menhir

Menhir - Wikipedia Menhir From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search "Standing stone" redirects here. For other uses, see Standing stone (disambiguation). Large menhir located between Millstreet and Ballinagree, County Cork, Ireland A menhir (from Brittonic languages: maen or men, "stone" and hir or hîr, "long"[1]), standing stone, orthostat, lith is a large man-made upright stone, typically dating from the European middle Bronze Age. They can be found solely as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Menhirs' size can vary considerably, but they are generally uneven and squared, often tapering towards the top. They are widely distributed across Europe, Africa and Asia, but most numerous in Western Europe; particularly in Ireland, Great Britain, Brittany and France, where there are about 50,000 examples,[2] while there are 1,200 menhirs in northwest France alone.[3] Standing stones are usually difficult to date, but pottery, or pottery shards, found underneath some in Atlantic Europe connects them with the Beaker people. They were constructed during many different periods across pre-history as part of the larger megalithic cultures in Europe and near areas. Some menhirs have been erected next to buildings that often have an early or current religious significance. One example is the South Zeal Menhir in Devon, which formed the basis for a 12th-century monastery built by lay monks. The monastery later became the Oxenham Arms hotel, at South Zeal, and the standing stone remains in place in the ancient snug bar at the hotel. Where menhirs appear in groups, often in a circular, oval, henge or horseshoe formation, they are sometimes called megalithic monuments. These are sites of ancient religious ceremonies, sometimes containing burial chambers.[4] The exact function of menhirs has provoked more debate than practically any other issue in European pre-history. Over the centuries, they have variously been thought to have been used by Druids for human sacrifice, used as territorial markers, or elements of a complex ideological system, or functioned as early calendars.[5] Until the nineteenth century, antiquarians did not have substantial knowledge of prehistory, and their only reference points were provided by classical literature. The developments of radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology have significantly advanced scientific knowledge in this area. The word menhir was adopted from French by 19th-century archaeologists. The introduction of the word into general archaeological usage has been attributed to the 18th-century French military officer Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne.[6] It is a combination of two words of the Breton language: maen and hir. In modern Welsh, they are described as maen hir, or "long stone". In modern Breton, the word peulvan is used, with peul meaning "stake" or "post" and van which is a soft mutation of the word maen which means "stone". Contents 1 History 2 Geographical distribution 3 In popular culture 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links History[edit] The Géant du Manio, a menhir in Carnac, Brittany Almost nothing is known of the social organization or religious beliefs of the people who erected the menhirs. There is not even any trace of these people's language; however we do know that they buried their dead and had the skills to grow cereal, farm and make pottery, stone tools and jewelry. Identifying their uses remains speculative. Until recently, menhirs were associated with the Beaker people, who inhabited Europe during the European late Neolithic and early Bronze Age—later third millennium BC, c. 2800–1800 BC. However, recent research into the age of megaliths in Brittany strongly suggests a far older origin, perhaps back to six to seven thousand years ago.[7]Many menhirs are engraved with megalithic art. This often turned them into anthropomorphic stelae, although images of objects such as stone axes, ploughs, shepherd crooks and yokes were common. With the exception of the stone axe, none of these motifs are definite, and the name used to describe them is largely for convenience. Some menhirs were broken up and incorporated into later passage graves, where they had new megalithic art carved with little regard for the previous pictures. It is not known if this re-use was deliberate or if the passage grave builders just saw menhirs as a convenient source of stone (Le Roux 1992). During the Middle Ages, standing stones were believed to have been built by the giants who lived before the biblical flood. Many of the megaliths were destroyed or defaced by early Christians, but it is estimated that some 50,000 megaliths once stood in Northern Europe, where almost 10,000 now remain.[8] Geographical distribution[edit] Main article: List of Menhirs In popular culture[edit] In the Asterix comic book series, one of the protagonists, Obelix, is a menhir maker and delivery man. See also[edit] ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}]]> Carlin stone Carnac stones Cove (standing stones) Cromlech Deer stone Dolmen Fulacht fiadh Gowk Stone Henge Inuksuk Ley Lines List of megalithic sites Moai Napakivi Nature worship Obelisk Orthostat Statue menhir Stone circle Stone row Stone ship Stone slab Notes[edit] ^ Anon. "Menhir". The Free Dictionary. Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 15 December 2010. ^ Greene, Janice (January 2006). Strange But True Stories. ISBN 1-59905-010-2. Retrieved 25 August 2011. ^ Oliphant, Margaret "The Atlas Of The Ancient World" 1992 p. 81 ^ Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press,2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6) ^ Patton, Mark. "Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany". (New York), Routledge, 1993. P. 4. ^ Landru, Philippe (2008-08-23). "LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE (Théophile Malo Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne : 1743-1800)". Retrieved 2018-01-24. ^ Aviva, Elyn; White, Gary. "Mysterious Megaliths: The Standing Stones of Carnac, Brittany, France". World and I, Vol. 13, October 1998. ^ Olsen, Brad (February 2004). "Carbnac". Sacred Places Around the World: 108 Destinations By Brad Olsen. Consortium of Collective Consciousness. p. 232. ISBN 1-888729-10-4. Retrieved 21 February 2010. References[edit] Le Roux, C. T. 1992. "The Art of Gavrinis Presented in its Armorican Context and in Comparison with Ireland." in Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland vol. 122, pp 79–108. Mohen, Jean-Pierre. 2000. Standing Stones. Stonehenge, Carnac and the World of Megaliths, ‘New Horizons’ series. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-30090-9.External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Menhirs.Dolmens, Menhirs & Stones-Circles in the South of France – Menhirs of the "Cham des Bondons" New Theory – Henges – Engineering in Prehistory Rows of menhirs in Russia, South Ural List of menhirs and their related stories in Czech Republic Ancient Europe Placemarks Google Earth file downloads. Skela menhirs in Ukraine (in Ukrainian)vteNeolithic Europe (including the Chalcolithic)↑ Mesolithic Europe ↑Horizons Cardium pottery Corded Ware culture First Temperate Neolithic Linear Pottery culture (LBK)Cultures Baden Beaker Boian Cernavodă Cerny Chasséen Cortaillod Coțofeni Cucuteni–Trypillia Decea Mureşului Dudești Funnelbeaker Gaudo Globular Amphora Gorneşti Gumelnița–Karanovo Hamangia Horgen Karanovo Lengyel Narva Petreşti Pit–Comb Ware Pitted Ware Pfyn Rössen Seine–Oise–Marne Sesklo Sredny Stog Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș StarčevoKörösCriş Tisza Tiszapolgár Varna Vinča Vučedol Wartberg Windmill HillMonumental architecture Bank barrow Causewayed enclosure Cist Cursus Dolmen Great dolmen Guardian stones Henge Long barrow Megalith Megalithic entrance Menhir Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular dolmen Rondel Round barrow Simple dolmen Statue menhir Stone circle Stone row Timber circle Tor enclosure Unchambered long barrowTechnology Grooved ware Lithic industries Metallurgy Neolithic long house Unstan wareConcepts Danubian culture Secondary products revolution Old Europe Proto-Indo-Europeans↓ Bronze Age Europe ↓ vteEuropean megalithsArmenia Metsamor Zorats KarerAzerbaijan Gobustan RocksBulgaria Beglik Tash GarloFrance Barnenez Tumulus of Bougon Caixa de Rotllan Carnac Menhir de Champ-Dolent Dolmen de Bagneux Broken Menhir of Er Grah Filitosa Gallardet Dolmen Gavrinis Harrespil Kerzerho Locmariaquer megaliths Mane Braz Paddaghju Peyre-Brune Tremeca Verziau of GargantuaGermany Altendorf Denghoog Fraubillen cross Harhoog Lancken-Granitz dolmens Lohra Megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedertiefenbach Oldendorfer Totenstatt Riesenstein Route of Megalithic Culture Sieben Steinhäuser Wotanstein ZüschenIreland Ardgroom Beltany stone circle Bohonagh Brownshill Dolmen Brú na Bóinne Carrigagulla Carrowmore Castlestrange stone Creevykeel Court Tomb Drombeg Gaulstown Portal Tomb Glantane East Grange stone circle High cross Knocknakilla Meehambee Dolmen Piper's Stones Poulnabrone dolmen Reask Templebryan Stone Circle Turoe stone Uragh Stone CircleJersey Jersey Dolmens La Hougue BieMalta Megalithic Temples (Borġ l-Imramma Borġ in-Nadur Buġibba Debdieba Ġgantija Ħaġar Qim Ħal-Ġinwi Kordin Mnajdra Qortin l-Imdawwar Santa Verna Skorba Ta' Ħaġrat Ta' Marżiena Ta' Raddiena Tal-Qadi Tarxien Tas-Silġ Xemxija Xrobb l-Għaġin) Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni Xagħra Stone CircleNetherlands HunebedPoland Brąchnówko Grzybnica Odry WęsioryPortugal Almendres Cromlech Anta Grande do Zambujeiro Cunha Baixa DolmenRussia Dolmens of North Caucasus Thunder Stone Megaliths in the Urals Russian GeoglyphScandinavia Picture stones Runestones Stone circles Stone shipsUkraine Boundary stonesUnited KingdomEngland: Arbor Low Avebury Barbrook One Birkrigg Boscawen-Un Boskednan Brown Willy Cairns The Bull Ring Burnmoor stone circles Castlerigg Craddock Moor Devil's Arrows Doll Tor Drizzlecombe Duloe Fernacre Gardom's Edge Goodaver Grey Wethers Hoarstones Hordron Edge Hurlers Leper Stone Long Meg and Her Daughters Mên-an-Tol The Merry Maidens Mitchell's Fold Nine Ladies Nine Stones, Altarnun Pipers Rollright Rudston Monolith Scorhill Stannon Stanton Drew Stonehenge Stripple Swinside TrippetNorthern Ireland: Aughlish Ballynoe Beaghmore Corick Drumskinny Legananny Giant's RingScotland: Balquhain Callanish I II III IV VIII X Carlin Cat Stane Clach an Trushal Colmeallie Drybridge Easter Aquhorthies Lochmaben Stone Pictish Ring of Brodgar Sheldon Stenness Steinacleit Strichen Yonder BognieWales: Barclodiad y Gawres Bedd Arthur Bedd Taliesin Bodowyr Bryn Cader Faner Bryn Celli Ddu Bryn Gwyn stones Capel Garmon Carreg Coetan Arthur Carreg Samson Coetan Arthur Foel Chwern Llanfechell Lligwy Burial Chamber Maen Llia Maen Madoc Meini Hirion Moel Tŷ Uchaf Parc Cwm long cairn Penrhos Feilw Pentre Ifan St Lythans burial chamber Trefignath Tinkinswood Tŷ Newydd Burial Chamber WhetstonesGeneral articles Standing stone Dolmen Henge Menhir Stone circle Stone row Concentric stone circle Recumbent stone circle Chambered cairn Harrespil Photographs of stone circles Middle Eastern megaliths vtePrehistoric technology Prehistory timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age Technology historyToolsFarming Neolithic Revolution founder crops New World crops Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle TerracingFood processing Fire Basket Cooking Earth oven Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth Aşıklı Höyük Qesem cave Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pitHunting Arrow Boomerang throwing stick Bow and arrow history Nets Spear Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen spearsProjectile points Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowheadSystems Game drive system Buffalo jumpToolmaking Earliest toolmaking Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian culture Hafting Hand axe Grooves Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction analysis debitage flake Lithic technology Magdalenian culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu techniqueOther tools Adze Awl bone Axe Bannerstone Blade prismatic Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe Oar Pesse canoe Chopper tool Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper side Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel illustrationArchitectureCeremonial Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones megalith row Stonehenge PyramidDwellings Neolithic architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut Quiggly hole Jacal Longhouse Mud brick Mehrgarh Neolithic long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house Alp pile dwellings Wattle and daubWater management Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water wellOther architecture Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound fulacht fiadh Causewayed enclosure Tor enclosure Circular enclosure Goseck Cursus Henge Thornborough Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway Sweet TrackArts and cultureMaterial goods Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles timeline Cosmetics Glue Hides shoes Ötzi Jewelry amber use Mirrors Pottery Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware Sewing needle Weaving Wine Winery wine pressPrehistoric Art Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic Blombos Cave List of Stone Age art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved stone balls Cave paintings painting pigment Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art Stone carving Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle list British Isles and Brittany Venus figurinesBurial Burial mounds Bowl barrow Round barrow Mound Builders culture U.S. sites Chamber tomb Cotswold-Severn Cist Dartmoor kistvaens Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen Great dolmen Funeral pyre Gallery grave transepted wedge-shaped Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow unchambered Grønsalen Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairnOther cultural Astronomy sites lunar calendar Behavioral modernity Origin of language trepanning Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology music archaeology Prehistoric music Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use Prehistoric warfare Symbols symbolism Authority control GND: 4140069-0 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Menhir&oldid=864475870" Categories: Megalithic monumentsSacred rocksStone monuments and memorialsStone Age EuropeHidden categories: Use dmy dates from June 2012Articles with Ukrainian-language external linksWikipedia articles with GND identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansالعربيةAragonésAsturianuБеларускаяБългарскиBrezhonegCatalàČeštinaCorsuCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGalego한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiIdoBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaქართულიҚазақшаLietuviųМакедонскиमराठीNederlands日本語Norsk nynorskOccitanPolskiPortuguêsRomânăRuna SimiРусскийScotsSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TürkçeУкраїнськаWalon粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 17 October 2018, at 13:25 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view

For more information about menhir check the Wikipedia article here

ZME Science posts about menhir

The 9 best countries to see mystic megalithic sites

Sat, Oct 3, 2009

0 Comments


Fatal error: Call to undefined function render_post_thumbnail() in /var/sites/z/zmetravel.com/public_html/wp-content/themes/sparkle-childtheme/tag.php on line 69