 707, the island was increasingly attacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa. Recurrent invasions led the islanders to ask Charlemagne for help.[11][better source needed] Moorish Mallorca[edit] Arab Baths in Palma In 902, Issam al-Khawlani(es)(ca) (Arabic: عصام الخولاني‎) conquered the Balearic Islands, ushering in a new period of prosperity under the Emirate of Córdoba. The town of Palma was reshaped and expanded, and became known as Medina Mayurqa. Later on, with the Caliphate of Córdoba at its height, the Moors improved agriculture with irrigation and developed local industries. The caliphate was dismembered in 1015. Mallorca came under rule by the Taifa of Dénia, and from 1087 to 1114, was an independent Taifa. During that period, the island was visited by Ibn Hazm. However, an expedition of Pisans and Catalans in 1114–15, led by Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, overran the island, laying siege to Palma for eight months. After the city fell, the invaders retreated due to problems in their own lands. They were replaced by the Almoravides from North Africa, who ruled until 1176. The Almoravides were replaced by the Almohad dynasty until 1229. Abú Yahya was the last Moorish leader of Mallorca.[12][better source needed] Medieval Mallorca[edit] Main article: Conquest of Majorca In the ensuing confusion and unrest, King James I of Aragon, also known as James the Conqueror, launched an invasion which landed at Santa Ponça, Mallorca, on 8–9 September 1229 with 15,000 men and 1,500 horses. His forces entered the city of Medina Mayurqa on 31 December 1229. In 1230 he annexed the island to his Crown of Aragon under the name Regnum Maioricae.[citation needed] Modern era[edit] A 1683 map of Mallorca, by Vicente Mut From 1479, the Crown of Aragon was in dynastic union with that of Castile. The Barbary corsairs of North Africa often attacked the Balearic Islands, and in response, the people built coastal watchtowers and fortified churches. In 1570, King Philip II of Spain and his advisors were considering complete evacuation of the Balearic islands.[13]In the early 18th century, the War of the Spanish Succession resulted in the replacement of that dynastic union with a unified Spanish monarchy under the rule of the new Bourbon Dynasty. The last episode of the War of Spanish Succession was the conquest of the island of Mallorca. It took place on 2 July 1715 when the island capitulated to the arrival of a Bourbon fleet. In 1716, the Nueva Planta decrees made Mallorca part of the Spanish province of Baleares, roughly the same to present-day Illes Balears province and autonomous community.[citation needed] 20th century and today[edit] A Nationalist stronghold at the start of the Spanish Civil War, Mallorca was subjected to an amphibious landing, on 16 August 1936, aimed at driving the Nationalists from Mallorca and reclaiming the island for the Republic. Although the Republicans heavily outnumbered their opponents and managed to push 12 km (7.5 mi) inland, superior Nationalist air power, provided mainly by Fascist Italy as part of the Italian occupation of Majorca, forced the Republicans to retreat and to leave the island completely by 12 September. Those events became known as the Battle of Majorca.[14]Since the 1950s, the advent of mass tourism has transformed the island into a destination for foreign visitors and attracted many service workers from mainland Spain. The boom in tourism caused Palma to grow significantly. In the 21st century, urban redevelopment, under the so‑called Pla Mirall (English "Mirror Plan"), attracted groups of immigrant workers from outside the European Union, especially from Africa and South America.[15] Palma[edit] Main article: Palma de Mallorca The capital of Mallorca, Palma, was founded as a Roman camp called Palmaria upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement. The turbulent history of the city had it subject to several Vandal sackings during the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It was later reconquered by the Byzantines, established by the Moors (who called it Medina Mayurqa), and finally occupied by James I of Aragon. In 1983, Palma became the capital of the autonomous region of the Balearic Islands. Climate[edit] The climate of Mallorca is a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with mild and stormy winters and hot, bright, dry summers. Precipitation in the Serra de Tramuntana is markedly higher. Summers are hot in the plains, and winters mild, getting colder in the Tramuntana range, where brief episodes of snow during the winter are not unusual. The two wettest months in Mallorca are October and December.[16] Climate data for Palma de Mallorca, Port (1981–2010) (Satellite view) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 15.4(59.7) 15.5(59.9) 17.2(63.0) 19.2(66.6) 22.5(72.5) 26.5(79.7) 29.4(84.9) 29.8(85.6) 27.1(80.8) 23.7(74.7) 19.3(66.7) 16.5(61.7) 21.8(71.2) Daily mean °C (°F) 11.9(53.4) 11.9(53.4) 13.4(56.1) 15.5(59.9) 18.8(65.8) 22.7(72.9) 25.7(78.3) 26.2(79.2) 23.5(74.3) 20.2(68.4) 15.8(60.4) 13.1(55.6) 18.2(64.8) Average low °C (°F) 8.3(46.9) 8.4(47.1) 9.6(49.3) 11.7(53.1) 15.1(59.2) 18.9(66.0) 21.9(71.4) 22.5(72.5) 19.9(67.8) 16.6(61.9) 12.3(54.1) 9.7(49.5) 14.6(58.3) Average precipitation mm (inches) 43(1.7) 37(1.5) 28(1.1) 39(1.5) 36(1.4) 11(0.4) 6(0.2) 22(0.9) 52(2.0) 69(2.7) 59(2.3) 48(1.9) 449(17.7) Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 6 5 5 4 2 1 2 5 7 6 7 53 Mean monthly sunshine hours 167 170 205 237 284 315 346 316 227 205 161 151 2,779 Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[17] Climate data for Palma de Mallorca Airport (1981–2010) (Satellite view) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 15.2(59.4) 15.4(59.7) 17.5(63.5) 19.8(67.6) 23.7(74.7) 28.1(82.6) 31.2(88.2) 31.3(88.3) 27.9(82.2) 23.9(75.0) 19.0(66.2) 16.1(61.0) 22.4(72.3) Daily mean °C (°F) 9.5(49.1) 9.8(49.6) 11.3(52.3) 13.6(56.5) 17.5(63.5) 21.7(71.1) 24.8(76.6) 25.1(77.2) 22.2(72.0) 18.5(65.3) 13.7(56.7) 10.8(51.4) 16.5(61.7) Average low °C (°F) 3.8(38.8) 4.0(39.2) 5.2(41.4) 7.4(45.3) 11.3(52.3) 15.4(59.7) 18.3(64.9) 18.9(66.0) 16.5(61.7) 13.1(55.6) 8.3(46.9) 5.4(41.7) 10.6(51.1) Average precipitation mm (inches) 37(1.5) 32(1.3) 26(1.0) 34(1.3) 32(1.3) 12(0.5) 5(0.2) 17(0.7) 50(2.0) 62(2.4) 55(2.2) 48(1.9) 411(16.2) Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 5 5 4 2 1 2 4 6 6 6 51 Mean monthly sunshine hours 163 166 202 234 283 316 342 315 222 203 162 152 2,756 Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[17] Geography[edit] Regions[edit] Satellite image Topography Mallorca is the largest island of Spain by area and second most populated (after Tenerife in the Canary Islands).[18][19] Mallorca has two mountainous regions, the Serra de Tramuntana and Serres de Llevant. Each are about 70 km (43 mi) in length and occupy the northwestern and eastern parts of the island respectively. The highest peak on Mallorca is Puig Major at 1,445 m (4,741 ft) in the Serra de Tramuntana.[20] As this is a military zone, the neighbouring peak at Puig de Massanella is the highest accessible peak at 1,364 m (4,475 ft). The northeast coast comprises two bays: the Badia de Pollença and the larger Badia d'Alcúdia. The northern coast is rugged and has many cliffs. The central zone, extending from Palma, is a generally flat, fertile plain known as Es Pla. The island has a variety of caves both above and below sea – two of the caves, the above sea level Coves dels Hams and the Coves del Drach, also contain underground lakes and are open to tours. Both are located near the eastern coastal town of Porto Cristo. Small uninhabited islands lie off the southern and western coasts; the Cabrera Archipelago is administratively grouped with Mallorca (in the municipality of Palma), while Dragonara is administratively included in the municipality of Andratx. Other notable areas include the Alfabia Mountains, Es Cornadors and Cap de Formentor. World Heritage Site[edit] The Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011.[21] Municipalities[edit] Municipalities of Majorca The island is administratively divided into 53 municipalities. The areas and populations of the municipalities (according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Spain) are: Municipality Area (km2) Census Population 1 November 2001 Census Population 1 November 2011 Estimated Population 1 January 2017 Alaró 45.7 4,050 5,273 5,389 Alcúdia 60.0 12,500 18,914 19,395 Algaida 89.8 3,749 5,272 5,430 Andratx 81.5 7,753 11,234 10,930 Ariany 23.1 766 892 854 Artà 139.8 6,176 7,562 7,541 Banyalbufar 18.1 517 559 495 Binissalem 29.8 5,166 7,640 8,143 Búger 8.29 950 1,014 1,046 Bunyola 84.7 5,029 6,270 6,636 Calvià 145.0 35,977 49,807 49,063 Campanet 34.6 2,309 2,536 2,512 Campos 149.7 6,360 9,712 10,418 Capdepera 54.9 8,239 11,281 11,267 Consell 13.7 2,407 3,778 3,962 Costitx 15.4 924 1,113 1,247 Deià 15.2 654 684 637 Escorca 139.4 257 258 217 Esporles 35.3 4,066 4,845 4,942 Estellencs 13.4 347 363 305 Felanitx 169.8 14,882 18,045 17,333 Fornalutx 19.5 618 695 663 Inca 58.3 23,029 30,359 31,255 Lloret de Vistalegre 17.4 981 1,308 1,277 Lloseta 12.1 4,760 5,690 5,799 Llubí 34.9 1,806 2,235 2,206 Llucmajor 327.3 24,277 35,995 35,513 Manacor 260.3 31,255 40,348 41,095 Mancor de la Vall 19.9 892 1,321 1,449 Maria de la Salut 30.5 1,972 2,122 2,159 Marratxí 54.2 23,410 34,538 36,383 Montuïri 41.1 2,344 2,856 2,836 Muro 58.6 6,107 7,010 6,829 Palma 208.7 333,801 402,044 406,492 Petra 70.0 1,911 2,876 2,794 Pollença 151.7 13,808 16,057 16,157 Porreres 86.9 4,069 5,459 5,256 Puigpunyent 42.3 1,250 1,878 1,997 Santa Eugènia 20.3 1,224 1,686 1,653 Santa Margalida 86.5 7,800 11,725 11,801 Santa María del Camí 37.6 4,959 6,443 7,062 Santanyí 124.9 8,875 12,427 11,348 Sant Joan 38.5 1,634 2,029 2,064 Sant Llorenç des Cardassar 82.1 6,503 8,490 8,328 Sa Pobla 48.6 10,388 12,999 12,793 Selva 48.8 2,927 3,699 3,869 Sencelles 52.9 2,146 3,113 3,154 Ses Salines 39.1 3,389 5,007 4,860 Sineu 47.7 2,736 3,696 3,641 Sóller 42.8 10,961 13,882 13,936 Son Servera 42.6 9,432 11,915 11,265 Valldemossa 42.9 1,708 1,990 1,950 Vilafranca de Bonany 24.0 2,466 2,984 3,047 Culture[edit] Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria[edit] A sculpture of Ludwig Salvator, in Mallorca Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (Catalan: Arxiduc Lluís Salvador) was the architect of tourism in the Balearic Islands. He first arrived on the island in 1867, travelling under his title "Count of Neuendorf". He later settled on Mallorca, buying up wild areas of land in order to preserve and enjoy them. Nowadays, a number of trekking routes are named after him.[22]Ludwig Salvator loved the island of Mallorca. He became fluent in Catalan, carried out research into the island's flora and fauna, history, and culture to produce his main work, Die Balearen, an extremely comprehensive collection of books about the Balearic Islands, consisting of 7 volumes. It took him 22 years to complete.[23] Chopin in Mallorca[edit] Chopin's piano in Valldemossa, Mallorca The Polish composer and pianist Frédéric Chopin, together with French writer Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (pseudonym: George Sand), resided in Valldemossa in the winter of 1838–39. Apparently, Chopin's health had already deteriorated and his doctor recommended that he go to the Balearic Islands to recuperate, where he still spent a rather miserable winter.[24][25]Nonetheless, his time in Mallorca was a productive period for Chopin. He managed to finish the Preludes, Op. 28, that he started writing in 1835. He was also able to undertake work on his Ballade No. 2, Op. 38; two Polonaises, Op. 40; and the Scherzo No. 3, Op. 39.[26] Literature and painting[edit] French writer Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (pseudonym: George Sand), at that time in a relationship with Chopin, described her stay in Mallorca in A Winter in Majorca, published in 1855. Other famous writers used Mallorca as the setting for their works: While on the island, the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío started writing the novel El oro de Mallorca, and wrote several poems, such as La isla de oro.[27] Many of the works of Baltasar Porcel take place in Mallorca. Ira Levin set part of his dystopian novel This Perfect Day in Mallorca, making the island a centre of resistance in a world otherwise dominated by a computer. Agatha Christie visited the island in the early 20th century and stayed in Palma and Port de Pollença.[28] She would later write the book Problem at Pollensa Bay and Other Stories, a collection of short stories, of which the first one takes place in Port de Pollença, starring Parker Pyne. Jorge Luis Borges visited Mallorca twice, accompanied by his family.[29] He published his poems La estrella (1920) and Catedral (1921) in the regional magazine Baleares.[30] The latter poem shows his admiration for the monumental Cathedral of Palma.[31]Nobel prize winner Camilo José Cela came to Mallorca in 1954, visiting Pollença, and then moving to Palma, where he settled permanently.[32] In 1956, Cela founded the magazine Papeles de Son Armadans.[33] He is also credited as founder of Alfaguara. Grave of Robert Graves The English poet Robert Graves moved to Mallorca with his family in 1946. The house is now a museum. He died in 1985 and his body was buried in the small churchyard on a hill at Deià.[34] Music and dance[edit] The Ball dels Cossiers is the island's traditional dance. It is believed to have been imported from Catalonia in the 13th or 14th century, after the Argonian conquest of the island under King Jaime I.[35] In the dance, three pairs of dancers, who are typically male, defend a "Lady," who is played by a man or a woman, from a demon or devil. Another Mallorcan dance is Correfoc, an elaborate festival of dance and pyrotechnics that is also of Catalan origin. The island's folk music strongly resembles that of Catalonia, and is centered around traditional instruments like the xeremia (bagpipes) and guitarra de canya (a reed or bone xylophone-like instrument suspended from the neck).[36] While folk music is still played and enjoyed by many on the island, a number of other musical traditions have become popular in Mallorca in the 21st century, including electronic dance music, classical music, and jazz, all of which have annual festivals on the island.[37] Art[edit] Joan Miró, a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist, had close ties to the island throughout his life, he married Pilar Juncosa in Palma in 1929 and settled permanently in Mallorca in 1954.[38] The Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró in Mallorca has a collection of his works. Es Baluard in Palma is a museum of modern and contemporary art which exhibits the work of Balearic artists and artists related to the Balearic Islands. Film[edit] The Evolution Mallorca International Film Festival is the fastest growing Mediterranean film festival and has occurred annually every November since 2011, attracting filmmakers, producers, and directors globally. It is hosted at the Teatro Principal in Palma de Mallorca[39][better source needed] Mallorcan cartographic school[edit] Main article: Majorcan cartographic school Map of Mallorca and Menorca by the Ottoman admiral Piri Reis Mallorca has a long history of seafaring. The Majorcan cartographic school or the "Catalan school" refers to a collection of cartographers, cosmographers, and navigational instrument makers that flourished in Mallorca and partly in mainland Catalonia in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. Mallorcan cosmographers and cartographers developed breakthroughs in cartographic techniques, namely the "normal portolan chart", which was fine-tuned for navigational use and the plotting by compass of navigational routes, prerequisites for the discovery of the New World. Cuisine[edit] Ensaïmades, a type of Mallorcan pastry product In 2005, there were over 2,400 restaurants on the island of Mallorca according to the Mallorcan Tourist Board, ranging from small bars to full restaurants.[citation needed] Olives and almonds are typical of the Mallorcan diet. Among the foods that are typical from Mallorca are sobrassada, arròs brut (saffron rice cooked with chicken, pork and vegetables), and the sweet pastry ensaïmada. Also Pa amb oli is a popular dish.[40]Herbs de Majorca is a herbal liqueur. Language[edit] The main language spoken on the island is Catalan.[41] The two official languages of Mallorca are Catalan and Spanish.[41] The local dialect of Catalan spoken in the island is mallorquín, with slightly different variants in most villages. The education is bilingual in Catalan and Spanish, with some knowledge of English.[42]In 2012, the then-governing People's Party announced its intention to end preferential treatment for Catalan in the island's schools to bring parity to the two languages of the island. It was said that this could lead Mallorcan Catalan to become extinct in the fairly near future, as it was being used in a situation of diglossia in favour of the Spanish language.[43] As of 2016[update], with the most recent election in May 2015 sweeping a pro-Catalan party and president into power, the Popular Party's policy of trilingualism has been dismantled,[44] making this outcome unlikely. Population[edit] Mallorca is the most populous island in the Balearic Islands and the second most populous island in Spain, after Tenerife,[45] in the Canary Islands, being also the fourth most populous island in the Mediterranean.[46] It has a census population of 859,289 inhabitants (2015). Economy[edit] The beaches in the southeast of Mallorca are tourist attractions. Since the 1950s, Mallorca has become a major tourist destination, and the tourism business has become the main source of revenue for the island.[47] In 2001, the island received millions of tourists, and the boom in the tourism industry has provided significant growth in the economy of the country.[citation needed]The island's popularity as a tourist destination has steadily grown since the 1950s, with many artists and academics choosing to visit and live on the island. Visitors to Mallorca continued to increase with holiday makers in the 1970s approaching 3 million a year. In 2010 over 6 million visitors came to Mallorca. In 2013, Mallorca was visited by nearly 9.5 million tourists, and the Balearic Islands as a whole reached 13 million tourists.[48]Mallorca has been jokingly referred to as the 17th Federal State of Germany, due to the high number of German tourists.[49][50]With thousands of rooms available Mallorca's economy is largely dependent on its tourism industry. Holiday makers are attracted by the large number of beaches, warm weather, and high-quality tourist amenities. Palma, Mallorca's capital, is also well known for its' sea schools, teaching a range of sailing and associated maritime courses, largely for the yacht and Superyacht sectors. One of these, the MCA and RYA approved Palma Sea School, is based right on the waterfront in Palma and runs a range of courses including Yacht Master and Day Skipper, as well as yacht charter. Palma Sea School is twinned with the UK based South West Maritime Academy. This brings in both jobs and income for the local economy, as well as money spent by students training and staying bat the school. Attempts to build illegally caused a scandal in 2006 in Port Andratx that the newspaper El País named "caso Andratx".[51] A main reason for illegal building permits, corruption and black market construction is that communities have few ways to finance themselves other than through permits.[52] The former mayor was incarcerated since 2009 after being prosecuted for taking bribes to permit illegal housebuilding.[53][54] Top 10 arrivals by nationality[edit] Data from Institute of Statistics of Balearic Islands[55] Rank Country or territory 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 1  Germany 3,237,745 3,731,458 3,710,313 3,450,687 3,308,604 2,224,709 2  United Kingdom 1,985,311 2,165,774 2,105,981 1,986,354 1,898,838 1,324,294 3  Spain 1,059,612 1,088,973 985,557 1,192,033 1,195,822 759,825 4 Nordic Countries 641,920 758,940 758,637 668,328 572,041 387,875 5  Benelux 345,837 366,130 363,911 360,973 368,930 284,845 6   Switzerland 325,241 334,871 312,491 292,226 280,401 188,826 7  France 323,241 328,681 337,891 349,712 316,124 187,589 8  Italy 203,520 165,473 154,227 173,680 200,851 135,535 9  Austria 163,477 175,530 160,890 138,287 181,993 107,991 10  Ireland 104,556 100,059 104,827 115,164 158,646 68,456 Politics and government[edit] Emblem of the Mallorca Insular Council Regional government[edit] The Balearic Islands, of which Mallorca forms part, are one of the autonomous communities of Spain. As a whole, they are currently governed by the Balearic Islands Socialist Party (PSIB-PSOE), with Francina Armengol as their President. The autonomous government for the island, called Consell Insular de Mallorca (Mallorca Insular Council), is responsible for culture, roads, railways (see Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca) and municipal administration. The current president (as of June 2015) is Miquel Ensenyat, of More for Mallorca. Spanish Royal Family[edit] The members of the Spanish Royal Family spend their summer holidays[56] in Mallorca where the Marivent Palace is located.[57] The Marivent Palace is the royal family's summer residence. While most royal residences are administered by Patrimonio Nacional, the Marivent Palace, in Palma de Mallorca, one of many Spanish royal sites, is under the care of the Government of the Balearic Islands. As a private residence it is rarely used for official business. Typically, the whole family meets there and on the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions.[56] The Marivent Palace is used for some unofficial business, as when President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela visited King Juan Carlos in 2008[58] to mend their relationship and normalize diplomatic relations after the King famously[59] said to him, "Why don't you shut up?" during the Ibero-American Summit in November 2007.[60] Mallorcans[edit] Ars magna, by Ramon Llull This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Mallorca" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Some of the earliest famous Mallorcans lived on the island before its reconquest from the Moors. Famous Mallorcans include: Al-Humaydī, Moorish historian, born on the island in 1029. Abraham Cresques, a 14th-century Jewish cartographer of the Majorcan cartographic school from Palma, believed to be the author of the Catalan Atlas; Robert Graves, English writer, lived for many years in Mallorca, buried in a small churchyard on a hill at Deià. Ramon Llull, a friar, writer and philosopher, who wrote the first major work of Catalan Literature; Junípero Serra, the Franciscan friar who founded the mission chain in Alta California in 1769. Joaquín Jovellar y Soler, 19th century military commander. Antonio Maura, two-time Spanish Prime Minister.Notable residents, alive in modern times[edit] Eaktay Ahn (1906–1965), founder of the Ballearic Symphony Orchestra and composer of Korean national anthem, lived in Mallorca from 1946 until his death in 1965.[61] Jeffrey Archer, English novelist, owns a villa in Mallorca.[62] Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer, plays for Real Madrid, was born in Palma, Mallorca. Miquel Barceló, contemporary painter, created sculptures in Palma Cathedral. Concha Buika, contemporary flamenco singer. Concha Buika was born on 11 May 1972, in Palma de Mallorca. Jean Batten, the New Zealand aviatrix, died in Mallorca in 1982. Maria del Mar Bonet, musician, member of the Catalan language group Els Setze Jutges in the 1960s with brother Joan Ramon Bonet. Samuel Bouriah, better known as DJ Sammy, dance artist and producer.[citation needed] Faye Emerson and Anne Lindsay Clark, divorcees of Elliott Roosevelt and John Aspinwall Roosevelt (US Officials and sons of Franklin Delano Roosevelt) respectively, retired to Mallorca in 1965. Emerson died in Deià in 1983. Sheila Ferguson, resident, a former member of the Three Degrees. Rudy Fernández basketball player. Curt Flood, baseball player, purchased a bar in Palma, Majorca after leaving the Washington Senators in 1971.[citation needed] Antònia Font, contemporary pop band in the Mallorcan dialect of Catalan. Toni Kroos, footballer for Real Madrid and German national football team. Cynthia Lennon (1939–2015), former wife of John Lennon, lived and died in Mallorca. Jorge Lorenzo professional motorcycle road racer, won the world 250cc Grand Prix motorcycle title in 2006 and 2007, and the 2010, 2012 & 2015 MotoGP World Championships.[citation needed] Colm Meaney, Irish actor, resides in the town of Sóller. Carlos Moyá, former world No.1 tennis player and coach of Rafael Nadal. Rafael Nadal, former world No.1 tennis player, lives in Manacor. Miguel Ángel Nadal, Rafael Nadal's uncle, former Spanish international footballer. John Noakes, former British TV presenter, lived in Andratx. Jean Emile Oosterlynck, the Flemish painter, lived in Mallorca from 1979 until his death in 1996. Hana Soukupova, supermodel, owns a villa on Mallorca. José María Sicilia, painter, resides in the town of Sóller. Jørn Utzon, architect best known for designing the Sydney Opera House, designed and built two houses in Mallorca, Can Lis and Can Feliz. Agustí Villaronga (born 1953), filmmaker, born in Palma.Transport[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rail transport in Mallorca. Mallorca current rail map Palma de Mallorca Airport Mallorca rail network Palma de Mallorca Metro Mallorca bus system (TIB) Palma Airport TransfersA Trackless train is in operation in several tourist areas. Water transport[edit] There are approximately 79 ferries between Mallorca and other destinations every week, most of them to mainland Spain. Baleària to the Balearic Islands from Dénia, Valencia and Barcelona Trasmediterránea Mainland-Baleares: regular lines, in both directions, from: Barcelona to Palma de Mallorca, Ibiza and Mahón. Valencia to Palma de Mallorca, Ibiza and Mahón. Gandia to Palma de Mallorca and Ibiza.Cycling[edit] A popular 24 km cycle track (segregated cycle lane) runs between Porto Cristo and Cala Bona via Sa Coma and Cala Millor. Gallery[edit] La Seu, Palma Cathedral Bellver Castle Lakes Cúber and Gorg Blau, Serra de Tramuntana Puig Major, highest peak on Mallorca Valldemossa Sa Calobra, Escorca Cap de Formentor Sunrise across Pollensa Bay, Port de Pollença Cap de Ses Salines Cala Agulla, Capdepera Aerial of Cala Amarador beach Aerial of Cala Llombards beach S'Arenal Platja de Palma Platja de Palma beach Aerial of Platja de Palma beach See also[edit] Spain portal Gymnesian Islands Observatorio Astronómico de Mallorca RCD Mallorca – local association football clubReferences[edit] ^ "III". Otras Disposiciones (PDF). Boletín Oficial Del Estado (Report). 17 December 2015. Datos oficiales del Instituto Nacional de Estadística, ver 1 January 2015 ^ "Majorca: definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 16 October 2010. ^ Keenan, Steve (6 July 2009). "Mallorca v Majorca: which is correct?". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help) ^ Tisdall, Nigel (2003). Mallorca. Reference to Balearic Islands autonomy. Thomas Cook Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 9781841573274. ^ "Presentación". AENA Aeropuerto de Palma de Mallorca (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 September 2017. ^ "The Mallorca Black pig: Production system, conservation and breeding strategies", J. Jaume, M. Gispert, M.A. Oliver, E. Fàbrega, N. Trilla, and J. Tibau. Institut Balear de Biologia Animal. 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2017 ^ Tisdall, Nigel (2003). Mallorca. Reference to Talayot Culture on the island. Thomas Cook Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 9781841573274. ^ "Spain". Retrieved 15 December 2017. ^ Oppidum Bocchoritanum. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites . ^ History of Mallorca. North South Guides. ^ a b The Dark Ages in Mallorca, not dated ^ Moorish Mallorca, not dated. ^ The Pillage People, Contemporary Balears. ^ The Spanish Civil War, Hugh Thomas (2001) ^ "Large rise in number of foreign nationals". The Mallorca. 15 January 2009. ^ "Weather Mallorca - All about Mallorca". abcMallorca. ^ a b "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981–2010)". Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) ^ Cifra de población referida al 1 January 2009 según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística ^ "The Largest Islands Of Spain By Size". Retrieved 8 January 2017. ^ Tisdall, Nigel (2003). Mallorca. Reference to Puig Major and its height above sea level. Thomas Cook Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9781841573274. ^ "Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". 27 June 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013. ^ "Camí de l'Arxiduc" [Path of the Archduke]. Mallorca Aventura (in Catalan). Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) ^ "Die Balearen in Wort und Bild" [The Balearic Islands in words and pictures] (in German). Retrieved 29 December 2014. ^ Nigel Tisdall (29 December 2009). "Majorca: sun, sand and Chopin". Travel. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 29 December 2014. ^ Mary Ann Sieghart (5 February 2011). "George Sand's Mallorca". Independent. Retrieved 29 December 2014. ^ Zamoyski (2010), p. 168 (loc. 2646). ^ "Rubén Darío en Mallorca" (PDF). Centro Virtual Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 December 2014. ^ "Agatha Christie: inspired by Mallorca – Illes Balears". Govern de les Illes Balears. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help) ^ "Jorge Luis Borges and Mallorca". Balearsculturaltour. Retrieved 28 September 2017. ^ "Jorge Luis Borges — Revistas y Diarios" [Jorge Luis Borges — Journals and Diaries] (in Spanish). Argentine Cultural Ephemerides. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) ^ Carlos Meneses. "Borges y España — Mallorca en Borges" [Borges and Spain — Mallorca in Borges]. Centro Virtual Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 September 2017. ^ José Carlos Llop (17 January 2002). "Cautivos en la isla: En la muerte de Camilo José Cela" [Captives on the island: In the death of Camilo José Cela]. EL Cultural (in Spanish). ^ "El nacimiento de Papeles de Son Armadans" [The birth of Papeles de Son Armadans]. Papeles de Son Armadans (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 September 2017. ^ Barkham, Patrick (27 October 2012). "'I didn't just bury the past, I buried it alive'". The Guardian. ^ "Ritual made dance: the Ball dels Cossiers". Illes Balears. ^ "Traditional music and dance in Mallorca". My Guide Mallorca. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. ^ "Music Scene in Mallorca". See Majorca. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help) ^ "Joan Miró en Mallorca". Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró a Mallorca (in Spanish). ^ "Evolution Mallorca International Film Festival". abcMallorca. Retrieved 10 October 2015. ^ "Restaurants". Infomallorca. Consell de Mallorca. ^ a b Article 4 of the "Estatut d'autonomia de les Illes Balears" [Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands] (PDF) (in Catalan). 2007. Catalan language, Balearic Islands' own language, will have, together with the Spanish language, the character of official language. ^ "History of Majorca". Majorcan Villas. ^ Andreu Manresa (17 July 2012). "El PP recorta el peso oficial del catalán en Baleares" [The PP reduces the official standing of Catalan in the Balearic Islands]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 March 2013. ^ Andreu Manresa (3 July 2015). "La izquierda de Baleares "entierra" el trilingüismo y potencia el catalán" [The left of the Balearic Islands "buries" trilingualism and promotes Catalan]. El País (in Spanish). ^ "Real Decreto 1458/2018, de 14 de diciembre, por el que se declaran oficiales las cifras de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal referidas al 1 de enero de 2018" [Royal Decree 1458/2018, of 14 December, by which the population numbers resulting from the review of the municipal register as of 01 January 2018 are declared official] (PDF) (in Spanish). Ministerio de Economía y Empresa. 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2019. ^ Mallorca, cuarta isla más poblada del Mediterráneo, ver 01/01/2016 ^ Margottini, Claudio; Canuti, Paolo; Sassa, Kyoji (2013). Landslide Science and Practice. Volume 7: Social and Economic Impact and Policies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 105. ISBN 9783642313134. ^ "Flujo de turistas (FRONTUR)". 2014. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) ^ "100 Jahre Mallorca-Tourismus: Das 17. deutsche Bundesland" [100 Years Majorca Tourism: The 17th German Federal State]. Spiegel Online (in German). 29 June 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2014. ^ Emilio Rappold (29 July 2014). "Mallorca ist das 17. Bundesland" [Mallorca is the 17th federal state] (in German). Retrieved 29 December 2014. ^ "La investigación del 'caso Andratx' descubre un 'pelotazo' de 10 millones en suelo rústico" [The investigation of the 'Andratx case' discovers a 'pelotazo' of 10 million on the ground]. El País (in Spanish). 30 November 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2015. ^ Johannes Höflich, Jo Angerer (2010). "Bedrohte Paradiese (2/3): Mallorca und die Balearen – Ferienparadies am Abgrund" [Threatened Paradises (2/3): Majorca and the Balearic Islands – holiday paradise on the brink] (documentary). phoenix (in German). WDR. Retrieved 1 July 2015. ^ Andreu Manresa (29 December 2009). "El ex alcalde de Andratx y un ex director general entran en prisión" [The former mayor of Andratx and a former director general enter a rustic prison]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 July 2015. ^ Patrick Sawer (21 February 2009). "Scott gives evidence in holiday homes affair". Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 1 July 2015. ^ "Turistas con destino principal las Illes Balears por periodo, isla y país de residencia" [Tourists with the Balearic Islands as their main destination by period, island and country of residence] (in Spanish). Institut d'Estadistica de les Illes Balears. Retrieved 8 September 2017. ^ a b "Family and private life". Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013. ^ h.b. (6 August 2007). "Spanish Royal Family pose for the press at the Marivent Palace". Typically Spanish. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. ^ "Chavez gets royal Spanish welcome". BBC News Online. BBC Online. BBC. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2019. ^ "The 'shut up' ringtone". BBC News Online. BBC Online. BBC. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2019. ^ "Shut up, Spain's king tells Chavez". BBC News Online. BBC Online. BBC. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2019. ^ "Mallorca". Retrieved 15 May 2016. ^ Emma Wells (31 October 2010). "It's Archer's best plot yet". The Sunday Times. 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