Maldives - Wikipedia
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Republic of Maldivesދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ (Dhivehi)Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya
Anthem: Qaumii salaamNational Salute
Location of Maldives in the Indian Ocean
Capitaland largest city
Maldivian (Dhivehi)Ethnic groups (2011)
Islam (mandated by law)Demonym
Unitary presidential republic
Abdulla Yameen• Vice President
Abdulla Jihad• Speaker
Abdulla Maseeh Mohamed• Chief Justice
• from the United Kingdom
26 July 1965• Current constitution
7 August 2008
Area • Total
298 km2 (115 sq mi) (187th)• Water (%)
0Population• 2016 estimate
427,756 (175th)• 2014 census
1,102.5/km2 (2,855.5/sq mi) (11th)GDP (PPP)
2018 estimate• Total
$7.396 billion (162nd)• Per capita
$20,228 (69th)GDP (nominal)
2018 estimate• Total
$4.825 billion• Per capita
0.706high · 103rdCurrency
Maldivian rufiyaa (MVR)Time zone
Maldives Time (UTC+5)Date format
dd/mm/yyDrives on the
+960ISO 3166 code
Excluding foreign nationals.
The Maldives (/ˈmɒldiːvz/ or /ˈmɔːldaɪvz/ ( listen); Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India. The chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed countries, as well as the smallest Asian country by land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and most populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location.
The Maldives archipelago is located atop the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean, which also forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos and the Lakshadweep. With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level, it is the world's lowest country, with even its highest natural point being the lowest in the world, at 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in). Due to the consequent risks posed by rising sea levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives a carbon-neutral country by 2019.[needs update]The Maldivian archipelago took to Islam in the 12th century and consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia and Africa. From the mid 16th-century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives becoming a British protectorate in 1887. Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People's Majlis. The ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform, and environmental challenges posed by climate change.The Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). It is also a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non Aligned Movement. The World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper middle income economy.Fishing has historically been the dominant economic activity, and remains the largest sector by far, followed by the rapidly growing tourism industry. Along with Sri Lanka, it is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its per capita income one of the highest among SAARC nations.The Maldives was a Commonwealth republic from July 1982 until its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in October 2016 in protest of international criticism of its records in relation to corruption and human rights.
2.1 Ancient history and settlement
2.2 Buddhist period
2.3 Islamic period
2.4 Colonial period
2.5 Independence and republic
2.6 21st century
3.1 Protected areas of Maldives
3.3 Environmental issues
3.4 Marine ecosystem
4.2 Human rights
4.3 Foreign relations
4.5 Administrative divisions
5.2 Fishing industry
6.3 Population by locality
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
See also: Names of Maldives
The name "Maldives" may derive from the Tamil words maalai (garland / evening) and theevu (island), or මාල දිවයින (Maala Divaina, "Necklace Islands") in Sinhala. The Maldivian people are called Dhivehin. The word theevu (archaic heevu, related to Tamil தீவு, dheevu) means "island", and Dhives (Dhivehin) means "islanders" (i.e., Maldivians).The ancient Sri Lankan chronicle Mahawamsa refers to an island called Mahiladiva ("Island of Women", महिलादिभ) in Pali, which is probably a mistranslation of the same Sanskrit word meaning "garland".
Jan S Hogendorn, Grossman Professor of Economics, theorises that the name Maldives derives from the Sanskrit mālādvīpa (मालाद्वीप), meaning "garland of islands". In Tamil, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Malai Theevu (மாலைத்தீவு). In Malayalam, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maladweepu (മാലദ്വീപ്). In Kannada, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maaledweepa (ಮಾಲೆದ್ವೀಪ). None of these names is mentioned in any literature, but classical Sanskrit texts dating back to the Vedic period mention the "Hundred Thousand Islands" (Lakshadweepa), a generic name which would include not only the Maldives, but also the Laccadives, Aminidivi Islands, Minicoy, and the Chagos island groups.Some medieval travellers such as Ibn Battuta called the islands Mahal Dibiyat (محل دبيأت) from the Arabic word mahal ("palace"), which must be how the Berber traveller interpreted the local name, having been through Muslim North India, where Perso-Arabic words were introduced to the local vocabulary. This is the name currently inscribed on the scroll in the Maldive state emblem. The classical Persian/Arabic name for Maldives is Dibajat. The Dutch referred to the islands as the Maldivische Eilanden (pronounced [mɑlˈdivisə ˈʔɛilɑndə(n)]), while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and later to "Maldives".
Garcia da Orta writes in his conversational book first published in 1563 as follows: "I must tell you that I have heard it said that the natives do not call it Maldiva but Nalediva. In the Malabar language nale means four and diva island. So that in that language the word signifies "four islands," while we, corrupting the name, call it Maldiva."
Main article: History of the Maldives
Ancient history and settlement
Main article: History of the Maldives § Early Age
The first Maldivians did not leave any archaeological artifacts. Their buildings were probably built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have quickly decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds.Comparative studies of Maldivian oral, linguistic and cultural traditions and customs confirm that the first settlers were people from the southern shores of the neighboring Indian subcontinent, including the Giraavaru people mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé.A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which also appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry, dance, and religious beliefs. Malabari seafaring culture led to the settlement of the Islands by Malayali seafarers.The earliest written history of the Maldives was marked by the arrival of Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka and the Maldives (Mahiladvipika) circa 543 to 483 BC, as reported in the Mahavansa. Their settlement marks a significant change in demographics and the development of the Indo-Aryan language Dhivehi language.
Main articles: History of the Maldives § Buddhist period, and Buddhism in the Maldives
Isdhoo Lōmāfānu is the oldest copper-plate book to have been discovered in the Maldives to date. The book was written in AD 1194 (590 AH) in the Evēla form of the Divehi akuru, during the reign of Siri Fennaadheettha Mahaa Radun (Dhinei Kalaminja).
Despite being just mentioned briefly in most history books, the 1,400-year-long Buddhist period has a foundational importance in the history of the Maldives. It was during this period that the culture of the Maldives both developed and flourished, a culture which survives today. The Maldivian language, the first Maldive scripts, the architecture, the ruling institutions, the customs and manners of the Maldivians originated at the time when the Maldives were a Buddhist kingdom.Buddhism probably spread to the Maldives in the 3rd century BC at the time of Emperor Ashoka's expansion, and became the dominant religion of the people of the Maldives until the 12th century AD. The ancient Maldivian Kings promoted Buddhism, and the first Maldive writings and artistic achievements, in the form of highly developed sculpture and architecture, are from that period. Nearly all archaeological remains in the Maldives are from Buddhist stupas and monasteries, and all artifacts found to date display characteristic Buddhist iconography.
Buddhist (and Hindu) temples were Mandala shaped, they are oriented according to the four cardinal points, the main gate being towards the east.
Local historian Hassan Ahmed Maniku counted as many as 59 islands with Buddhist archaeological sites in a provisional list he published in 1990.
See also: History of the Maldives § Islamic Period, Islam in Maldives, and List of sultans of the Maldives
A plaque in Juma Mosque, Malé, Maldives, on which Tabrezi's name is written. Tabrezi was a Persian who is said to have converted Maldives in 12th century AD to Islam.
The importance of the Arabs as traders in the Indian Ocean by the 12th century may partly explain why the last Buddhist king of Maldives Dhovemi converted to Islam in the year 1153 (or 1193), adopting the Muslim title of Sultan Muhammad al Adil, and initiating a series of six Islamic dynasties that lasted until 1932 when the sultanate became elective.The formal title of the Sultan up to 1965 was, Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives which came with the style Highness.
The person traditionally deemed responsible for this conversion in 1153, was a Maghreb Muslim visitor named Abu'l Barakat al-Barbari, according to the story told to Ibn Battutah, who goes on to say a mosque was built with the inscription: 'The Sultan Ahmad Shanurazah accepted Islam at the hand of Abu'l Barakat al-Barbari al-Maghribi.'Some scholars have suggested the possibility of Ibn Battuta misreading Maldive texts, and having a bias towards the North African, Maghrebi narrative of this Shaykh, instead of the East African origins account that was known as well at the time. Even when Ibn Battuta visited the islands the governor of the island at that time was Abd Aziz Al Mogadishawi, a SomaliScholars have posited another scenario where this Abu Barakat might have been a native of Barbera, a significant trading port on the northwestern coast of Somalia.Barbara or Barbaroi (Berbers), as the ancestors of the Somalis were referred to by medieval Arab and ancient Greek geographers, respectively. This is also seen when Ibn Batuta visited Mogadishu, he mentions that the Sultan at that time, "Abu Bakr ibn Shaikh Omar", was a Berber (Somali). According to scholars, Abu Barakat Al Barbari was Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn, a famous native Somali scholar  known for establishing the Walashma dynasty of the Horn of Africa.After his conversion of the population of Dogor (now known as Aw Barkhadle), a town in Somalia, he is also credited to have been responsible for spreading Islam in the Maldivian islands, establishing the Hukuru Miskiiy Mosque, and converting the Maldivian population to Islam.Ibn Batuta states the Maldivian king was converted by Abu Al Barakat Al Berber (Blessed Father of Somalia).
Others have it he may have been from the Persian town of Tabriz. The first reference to an Iranian origin dates to an 18th-century Persian text.His venerated tomb now stands on the grounds of Hukuru Mosque, or miski, in the capital of Malé. Built in 1656, this is the oldest mosque in Maldives. Following the Islamic concept that before Islam there was the time of Jahiliya (ignorance), in the history books used by Maldivians the introduction of Islam at the end of the 12th century is considered the cornerstone of the country's history.
Compared to the other areas of South Asia, the conversion of the Maldives to Islam happened relatively late. Arab traders had converted populations in the Malabar Coast since the 7th century, and Muhammad Bin Qāsim had converted large swathes of Sindh to Islam at about the same time. The Maldives remained a Buddhist kingdom for another 500 years after the conversion of Malabar Coast and Sindh—perhaps as the southwesternmost Buddhist country. Arabic became the prime language of administration (instead of Persian and Urdu), and the Maliki school of jurisprudence was introduced, both hinting at direct contacts with the core of the Arab world.
16th century Portuguese illustration from the Códice Casanatense, depicting inhabitants of the Maldives.
Middle Eastern seafarers had just begun to take over the Indian Ocean trade routes in the 10th century and found Maldives to be an important link in those routes as the first landfall for traders from Basra sailing to Southeast Asia. Trade involved mainly cowrie shells—widely used as a form of currency throughout Asia and parts of the East African coast—and coir fiber. The Bengal Sultanate, where cowrie shells were used as legal tender, was one of the principal trading partners of the Maldives. The Bengal–Maldives cowry shell trade was the largest shell currency trade network in history.
The other essential product of the Maldives was coir, the fibre of the dried coconut husk, resistant to saltwater. It stitched together and rigged the dhows that plied the Indian Ocean. Maldivian coir was exported to Sindh, China, Yemen, and the Persian Gulf.
18th-century map by Pierre Mortier of The Netherlands depicting with detail the islands of the Maldives
In 1558 the Portuguese established a small garrison with a Viador (Viyazoru), or overseer of a factory (trading post) in the Maldives, which they administered from their main colony in Goa. Their attempts to impose Christianity provoked a local revolt led by Muhammad Thakurufaanu Al-Azam and his two brothers, that fifteen years later drove the Portuguese out of Maldives. This event is now commemorated as National Day.
In the mid-17th century, the Dutch, who had replaced the Portuguese as the dominant power in Ceylon, established hegemony over Maldivian affairs without involving themselves directly in local matters, which were governed according to centuries-old Islamic customs.
The British expelled the Dutch from Ceylon in 1796 and included Maldives as a British protected area. The status of Maldives as a British protectorate was officially recorded in an 1887 agreement in which the sultan accepted British influence over Maldivian external relations and defence while retaining home rule, which continued to be regulated by Muslim traditional institutions in exchange for an annual tribute. The status of the islands was akin to other British protectorates in the Indian Ocean region, including Zanzibar and the Trucial States.
In the British period the Sultan's powers were taken over by the Chief Minister, much to the chagrin of the British Governor-General who continued to deal with the ineffectual Sultan. Consequently, Britain encouraged the development of a constitutional monarchy, and the first Constitution was proclaimed in 1932. However, the new arrangements favoured neither the aging Sultan nor the wily Chief Minister, but rather a young crop of British-educated reformists. As a result, angry mobs were instigated against the Constitution which was publicly torn up.
Maldives remained a British crown protectorate until 1953 when the sultanate was suspended and the First Republic was declared under the short-lived presidency of Muhammad Amin Didi. While serving as prime minister during the 1940s, Didi nationalized the fish export industry. As president he is remembered as a reformer of the education system and a promoter of women's rights. Conservatives in Malé eventually ousted his government, and during a riot over food shortages, Didi was beaten by a mob and died on a nearby island.
An RAF Short Sunderland moored in the lagoon at Addu Atoll, during WWII
Beginning in the 1950s, the political history in Maldives was largely influenced by the British military presence in the islands. In 1954 the restoration of the sultanate perpetuated the rule of the past. Two years later, the United Kingdom obtained permission to reestablish its wartime RAF Gan airfield in the southernmost Addu Atoll, employing hundreds of locals. In 1957, however, the new prime minister, Ibrahim Nasir, called for a review of the agreement. Nasir was challenged in 1959 by a local secessionist movement in the three southernmost atolls that benefited economically from the British presence on Gan. This group cut ties with the Maldives government and formed an independent state, the United Suvadive Republic with Abdullah Afif as president and Hithadhoo as capital. One year later the Suvadive republic was scrapped after Nasir sent gunboats from Malé with government police, and Abdulla Afif went into exile. Meanwhile, in 1960 the Maldives had allowed the United Kingdom to continue to use both the Gan and the Hitaddu facilities for a thirty-year period, with the payment of £750,000 over the period of 1960 to 1965 for the purpose of Maldives' economic development.The base was closed in 1976 as part of the larger British withdrawal of permanently stationed forces 'East of Suez'.
Independence and republic
Abdul Majeed Didi, the last Sultan of the Maldives (1945–1952)
In line with the broader British policy of decolonisation on 26 July 1965 an agreement was signed on behalf of His Majesty the Sultan by Ibrahim Nasir Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, Prime Minister, and on behalf of Her Majesty The Queen by Sir Michael Walker, British Ambassador designate to the Maldive Islands, which ended the British responsibility for the defence and external affairs of the Maldives. The islands thus achieved full political independence, with the ceremony taking place at the British High Commissioner's Residence in Colombo. After this, the sultanate continued for another three years under Muhammad Fareed Didi, who declared himself King rather than Sultan.
On 15 November 1967, a vote was taken in parliament to decide whether the Maldives should continue as a constitutional monarchy or become a republic. Of the 44 members of parliament, forty voted in favour of a republic. On 15 March 1968, a national referendum was held on the question, and 93.34% of those taking part voted in favour of establishing a republic. The republic was declared on 11 November 1968, thus ending the 853-year-old monarchy, which was replaced by a republic under the presidency of Ibrahim Nasir. As the King had held little real power, this was seen as a cosmetic change and required few alterations in the structures of government.
Mamoon Abdul Gayoom, President of the Maldives (1978–2008)
Tourism began to be developed on the archipelago by the beginning of the 1970s. The first resort in the Maldives was Kurumba Maldives which welcomed the first guests on 3 October 1972. The first accurate census was held in December 1977 and showed 142,832 persons residing in Maldives.
Political infighting during the '70s between Nasir's faction and other political figures led to the 1975 arrest and exile of elected prime minister Ahmed Zaki to a remote atoll. Economic decline followed the closure of the British airfield at Gan and the collapse of the market for dried fish, an important export. With support for his administration faltering, Nasir fled to Singapore in 1978, with millions of dollars from the treasury.
Maumoon Abdul Gayoom began his 30-year role as President in 1978, winning six consecutive elections without opposition. His election was seen as ushering in a period of political stability and economic development in view of Gayoom's priority to develop the poorer islands. Tourism flourished and increased foreign contact spurred development. However, Gayoom's rule was controversial, with some critics saying Gayoom was an autocrat who quelled dissent by limiting freedoms and political favouritism.A series of coup attempts (in 1980, 1983, and 1988) by Nasir supporters and business interests tried to topple the government without success. While the first two attempts met with little success, the 1988 coup attempt involved a roughly 80-person mercenary force of the PLOTE who seized the airport and caused Gayoom to flee from house to house until the intervention of 1600 Indian troops airlifted into Malé restored order.
A November 1988 coup was headed by Muhammadu Ibrahim Lutfee, a small-businessman. On the night of 3 November 1988, the Indian Air Force airlifted a parachute battalion group from Agra and flew them over 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) to the Maldives. The Indian paratroopers landed at Hulule and secured the airfield and restored the government rule at Malé within hours. The brief operation, labelled Operation Cactus, also involved the Indian Navy.
Main article: History of the Maldives § 21st century
Mohamed Nasheed,President of the Maldives(2008 – 2012), who was ousted in a coup in 2012
On 26 December 2004, following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the Maldives were devastated by a tsunami. Only nine islands were reported to have escaped any flooding, while fifty-seven islands faced serious damage to critical infrastructure, fourteen islands had to be totally evacuated, and six islands were destroyed. A further twenty-one resort islands were forced to close because of tsunami damage. The total damage was estimated at more than US$400 million, or some 62% of the GDP. 102 Maldivians and 6 foreigners reportedly died in the tsunami. The destructive impact of the waves on the low-lying islands was mitigated by the fact there was no continental shelf or land mass upon which the waves could gain height. The tallest waves were reported to be 14 feet (4.3 m) high.
People in Malé removing sand bags from a nearby construction site, to be used as a barrier to protect their homes from the flood, shortly after being hit by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
During the later part of Gayoom's rule, independent political movements emerged in Maldives, which challenged the then-ruling Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (Maldivian People's Party, MPP) and demanded democratic reform. The dissident journalist and activist Mohamed Nasheed founded the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP) in 2003 and pressured Gayoom into allowing gradual political reforms. In 2008 a new constitution was approved and the first direct presidential elections occurred, which were won by Mohamed Nasheed in the second round. His administration faced many challenges, including the huge debt left by the previous government, the economic downturn following the 2004 tsunami, overspending (by means of overprinting of local currency rufiyaa), unemployment, corruption, and increasing drug use.[unreliable source?] Taxation on goods was imposed for the first time in the country, and import duties were reduced in many goods and services. Social welfare benefits were given to those aged 65 years or older, single parents, and those with special needs.Social and political unrest grew in late 2011, following opposition campaigns in the name of protecting Islam. Nasheed controversially resigned from office after large number of police and army mutinied in February 2012. Nasheed's vice president, Mohammed Waheed Hassan, was sworn in as President.
Nasheed was later arrested, convicted of terrorism, and sentenced to 13 years. The trial was widely seen as flawed and political. The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention called for Nasheed's immediate release.The elections in late 2013 were highly contested. Former president Mohammed Nasheed won the most votes in the first round, but the Supreme Court annulled it despite the positive assessment of international election observers. In the re-run vote Abdulla Yameen, half-brother of the former president Gayoom, assumed the presidency. Yameen introduced increased engagement with China, and promoted a policy of connecting Islam with anti-Western rhetoric. Yameen survived an assassination attempt in late 2015. Vice president Ahmed Adeeb was later arrested together with 17 supporters for "public order offences" and the government instituted a broader crackdown against political dissent. A state of emergency was later declared ahead of a planned anti-government rally, and the people's Majlis accelerated the removal of Vice president Ahmed Adeeb.Though the popular image of the Maldives is that of a holiday paradise, its radicalised youths are enlisting in significant numbers to fight for ISIL militants in the Middle East.On 3 February 2018, Parliament dissolved and the military occupied the capital. On 5 February, the supreme court of Maldives released three imprisoned opposition leaders, including former President Mohammed Nasheed. The court also provided relief to 12 ministers who had been removed from President Abdullah Yameen's ruling party. Yameen refused to comply with the court order and imposed a state of emergency to last for 15 days. Protesters demonstrated on the streets against President Abdullah Yameen after the announcement of the emergency.
Main article: Geography of the Maldives
Malhosmadulhu Atoll seen from space. "Fasdutere" and Southern Maalhosmadulhu Atoll can be seen in this picture.
The Maldives consists of 1,192 coral islands grouped in a double chain of 26 atolls, along the north-south direction, spread over roughly 90,000 square kilometres (35,000 sq mi), making this one of the world's most dispersed countries. It lies between latitudes 1°S and 8°N, and longitudes 72° and 74°E. The atolls are composed of live coral reefs and sand bars, situated atop a submarine ridge 960 kilometres (600 mi) long that rises abruptly from the depths of the Indian Ocean and runs north to south.
Only near the southern end of this natural coral barricade do two open passages permit safe ship navigation from one side of the Indian Ocean to the other through the territorial waters of Maldives. For administrative purposes, the Maldivian government organised these atolls into 21 administrative divisions. The largest island of Maldives is Gan, which belongs to Laamu Atoll or Hahdhummathi Maldives. In Addu Atoll, the westernmost islands are connected by roads over the reef (collectively called Link Road) and the total length of the road is 14 km (9 mi).
Maldives is the lowest country in the world, with maximum and average natural ground levels of only 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) and 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level, respectively. In areas where construction exists, however, this has been increased to several metres. More than 80 per cent of the country's land is composed of coral islands which rise less than one metre above sea level. As a result, the Maldives are at high risk of being submerged due to rising sea levels. The UN's environmental panel has warned that, at current rates, sea level rise would be high enough to make the Maldives uninhabitable by 2100.
Protected areas of Maldives
Protected areas of Maldives are administrated by Ministry of Environment and Energy and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Maldives. There are 31 protected areas in Maldives.
A beach of Bathala island
The Maldives has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) under the Köppen climate classification, which is affected by the large landmass of South Asia to the north. The presence of this landmass causes differential heating of land and water. These factors set off a rush of moisture-rich air from the Indian Ocean over South Asia, resulting in the southwest monsoon. Two seasons dominate Maldives' weather: the dry season associated with the winter northeastern monsoon and the rainy season which brings strong winds and storms.
The shift from the dry northeast monsoon to the moist southwest monsoon occurs during April and May. During this period, the southwest winds contribute to the formation of the southwest monsoon, which reaches Maldives in the beginning of June and lasts until the end of August. However, the weather patterns of Maldives do not always conform to the monsoon patterns of South Asia. The annual rainfall averages 254 centimetres (100 in) in the north and 381 centimetres (150 in) in the south.The monsoonal influence is greater in the north of the Maldives than in the south, more influenced by the equatorial currents.
Climate data for Malé (1981–2010)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: World Meteorological OrganizationSource #2: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)Environmental issues
See also: The Island President
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2007 report predicted the upper limit of the sea level rises will be 59 centimetres (23 in) by 2100, which means that most of the republic's 200 inhabited islands may need to be abandoned. One study appears to show that the sea level in the Maldives dropped 20–30 centimetres (8–12 in) throughout the 1970s and '80s, although later studies failed to back this up. The observed rate of sea level rise is only 1.7–1.8 millimetres per year.According to former Maldivian president Mohamed Nasheed, the Maldives are ranked the third most endangered nation due to flooding from climate change. In March and April 2012, Nasheed stated, "If carbon emissions were to stop today, the planet would not see a difference for 60 to 70 years." "If carbon emissions continue at the rate they are climbing today, my country will be under water in seven years." He called for more climate change mitigation action while on the American television shows The Daily Show and the Late Show with David Letterman. This opinion was disputed in 2012, when the next President said: "The good news is that Maldives is not about to disappear....on the basis of technical and scientific information that we have, that we will be able to manage climate change in the Maldives and prolong the life for the islands and for our life on these islands."In November 2008, President Mohamed Nasheed announced plans to look into purchasing new land in India, Sri Lanka, and Australia because of his concerns about global warming, and the possibility of much of the islands being inundated with water from rising sea levels. The purchase of land will be made from a fund generated by tourism. The President has explained his intentions: "We do not want to leave the Maldives, but we also do not want to be climate refugees living in tents for decades". On 22 April 2008, then President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom pleaded for a cut in global greenhouse gas emissions, warning that rising sea levels could submerge the island nation of Maldives.
By 2020, Maldives plans to eliminate or offset all of its greenhouse gas emissions. At the 2009 International Climate Talks, President Mohamed Nasheed explained that: For us swearing off fossil fuels is not only the right thing to do, it is in our economic self-interest... Pioneering countries will free themselves from the unpredictable price of foreign oil; they will capitalise on the new green economy of the future, and they will enhance their moral standing giving them greater political influence on the world stage.
Other environmental issues include bad waste disposal and beach theft. Although the Maldives are kept relatively pristine and little litter can be found on the islands, no good waste disposal sites exist. Most trash from Male and other resorts is simply dumped at Thilafushi.
Further information: Wildlife of Maldives
Maldives soft coral
Oriental Sweetlips (Plectorhinchus vittatus) at Meeru Island, North Male Atoll
The Maldives have a range of different habitats including deep sea, shallow coast, and reef ecosystems, fringing mangroves, wetlands and dry land. There are 187 species of coral forming the coral reefs. This area of the Indian Ocean, alone, houses 1100 species of fish, 5 species of sea turtle, 21 species of whale and dolphin, 400 species of mollusc, and 83 species of echinoderms. The area is also populated by a number of crustacean species: 120 copepod, 15 amphipod, as well as more than 145 crab and 48 shrimp species.Among the many marine families represented are Pufferfish, Fusiliers, Jackfish, Lionfish, Oriental Sweetlips, reef sharks, Groupers, Eels, Snappers, Bannerfish, Batfish, Humphead Wrasse, Spotted Eagle Rays, Scorpionfish, Lobsters, Nudibranches, Angelfish, Butterflyfish, Squirrelfish, Soldierfish, Glassfish, Surgeonfish, Unicornfish, Triggerfish, Napoleon wrasses, and Barracudas.These coral reefs are home to a variety of marine ecosystems that vary from planktonic organisms to whale sharks. Sponges have gained importance as five species have displayed anti-tumor and anti-cancer properties.In 1998, sea-temperature warming of as much as 5 °C (9.0 °F) due to a single El Niño phenomenon event caused coral bleaching, killing two-thirds of the nation's coral reefs.
In an effort to induce the regrowth of the reefs, scientists placed electrified cones anywhere from 20–60 feet (6.1–18.3 m) below the surface to provide a substrate for larval coral attachment. In 2004, scientists witnessed corals regenerating. Corals began to eject pink-orange eggs and sperm. The growth of these electrified corals was five times faster than untreated corals. Scientist Azeez Hakim stated: before 1998, we never thought that this reef would die. We had always taken for granted that these animals would be there, that this reef would be there forever. El Niño gave us a wake-up call that these things are not going to be there for ever. Not only this, they also act as a natural barrier against the tropical storms, floods and tsunamis. Seaweeds grow on the skeletons of dead coral.
Again, in 2016, the coral reefs of the Maldives experienced a severe bleaching incident. Up to 95% of coral around some islands have died, and, even after six months, 100% of young coral transplants died. The surface water temperatures reached an all-time high in 2016, at 31 degrees Celsius in May.Recent scientific studies suggest that the faunistic composition can vary greatly between neighbour atolls, especially in terms of benthic fauna. Differences in terms of fishing pressure (including poaching) could be the cause.
Main article: Politics of the Maldives
Independence Square in Malé
Maldives is a presidential republic, with extensive influence of the President as head of government and head of state. The President heads the executive branch, acts on the same time minister of defence and appoints the cabinet which is approved by the People's Majlis (Parliament). He leads police, army, coast guards, fire brigade and judiciary. There is no separation of powers. The current President is Abdulla Yameen. Members of the unicameral Majlis serve five-year terms, with the total number of members determined by atoll populations. At the 2009 election, 77 members were elected. The People's Majlis, located in Male, houses members from all over the country.The republican constitution came into force in 1968, and was amended in 1970, 1972, and 1975. On 27 November 1997 it was replaced by another Constitution assented to by the President Gayoom. This Constitution came into force on 1 January 1998. All stated that the president was the Head of State, Head of Government and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and the Police of the Maldives.
In 2018, tensions with opposition and subsequent crackdown was termed as an "Assault on democracy" by the UN Human Rights chief.
See also: Judiciary in the Maldives
According to the Constitution of Maldives, "the judges are independent, and subject only to the Constitution and the law. When deciding matters on which the Constitution or the law is silent, judges must consider Islamic Shari'ah". Article 15 of the Act Number 1/81 (Penal Code) gives provision for hudud punishments. Article 156 of the constitution states that law includes the norms and provisions of sharia.Islam is the official religion of the Maldives and open practice of any other religion is forbidden and liable to prosecution. Article 2 of the revised constitution says that the republic "is based on the principles of Islam". Article nine says that "a non-Muslim may not become a citizen"; article ten says that "no law contrary to any principle of Islam can be applied". Article nineteen states that "citizens are free to participate in or carry out any activity that is not expressly prohibited by sharia [Islamic law] or by the law".
The requirement to adhere to a particular religion and prohibition of public worship following other religions is contrary to Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights to which Maldives has recently become party and was addressed in Maldives' reservation in adhering to the Covenant claiming that "The application of the principles set out in Article 18 of the Covenant shall be without prejudice to the Constitution of the Republic of the Maldives."
Main articles: Human rights in the Maldives and LGBT rights in the Maldives
Human rights in the Maldives is a contentious issue. In its 2011 Freedom in the World report, Freedom House declared the Maldives "Partly Free", claiming a reform process which had made headway in 2009 and 2010 had stalled. The United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor claims in their 2012 report on human rights practices in the country that the most significant problems are corruption, lack of religious freedom, and abuse and unequal treatment of women.In February 2013, the court sentenced a 15-year-old rape victim to 100 lashes and 8 months of house arrest for having had extra-marital relations. The conviction was based on the confession of the girl shortly after being raped by her stepfatherSame-sex relations are illegal in the Maldives.
Main article: Foreign relations of the Maldives
Former Maldivian Defence Minister Mohamed Nazim at an Indian naval base in Kochi
Since 1996, the Maldives has been the official progress monitor of the Indian Ocean Commission. In 2002, the Maldives began to express interest in the commission but as of 2008[update] had not applied for membership. Maldives' interest relates to its identity as a small island state, especially economic development and environmental preservation, and its desire for closer relations with France, a main actor in the IOC region.
The Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The republic joined the Commonwealth in 1982, some 17 years after gaining independence from the United Kingdom. In October 2016, Maldives announced its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in protest at allegations of human rights abuse and failing democracy. The Maldives enjoys close ties with Commonwealth members Seychelles and Mauritius. The Maldives and Comoros are also both members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Main article: Maldives National Defence Force
Fire & Rescue Service boats
The Maldives National Defence Force is the combined security organisation responsible for defending the security and sovereignty of the Maldives, having the primary task of being responsible for attending to all internal and external security needs of the Maldives, including the protection of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the maintenance of peace and security. The MNDF component branches are the Coast Guard, Marine Corps, Special Forces, Service Corps and the Corps of Engineers.
As a water-bound nation much of the security concerns lie at sea. Almost 99% of the country is covered by sea and the remaining 1% land is scattered over an area of 800 km (497 mi) × 120 km (75 mi), with the largest island being not more than 8 km2 (3 sq mi). Therefore, the duties assigned to the MNDF of maintaining surveillance over Maldives' waters and providing protection against foreign intruders poaching in the EEZ and territorial waters, are immense tasks from both logistical and economic viewpoints.
The Coast Guard plays a vital role in carrying out these functions. To provide timely security its patrol boats are stationed at various MNDF Regional Headquarters. The Coast Guard is also assigned to respond to the maritime distress calls and to conduct search and rescue operations in a timely manner. Maritime pollution control exercises are conducted regularly on an annual basis for familiarisation and handling of such hazardous situations.
Main article: Administrative divisions of the Maldives
Each administrative atoll is marked, along with the thaana letter used to identify the atoll. Natural atolls are labelled in light blue. Full view of the map.
The Maldives has twenty-six natural atolls and few island groups on isolated reefs, all of which have been divided into twenty-one administrative divisions (19 administrative atolls and cities of Malé and Addu).Each atoll is administered by an elected Atoll Council. The islands are administered by an elected Island Council.
Between 2008 and 2010 the Maldives had 7 provinces each consisting of the following administrative divisions (the capital Malé is its own administrative division):
Mathi-Uthuru Province; consists of Haa Alif Atoll, Haa Dhaalu Atoll and Shaviyani Atoll.
Uthuru Province; consists of Noonu Atoll, Raa Atoll, Baa Atoll and Lhaviyani Atoll.
Medhu-Uthuru Province; consists of Kaafu Atoll, Alifu Alifu Atoll, Alifu Dhaalu Atoll and Vaavu Atoll.
Medhu Province; consists of Meemu Atoll, Faafu Atoll and Dhaalu Atoll.
Medhu-Dhekunu Province; consists of Thaa Atoll and Laamu Atoll.
Mathi-Dhekunu Province; consists of Gaafu Alifu Atoll and Gaafu Dhaalu Atoll.
Dhekunu Province; consists of Gnaviyani Atoll and Addu City.In addition to a name, every administrative division is identified by the Maldivian code letters, such as "Haa Alif" for Thiladhunmati Uthuruburi (Thiladhunmathi North); and by a Latin code letter. The first corresponds to the geographical Maldivian name of the atoll; the second is a code adopted for convenience. As there are certain islands in different atolls that have the same name, for administrative purposes this code is quoted before the name of the island, for example: Baa Funadhoo, Kaafu Funadhoo, Gaafu-Alifu Funadhoo. Since most Atolls have very long geographical names it is also used whenever the long name is inconvenient, for example in the atoll website names.The introduction of code-letter names has been a source of much puzzlement and misunderstandings, especially among foreigners. Many people have come to think that the code-letter of the administrative atoll is its new name and that it has replaced its geographical name. Under such circumstances it is hard to know which is the correct name to use.
Main article: Economy of the Maldives
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Malé harbour
Graphical depiction of Maldives's product exports in 28 color-coded categories
In ancient times the Maldives were renowned for cowry shells, coir rope, dried tuna fish (Maldive Fish), ambergris (Maavaharu), and coco de mer (Tavakkaashi). Local and foreign trading ships used to load these products in Sri Lanka and transport them to other harbours in the Indian Ocean.
Historically Maldives provided enormous quantities of cowry shells, an international currency of the early ages. From the 2nd century AD the islands were known as the 'Money Isles' by the Arabs.Monetaria moneta were used for centuries as a currency in Africa, and huge amounts of Maldivian cowries were introduced into Africa by western nations during the period of slave trade. The cowry is now the symbol of the Maldives Monetary Authority.
The Maldivian government began an economic reform programme in 1989, initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalised regulations to allow more foreign investment. Real GDP growth averaged over 7.5% per year for more than a decade. Today, the Maldives' largest industry is tourism, accounting for 28% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Fishing is the second leading sector.
The Maldivian economy is to a large degree based on tourism. In late December 2004, the major tsunami left more than 100 dead, 12,000 displaced, and property damage exceeding $400 million. As a result of the tsunami, the GDP contracted by about 3.6% in 2005. A rebound in tourism, post-tsunami reconstruction, and development of new resorts helped the economy recover quickly and showed an 18% increase on 2006. 2013 estimates show Maldivians enjoy the highest GDP (PPP) per capita $11,900 (2013 est) among south Asian countries.
Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a lesser role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labour. Tourism gave a major boost to the country's fledgling traditional cottage industries such as mat weaving, lacquer work, handicraft, and coir rope making. New industries that have since emerged include printing, production of PVC pipes, brick making, marine engine repairs, bottling of aerated water, and garment production.
Main articles: Tourism in the Maldives, Diving in the Maldives, and List of mosques in the Maldives
Filitheyo island beach with tall palm trees and blue fresh lagoons
The Maldives remained largely unknown to tourists until the early 1970s. Only 185 islands are home to its 300,000 inhabitants. The other islands are used entirely for economic purposes, of which tourism and agriculture are the most dominant. Tourism accounts for 28% of the GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes.
The development of tourism fostered the overall growth of the country's economy. It created direct and indirect employment and income generation opportunities in other related industries. The first tourist resorts were opened in 1972 with Bandos island resort and Kurumba Village (the current name is Kurumba Maldives), which transformed the Maldives economy.
The resort island of Landaa Giraavaru (Baa atoll)
According to the Ministry of Tourism, the emergence of tourism in 1972 transformed the economy, moving rapidly from dependence on fisheries to tourism. In just three and a half decades, the industry became the main source of income. Tourism was also the country's biggest foreign currency earner and the single largest contributor to the GDP. As of 2008[update], 89 resorts in the Maldives offered over 17,000 beds and hosted over 600,000 tourists annually.The number of resorts increased from 2 to 92 between 1972 and 2007. As of 2007[update], over 8,380,000 tourists had visited Maldives.Visitors to the Maldives do not need to apply for a visa pre-arrival, regardless of their country of origin, provided they have a valid passport, proof of onward travel, and the money to be self-sufficient while in the country.Most visitors arrive at Malé International Airport, on Hulhulé Island, adjacent to the capital Malé. The airport is served by flights to and from India, Sri Lanka, Doha, Dubai, Singapore, Istanbul, and major airports in South-East Asia, as well as charters from Europe. Gan Airport, on the southern atoll of Addu, also serves an international flight to Milan several times a week. British Airways offers direct flights to the Maldives around 2–3 times per week.
The country currently has six heritage Maldivian coral mosques, all of which are listed as UNESCO tentative sites.
Main article: Fishing industry in the Maldives
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) A mechanised traditional inter-island dhoni stripped of its sails
For many centuries the Maldivian economy was entirely dependent on fishing and other marine products. Fishing remains the main occupation of the people and the government gives priority to the fisheries sector.
The mechanisation of the traditional fishing boat called dhoni in 1974 was a major milestone in the development of the fisheries industry. A fish canning plant was installed on Felivaru in 1977, as a joint venture with a Japanese firm. In 1979, a Fisheries Advisory Board was set up with the mandate of advising the government on policy guidelines for the overall development of the fisheries sector. Manpower development programmes began in the early 1980s, and fisheries education was incorporated into the school curriculum. Fish aggregating devices and navigational aids were located at various strategic points. Moreover, the opening up of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Maldives for fisheries has further enhanced the growth of the fisheries sector.
As of 2010[update], fisheries contributed over 15% of the country's GDP and engaged about 30% of the country's work force. Fisheries were also the second-largest foreign exchange earner after tourism.
Malé, the capital of the Maldives
Demographics of the Maldives, from 2000 to 2012
Main article: Demographics of the Maldives
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The largest ethnic group are Dhivehis, i.e. the Maldivians, native to the historic region of the Maldive Islands comprising today's Republic of Maldives and the island of Minicoy in Union territory of Lakshadweep, India. They share the same culture and speak the Dhivehi language. They are principally an Indo-Aryan people, closely related to the Sinhalese and having traces of Middle Eastern, South Asian, Austronesian and African genes in the population.
In the past there was also a small Tamil population known as the Giraavaru people. This group have now been almost completely absorbed into the larger Maldivian society but were once native to the island of Giraavaru (Kaafu Atoll). This island was evacuated in 1968 due to heavy erosion of the island.
Some social stratification exists on the islands. It is not rigid, since rank is based on varied factors, including occupation, wealth, Islamic virtue, and family ties. Instead of a complex caste system, there was merely a distinction between noble (bēfulhu) and common people in the Maldives. Members of the social elite are concentrated in Malé.
The population doubled by 1978, and the population growth rate peaked at 3.4% in 1985. At the 2006 census, the population had reached 298,968, although the census in 2000 showed that the population growth rate had declined to 1.9%. Life expectancy at birth stood at 46 years in 1978, and later rose to 72. Infant mortality has declined from 12.7% in 1977 to 1.2% today, and adult literacy reached 99%. Combined school enrolment reached the high 90s. The population was projected to have reached 317,280 in 2010.As of April 2008, more than 70,000 foreign employees, along with 33,000 illegal immigrants, comprised more than one third of the Maldivian population.. There are 40,000 Bangladeshis in the Maldives, making them the largest group of foreigners working in that country. Other immigrants include Filipinos in the Maldives as well as various Western expatriates.
See also: Islam in the Maldives, Buddhism in the Maldives, Christianity in the Maldives, and Freedom of religion in the Maldives
Maldives religions (2010)
Mosque in Hulhumalé
After the long Buddhist period of Maldivian history, Muslim traders introduced Islam. Maldivians converted to Islam by the mid-12th century. The islands have had a long history of Sufic orders, as can be seen in the history of the country such as the building of tombs. They were used until as recently as the 1980s for seeking the help of buried saints. They can be seen next to some old mosques and are considered a part of Maldives's cultural heritage.
Other aspects of tassawuf, such as ritualised dhikr ceremonies called Maulūdu (Mawlid)—the liturgy of which included recitations and certain supplications in a melodical tone—existed until very recent times. These Maulūdu festivals were held in ornate tents specially built for the occasion. At present Islam is the official religion of the entire population, as adherence to it is required for citizenship.
According to Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, the person responsible for this conversion was a Sunni Muslim visitor named Abu al-Barakat, sailing from Morocco. He is also referred to as Tabrizugefaanu. His venerated tomb now stands on the grounds of the Friday Mosque, or Hukuru Miskiy, in Malé. Built in 1656, this is the country's oldest mosque.
Main article: Languages of Maldives
The official and common language is Dhivehi, an Indo-Aryan language having some similarities with Elu, the ancient Sinhalese language. The first known script used to write Dhivehi is Eveyla akuru script which is found in historical recording of kings (raadhavalhi). Later a script called Dhives akuru was used for a long period. The present-day script is called Thaana and is written from right to left. Thaana is said to have been introduced by the reign of Mohamed Thakurufaanu.
English is widely spoken by the locals of Maldives.
Population by locality
vte Largest localities in Maldivesby registered population as of July 4, 2012
Main article: Culture of the Maldives
See also: Music of the Maldives and Maldivian folklore
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Maahefun Festival in Fuvahmulah
Since the 12th century AD there were also influences from Arabia in the language and culture of the Maldives because of the conversion to Islam and its location as a crossroads in the central Indian Ocean. This was due to the long trading history between the far east and the middle east.
However, unlike the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka and most of the Arabs, Africans and Europeans whose influence can be seen in borrow-words, material culture, and the diversity of Maldivian phenotype, Maldivians do not have the highly embedded patriarchal codes of honour, purity, corporate marriage, and sedentary private property that are typical of places where agriculture is the key form of subsistence and social relations have been built, historically, around tribute taking.Reflective of this is the fact that the Maldives has had the highest national divorce rate in the world for many decades. This, it is hypothesised, is due to a combination of liberal Islamic rules about divorce and the relatively loose marital bonds that have been identified as common in non- and semi-sedentary peoples without a history of fully developed agrarian property and kinship relations.
Velana International Airport is the principal gateway to the Maldives. International travel is available on a number of major airlines. Two Maldives based airlines also operate international flights. Privately owned MEGA Maldives Airlines has Boeing 737 and 767 aircraft and operates frequent services to Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong. Government owned Island Aviation Services (branded as Maldivian) operates to nearly all Maldives domestic airports with several Bombardier Dash 8 aircraft and one A320 with international service to Chennai and Thiruvananthapuram, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh.
In Maldives there are three main ways to travel between islands: by domestic flight, by seaplane or by boat. For several years there were two seaplane companies operating: TMA (Trans Maldivian Airways and Maldivian Air Taxi, but these merged in 2013 under the name TMA. The seaplane fleet is entirely made up of DHC-6 Twin Otters. There is also another airline, Flyme, which operates using ATR planes to domestic airports, principally Maamagili and some others. The typical Maldivian boat is called a dhoni. Depending on the distance of the destination island from the airport, resorts organise domestic flight plus boat transfers, seaplane flights directly to the resort island jetty, or speedboat trips for their guests. There are also locally run ferries using large dhoni boats. Speedboats and seaplanes tend to be more expensive, while travel by dhoni, although slower, is relatively cheaper and convenient.
The Maldives National University is one of the country's three institutions of higher education. Its mission statement is as follows:
To create, discover, preserve and disseminate knowledge that are necessary to enhance the lives and livelihoods of people and essential for the cultural, social and economic development of the society so that this nation shall remain free and Islamic forever.
In 1973, the Allied Health Services Training Centre (the forerunner of the Faculty of Health Sciences) was established by the Ministry of Health. The Vocational Training Centre was established in 1974, providing training for mechanical and electrical trades. In 1984, the Institute for Teacher Education was created and the School of Hotel and Catering Services was established in 1987 to provide trained personnel for the tourist industry. In 1991, the Institute of Management and Administration was created to train staff for public and private services. In 1998, the Maldives College of Higher Education was founded. The Institute of Shar'ah and Law was founded in January 1999. In 2000 the college launched its first degree programme: Bachelor of Arts. On 17 January 2011 the Maldives National University Act was passed by the President of the Maldives; The Maldives National University was named on 15 February 2011.
South Asia portal
27596 Maldives, a minor planet named after the nation
Commonwealth of Nations
Desalination in the Maldives
Index of Maldives-related articles
List of island countries
Outline of Maldives
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^ a b Henley, Jon (11 November 2008). "The last days of paradise". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010. [The Maldives] holds the record for the country with the lowest high point on earth: nowhere on any of the islands on Maldives does the natural ground level exceed 2.3m. Most of [the Maldives'] land mass, which totals roughly one-fifth of Greater London, is a great deal lower [...], averaging around 1.5m.
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^ Clarence Maloney. People of the Maldive Islands. Orient Longman
^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. pp. 235–236,320. ISBN 9780330418799.
^ The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveller of the Fourteenth Century
^ Honchell, Stephanie (2018), Sufis, Sea Monsters, and Miraculous Circumcisions: Comparative Conversion Narratives and Popular Memories of Islamization, Fairleigh Dickinson University and the University of Cape Town, p. 5, In reference to Ibn Batuta's Moroccan theory of this figure, citation 8 of this text mentions, that other accounts identify Yusuf Al Barbari as East African or Persian. But as fellow Maghribi, Ibn Battuta likely felt partial to the Moroccan version.
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^ James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 12: V. 12 (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2003), p. 490.
^ Somalia; Wasaaradda Warfaafinta iyo Hanuuninta Dadweynaha (1972). The Writing of the Somali Language: A Great Landmark in Our Revolutionary History. Ministry of Information and National Guidance. p. 10. Aw Barkhadle, he was a native, who lived in about 1,000 years ago and is buried now in a ruined town named after him, Aw Barkhadle, which is a few miles away from Hargeisa.
^ Nehemia Levtzion; Randall Pouwels (31 March 2000). The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. p. 242. Aw Barkhadle, is the founder and ancestor of the Walashma dynasty
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^ Galaal, Musa (1980). "Les liens historiques entre la corne de l'Afrique et les îles du golfe Persique et de l'océan Indien par les voies de l'Islam". Relations historiques à travers l'océan Indien. Belgique: l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture. p. 28. ISBN 92-3-201740-7. Translated from French to English: Now this holy man - this is the new point (Al Kownayn) - seems to be the same as that which the people of the Maldive Islands, near India, called Barakath Al-Barbari who spread Islam in this region as he did in the Horn of Africa. We only know in which of these two regions he lived first and this prompted him to change sectors of business.The tomb of Sheik Barkhadle (Yusuf Al Kownayn) is in a ruined city called Dhogor, near Hargeisa, in the north of the Democratic Republic of Somalia.
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^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
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^ "Exclusive – Mohamed Nasheed Extended Interview Pt. 2". The Daily Show. Comedy Central. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
^ World Nation (6 April 2012). "Endangered island nations call for global action on climate change". Guilfordian.com.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
^ Ramesh, Randeep (10 November 2008). "Paradise almost lost: Maldives seek to buy a new homeland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
^ Ramesh, Randeep (10 November 2008). "Paradise almost lost: Maldives seek to buy a new homeland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
^ (AFP) – 22 April, "awareness of threats from climate change to low-lying nations such as the Maldives."
^ Lang, Olivia (17 October 2009). "Maldives leader in climate change stunt". BBC News. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
^ "Climate Change Gridlock: Where Do We Go From Here? (Part 1)". Making Contact. National Radio Project. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
^ Evans, Judith (24 April 2015). "Maldives island swamped by rising tide of waste". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
^ "Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity of Maldives" (PDF). Ministry of Housing and Environment. p. 7. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b "Maldives Marine Life". Scubadivemaldives.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "Sharks of the Maldives". TheMaldives.com. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
^ "Regional Workshop on the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Coral Reefs". Fao.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
^ a b "Maldives Nurses Its Coral Reefs Back to Life". Globalcoral.org. 2 May 2004. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
^ "Coral Bleaching Updates". MarineSavers. Marine Savers and Four Seasons Resorts Maldives (2012–2017). Retrieved 12 February 2017.
^ Ducarme, Frédéric (2016). "Field Observations of Sea Cucumbers in Ari Atoll, and Comparison with Two Nearby Atolls in Maldives" (PDF). SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin. 36.
^ "Maldives' VP Hassan Takes Oath as President". Time Magazine. Male, Maldives. Associated Press. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
^ "Maldives crackdown an 'assault on democracy': UN rights chief". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ "Maldives Penal Code" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2013.
^ Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im (2015). "Maldives, Republic of". Islamic Family Law. Emory University School of Law. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Maldives". Foreign.gov.mv. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Davis, Thomas W. D. (2011). Human Rights in Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84844-680-9.
^ Freedom House (2011). "Freedom in the World 2011: Maldives". Freedom House. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (2012). "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011: Maldives". United States Department of State. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
^ Merrick, Jane (7 July 2013). "Britons urged to boycott Maldives over sexist laws". The Independent.
^ "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016.
^ Secretary-General statement on Maldives decision to leave the Commonwealth, 13 October 2016
^ Maldives quits Commonwealth over alleged rights abuses, The Guardian, 13 October 2016
^ "Maldives Atolls". Statoids.com. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
^ a b Divehiraajjege Jōgrafīge Vanavaru. Muhammadu Ibrahim Lutfee
^ Lyon, James (October 2003). Maldives. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-74059-176-8.
^ Hogendorn, Jan and Johnson Marion (1986). The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. African Studies Series 49, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0521541107.
^ "Coup? What coup? Tourists ignore Maldives turmoil". The Age. Melbourne. 13 February 2012.
^ "Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 3 April 2009". Tourism.gov.mv. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
^ "35 years of tourism" (PDF). Retrieved 2 April 2013.
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^ "Census Analysis 2006. Population Projection 2006 – 2050" (PDF). planning.gov.mv. p. 273. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
^ Maldives to recruit more Bangladeshi workers, SATURDAY, 02 AUGUST 2008.
^ Maldives. globalreligiousfutures.org
^ "Conversion of the Maldives to Islam". maldivesstory.com.mv. Archived from the original on 9 May 2003.
^ "Maldives Languages – Languages of Maldives – Language Spoken In Maldives". maldives.tourism-srilanka.com.
^ Marcus, Anthony. 2012. Reconsidering Talaq: Marriage, Divorce and Sharia Reform in the Republic of Maldives in Chitra Raghavan and James Levine. Self-Determination and Women's Rights in Muslim Societies. Lebanon, NH: Brandeis University Press
^ Maldives – Élite Diving Agency. Elitedivingagency.com. Retrieved on 29 January 2014.
^ "The Maldives National University". mnu.edu.mv.
^ "The Maldives National University". mnu.edu.mv.
Divehiraajjege Jōgrafīge Vanavaru. Muhammadu Ibrahim Lutfee. G.Sōsanī. Malé 1999.
H. C. P. Bell, The Maldive Islands, An account of the Physical Features, History, Inhabitants, Productions and Trade. Colombo 1883, ISBN 81-206-1222-1.
H.C.P. Bell, The Maldive Islands; Monograph on the History, Archaeology and Epigraphy. Reprint Colombo 1940. Council for Linguistic and Historical Research. Malé 1989.
H.C.P. Bell, Excerpta Maldiviana. Reprint Colombo 1922/35 edn. Asian Educational Services. New Delhi 1999.
Divehi Tārīkhah Au Alikameh. Divehi Bahāi Tārikhah Khidmaiykurā Qaumī Markazu. Reprint 1958 edn. Malé, Maldives 1990.
Christopher, William (1836–38). Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society, Vol. I. Bombay.
Lieut. I.A. Young & W. Christopher, Memoirs on the Inhabitants of the Maldive Islands.
Geiger, Wilhelm. Maldivian Linguistic Studies. Reprint 1919 edn. Asian Educational Services. Delhi 1999.
Hockly, T.W. The Two Thousand Isles. Reprint 1835 edn. Asian Educational Services. Delhi 2003.
Hideyuki Takahashi, Maldivian National Security –And the Threats of Mercenaries, The Round Table (London), No. 351, July 1999, pp. 433–444.
Malten, Thomas: Malediven und Lakkadiven. Materialien zur Bibliographie der Atolle im Indischen Ozean. Beiträge zur Südasien-Forschung Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg, Nr. 87. Franz Steiner Verlag. Wiesbaden, 1983.
Vilgon, Lars: Maldive and Minicoy Islands Bibliography with the Laccadive Islands. Published by the author. Stockholm, 1994.
Clarence Maloney, People of the Maldive Islands, Orient Black Swan, 2013
Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders : a study of the popular culture of an ancient ocean kingdom, NEI, 1999
Xavier Romero-Frias, Folk Tales of the Maldives, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2012
Djan Sauerborn, The Perils of Rising Fundamentalism in the Maldives, International Relations and Security Network (ISN), Zürich, September 2013
Djan Sauerborn, Failing to Transition: Democratization under Stress in the Maldives, South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF), February 2015External links
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Constitution of the Republic of MaldivesvteMaldives articlesHistory
1952 republic referendum
1968 republic referendum
1988 coup d'état
2003 civil unrest
2005 civil unrest
2011–12 political crisisGeography
Towns and villages
Baa atoll UNESCO biosphere reservePolitics
Articles related to the Maldives Geographic localevteIsland-level constituencies of the MaldivesHaa Alif
MiskiymaguThe capitals of each atoll are in bold.
This list excludes first-level administrative divisions, Malé and Addu cities.
vteFirst-level administrative divisions of the MaldivesAtolls
vteCountries and territories bordering the Indian OceanAfrica
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago - United Kingdom
Christmas Island (Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Australian Antarctic Territory
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
vteCountries bordering the Arabian Sea
vteCountries and dependencies of AsiaSovereign states
East Timor (Timor-Leste)
United Arab Emirates
YemenStates with limited recognition
TaiwanDependencies and specialadministrative regionsAustralia
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsChina
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Indian Ocean Territory
International membershipvteOrganisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)Members
United Arab Emirates
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Moro National Liberation FrontInternationalorganizations
Economic Cooperation Organization
1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".
vteSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)AgreementsSouth Asian Free Trade AreaSummits
New Delhi 1995
New Delhi 2007
Islamabad 2016 (Cancelled)
SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning
SAARC Documentation Centre
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme
Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature
SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry
South Asian Federation of AccountantsRelated Articles
SAARC Secretary General
South Asian University
South Asian Games
SAARC Literary Award
vteWorld Trade OrganizationSystem
Accession and membership
Dispute Settlement Body
International Trade Centre
Chronology of key eventsIssues
Doha Development Round
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Technical Barriers to Trade
Trade Related Investment Measures
Trade in Services
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Roberto Azevêdo (Director-General)
Antigua and Barbuda
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Papua New Guinea
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China".
Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.
List of members of Non-Aligned Movement
India and the Non-Aligned Movement
Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement
Egypt and the Non-Aligned MovementStructureOrganizations
NAM News NetworkPrinciples
Five Principles of Peaceful CoexistenceSummits
Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference
16th Summit of the Non-Aligned MovementFounders
Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)
Jawaharlal Nehru (India)
Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana)
Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)People
vtePortuguese overseas empireNorth Africa
1415–1640 Ceuta 1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir) 1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah) 1471–1662 Tangier 1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1487–16th century Ouadane 1488–1541 Safim (Safi) 1489 Graciosa
1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir) 1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira) 1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima) 1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour) 1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya) 1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)
1455–1633 Anguim 1462–1975 Cape Verde 1470–1975 São Tomé1 1471–1975 Príncipe1 1474–1778 Annobón 1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko) 1482–1637 Elmina (São Jorge da Mina) 1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast 1508–15472 Madagascar3 1498–1540 Mascarene Islands
1500–1630 Malindi 1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique 1502–1659 Saint Helena 1503–1698 Zanzibar 1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa) 1506–1511 Socotra 1557–1578 Accra 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola 1588–1974 Cacheu4 1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)
1645–1888 Ziguinchor 1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá 1687–1974 Bissau418th century
1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa) 1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe19th century
1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea 1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5
1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1753.2 Or 1600.3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.4 Part of Portuguese Guinea from 1879.5 Part of Portuguese Angola from the 1920s.Middle East [Persian Gulf]
1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas) 1507–1643 Sohar 1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus) 1515–1648 Quriyat 1515–? Qalhat 1515–1650 Muscat 1515?–? Barka 1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah) 1521–1602 Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama) 1521–1529? Qatif 1521?–1551? Tarut Island 1550–1551 Qatif 1588–1648 Matrah
1620–? Khor Fakkan 1621?–? As Sib 1621–1622 Qeshm 1623–? Khasab 1623–? Libedia 1624–? Kalba 1624–? Madha 1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn 1624?–? Bandar-e Kong
1498–1545 Laccadive Islands(Lakshadweep)16th century
• 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi) • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur) • 1502–1658 1659–1661 Quilon(Coulão / Kollam) • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima) • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam) • 1510–1961 Goa • 1512–1525 1750 Calicut(Kozhikode) • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat) • 1521–1740 Chaul
(Portuguese India) • 1523–1662 Mylapore • 1528–1666 Chittagong(Porto Grande De Bengala) • 1531–1571 Chaul • 1531–1571 Chalé • 1534–1601 Salsette Island • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai) • 1535 Ponnani • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar) • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur) • 1540–1612 Surat • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi) • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu • 1568–1659 Mangalore
(Portuguese India) • 1579–1632Hugli • 1598–1610Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam) 1518–1521 Maldives 1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1558–1573 Maldives17th century
• 1687–1749 Mylapore18th century
• 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli
East Asia and Oceania
1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia] 1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia] • 1522–1575 Ternate • 1576–1605 Ambon • 1578–1650 Tidore 1512–1665 Makassar 1557–1999 Macau [China] 1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]17th century
1642–1975 Portuguese Timor (East Timor)1
• 1864–1999 Coloane • 1851–1999 Taipa • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde20th century
• 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
1420 Madeira 1432 Azores
16th century [Canada]
1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland) 1500–1579? Labrador 1516–1579? Nova Scotia
South America & Antilles
1500–1822 Brazil • 1534–1549 Captaincy Colonies of Brazil • 1549–1572 Brazil • 1572–1578 Bahia • 1572–1578 Rio de Janeiro • 1578–1607 Brazil • 1621–1815 Brazil 1536–1620 Barbados
1621–1751 Maranhão 1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento18th century
1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão 1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro 1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí
1808–1822 Cisplatina (Uruguay) 1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá) 1822 Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
BNF: cb11932321r (data)
Coordinates: 3°12′N 73°13′E / 3.20°N 73.22°E / 3.20; 73.22
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maldives&oldid=855440179"
Categories: Maldives1965 establishments in AsiaArchipelagoes of the Indian OceanIsland countriesCountries in AsiaCountries of the Indian OceanLandforms of South AsiaMember states of the Organisation of Islamic CooperationMember states of the South Asian Association for Regional CooperationMember states of the United NationsRepublicsSmall Island Developing StatesSouth Asian countriesStates and territories established in 1965Hidden categories: CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownCS1 maint: Uses editors parameterCS1 errors: datesCS1 Arabic-language sources (ar)Use British English from February 2012Use dmy dates from July 2018Articles containing Dhivehi-language textPages using infobox country with unknown parametersPages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parametersArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)Wikipedia articles in need of updating from March 2017All Wikipedia articles in need of updatingAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2017Articles containing Tamil-language textArticles containing Sinhalese-language textArticles containing Old Tamil-language textArticles with unsourced statements from October 2009Articles containing Pali-language textArticles containing Sanskrit-language textArticles containing Malayalam-language textArticles containing Kannada-language textArticles containing Arabic-language textArticles containing Dutch-language textArticles with unsourced statements from May 2016All articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from April 2013Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles needing additional references from October 2016All articles needing additional referencesArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2007Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010Articles needing additional references from April 2012Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013Articles needing additional references from October 2011Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014Articles with Curlie linksWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with NARA identifiersWikipedia articles with NDL identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersCoordinates on Wikidata
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