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Menorca Native name: Menorca Flag of Menorca Menorca Show map of Balearic Islands Menorca Show map of Spain Geography Location Mediterranean Sea Coordinates 39°58′N 4°05′E / 39.967°N 4.083°E / 39.967; 4.083Coordinates: 39°58′N 4°05′E / 39.967°N 4.083°E / 39.967; 4.083 Archipelago Balearic Islands Area 695.7 km2 (268.6 sq mi) Highest elevation 358 m (1,175 ft) Highest point Monte Toro Administration Spain Autonomous Community Balearic Islands Province Balearic Islands Capital and largest city Maó, Spanish Mahón (pop. 29,321) Demographics Population 94,383 (1 January 2010) Pop. density 135.67 /km2 (351.38 /sq mi) Menorca or Minorca (/mɪˈnɔːkə/; Catalan: Menorca [məˈnɔrkə]; Spanish: Menorca [meˈnorka]; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain. Its name derives from its size, contrasting it with nearby Majorca. Menorca has a population of approximately 94,383 (2010). It is located 39°47' to 40°00'N, 3°52' to 4°24'E. Its highest point, called El Toro or Monte Toro, is 358 metres (1,175 feet) above sea level. Contents 1 History 1.1 Jews of Menorca 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 18th century 1.4 Post-1900 2 Climate 3 Culture 3.1 Traditional celebrations 3.2 Sports 4 Language 5 Food and drink 6 Wildlife 6.1 Flowers 6.2 Insects 6.3 Reptiles and amphibians 6.4 Birds 6.5 Mammals 7 Municipalities 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links History[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The island is known for its collection of megalithic stone monuments: navetes, taules and talaiots, which speak of a very early prehistoric human activity. Some of the earliest culture on Menorca was influenced by other Mediterranean cultures, including the Greek Minoans of ancient Crete (see also Gymnesian Islands). For example, the use of inverted plastered timber columns at Knossos is thought to have influenced early peoples of Menorca in imitating this practice.[1] The end of the Punic wars saw an increase in piracy in the western Mediterranean. The Roman occupation of Hispania had meant a growth of maritime trade between the Iberian and Italian peninsulas. Pirates took advantage of the strategic location of the Balearic Islands to raid Roman commerce, using both Menorca and Majorca as bases. In reaction to this, the Romans invaded Menorca. By 123 BC both islands were fully under Roman control, later being incorporated into the province of Hispania Citerior. In 13 BC Roman emperor Augustus reorganised the provincial system and the Balearic Islands became part of the Tarraconensis imperial province. The ancient town of Mago was transformed from a Carthaginian town to a Roman town.[2] Jews of Menorca[edit] Historic map of Minorca by Piri Reis The island had a Jewish population.[3] The Letter on the Conversion of the Jews by a 5th-century bishop named Severus tells of the forced conversion of the island's 540 Jewish men and women in AD 418.[4] Several Jews, including Theodore, a rich representative Jew who stood high in the estimation of his coreligionists and of Christians alike, underwent baptism. The act of conversion brought about, within a previously peaceful coexisting community, the expulsion of the ruling Jewish elite into the bleak hinterlands, the burning of synagogues, and the gradual reinstatement of certain Jewish families after the forced acceptance of Christianity, allowing the survival of those Jewish families who had not already perished.[3] Many Jews remained within the Jewish faith while outwardly professing Christian faith. Some of these Jews form part of the Xueta community. When Menorca became a British possession in 1713, they actively encouraged the immigration of foreign non-Catholics, which included Jews who were not accepted by the predominantly Christian inhabitants. When the Jewish community in Mahon requested the use of a room as a synagogue, their request was refused and they were denounced by the clergy. In 1781, when Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon, duc de Mahon invaded Menorca, he ordered all Jews to leave in four days. At that time, the Jewish community consisted of about 500 people and they were transported from Menorca in four Spanish ships to the port of Marseille.[5] Middle Ages[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Vandals easily conquered the island in the 5th century. The Byzantine Empire recovered it in 534. Following the Moorish conquest of peninsular Spain, Menorca was annexed to the Caliphate of Córdoba in 903 and given the Arabicized name of Manûrqa, with many Moors emigrating to the island. In 1231, after Christian forces reconquered Majorca, Menorca chose to become an independent Islamic state, albeit one tributary to King James I of Aragon. The island was ruled first by Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd Hakam al Qurashi (1234–1282), and following his death by his son, Abû 'Umar ibn Sa'îd (1282–1287). An Aragonese invasion, led by Alfonso III, came on 17 January 1287; its anniversary is now celebrated as Menorca's national day. Some of the Muslim inhabitants of the island were enslaved and sold in the slave markets of Ibiza, Valencia and Barcelona, while others became Christians. Until 1344 the island was part of the Kingdom of Majorca, a vassal state of the Crown of Aragon. Aragon subsequently annexed the kingdom and was then absorbed itself into the unified Spanish crown. During the 16th century, Turkish naval attacks destroyed Mahon, and the then capital, Ciutadella, before Turkish settlement took place on some of the island. In Mahon, Barbary pirates from North Africa took considerable booty and as many as 6,000 slaves.[6] Various Spanish kings, including Philip III and Philip IV, styled themselves "King of Minorca" as a subsidiary title. 18th century[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Battle of Minorca, 1756 Invaded by Britain's Royal Navy in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession, Minorca temporarily became a British possession. Great Britain took possession in 1713, under the terms of Article XI of the Treaty of Utrecht. Under the governorship of General Richard Kane, this period saw the island's capital moved to Port Mahon and a naval base established in that town's harbour. In 1756, during the Seven Years' War, France captured the island after the Siege of Fort St Philip and a failed British relief attempt. Thanks to the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the British returned to the island again following Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War. In 1781, during the American War of Independence, the British were defeated for a second time, in this instance by a combination of French and Spanish forces, and on 5 January 1782 the Spanish regained control of the island, after a long siege of St. Philip's Castle in Port Mahon. On the feast of the Epiphany, as an expression of joy, King Charles III of Spain ordered the viceroys, captains general, governors, and military commanders to bring together the garrisons and to extend his greetings to army commanders on the so-called Pascua Militar. The British ceded the island back to Spain the next year in the Treaty of Versailles. Menorca was invaded by the British once again in 1798, during the French Revolutionary Wars, but it was finally and permanently repossessed by Spain by the terms of the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. The British influence can still be seen in local architecture, with elements such as sash windows. As with the rest of the Balearic Islands, Menorca was not occupied by the French during the Peninsular War, as it was successfully protected by the Royal Navy, this time allied to Spain. Post-1900[edit] During the Spanish Civil War, Menorca stayed loyal to the Republican Spanish Government, while the rest of the Balearic Islands supported the Nationalists. It did not see combat, except for aerial bombing by the Italians of Corpo Truppe Volontarie Air Force. Many Minorcans were also killed when taking part in a failed invasion of Majorca. Also some Majorcans and a priest were executed in Minorca during the Pedro Marqués Barber era (July–December 1936). After Nationalist victory in the Battle of Minorca in February 1939, the British Navy assisted in a peaceful transfer of power in Minorca and the evacuation of some political refugees aboard HMS Devonshire. In October 1993, Minorca was designated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve. In July 2005, the island's application to become the 25th member of the International Island Games Association was approved. Climate[edit] As the major part of Balearic Islands, Menorca has a mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with mild winters and hot summers. Climate data for Mahón – Minorca Airport 91m (1981–2010), Extremes (1965-2017) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 21.6 (70.9) 27.2 (81) 27.7 (81.9) 30.7 (87.3) 34.4 (93.9) 39.6 (103.3) 37.8 (100) 34.5 (94.1) 31.3 (88.3) 25.4 (77.7) 20.8 (69.4) 39.6 (103.3) Mean maximum °C (°F) 17.6 (63.7) 18.0 (64.4) 20.6 (69.1) 22.5 (72.5) 26.5 (79.7) 31.2 (88.2) 33.0 (91.4) 33.2 (91.8) 29.7 (85.5) 26.4 (79.5) 22.4 (72.3) 19.0 (66.2) 34.0 (93.2) Average high °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 14.2 (57.6) 15.9 (60.6) 18.0 (64.4) 21.6 (70.9) 25.8 (78.4) 28.9 (84) 29.2 (84.6) 26.2 (79.2) 22.7 (72.9) 18.1 (64.6) 15.2 (59.4) 20.8 (69.4) Daily mean °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 10.8 (51.4) 12.3 (54.1) 14.3 (57.7) 17.8 (64) 21.8 (71.2) 24.9 (76.8) 25.4 (77.7) 22.6 (72.7) 19.4 (66.9) 14.9 (58.8) 12.1 (53.8) 17.2 (63) Average low °C (°F) 7.5 (45.5) 7.4 (45.3) 8.6 (47.5) 10.6 (51.1) 13.9 (57) 17.8 (64) 20.8 (69.4) 21.5 (70.7) 18.9 (66) 16.1 (61) 11.6 (52.9) 9.0 (48.2) 13.6 (56.5) Mean minimum °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 3.2 (37.8) 4.6 (40.3) 6.6 (43.9) 10.4 (50.7) 13.7 (56.7) 17.4 (63.3) 17.9 (64.2) 15.0 (59) 11.1 (52) 6.8 (44.2) 4.5 (40.1) 2.2 (36) Record low °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) −1.1 (30) −0.1 (31.8) 1.6 (34.9) 6.4 (43.5) 10.2 (50.4) 13.6 (56.5) 13.6 (56.5) 9.4 (48.9) 5.2 (41.4) 2.0 (35.6) −1.0 (30.2) −2.4 (27.7) Average precipitation mm (inches) 52 (2.05) 54 (2.13) 38 (1.5) 45 (1.77) 37 (1.46) 14 (0.55) 3 (0.12) 20 (0.79) 61 (2.4) 78 (3.07) 88 (3.46) 61 (2.4) 546 (21.5) Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7 7 6 6 4 2 1 2 5 7 8 9 64 Mean monthly sunshine hours 144 146 202 222 270 311 347 312 225 183 142 130 2,632 Source #1: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[7] Source #2: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[8] Climate data for Menorca Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average sea temperature °C (°F) 14.6 (58) 13.8 (57) 14.1 (57) 15.7 (60) 18.7 (66) 22.2 (72) 24.4 (76) 25.8 (78) 25.1 (77) 22.9 (73) 20.4 (69) 17.1 (63) 19.4 (67) Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 2 5.3 Source: [9] Source: Weather Atlas [10] Culture[edit] Port de Maó (Mahón) The location of Minorca in the middle of the western Mediterranean was a staging point for the different cultures since prehistoric times. This Balearic Island has a mix of colonial and local architecture. The festes take place throughout the summer in different towns around the island, and have their origins in the early 14th century.[11] The international opera week and international organ festival in Mahon, and the summer music festival and Capella Davidica concerts in Ciutadella are the main events of the island. Minorca's cuisine is dominated by the Mediterranean diet which is known to be very healthy. While many of the locals have adopted modern attitudes they still uphold certain old traditions.[12] Traditional celebrations[edit] Menorquín horse ridden by caixer at festes Minorca is especially well known for its traditional summer fiestas, which intrigue many visitors. The 'Festes de Sant Joan' are held annually in Ciutadella, during 23–25 June. The festes last for three days. On the first day, a man bears a well-groomed sheep upon his shoulders and parades around the local streets. In the late evening, main streets are closed and bonfires held upon them. On the second day, locally bred black horses are dressed with ribbons and rosettes. The riders, or "caixers", ride the horses through the streets and, along with a tumultuous crowd of people, encourage them to rear up on their hind legs. The brave can be found running underneath them in an attempt to touch the horses hearts for good luck.[citation needed] The third day sees intense competition between the riders in a harmless form of jousting that involves spearing a suspended ring with a lance at considerable speed. The festes are brought to a close with a firework display. Sports[edit] As a small island, it is very seldom that there is a chance to see top level sport competitions in Menorca. In football, CF Sporting Mahonés managed to play in Segunda División B, the third level of the Spanish football league system, between 1987–1993 and between 2009–2012. In basketball, Menorca Bàsquet played in the Liga ACB, the first tier level men's professional basketball league in Spain, between 2005–2009 and in 2010–2011. Incidentally, both clubs dissolved in 2012 due to financial problems. In the last years, some sport events that gather hundreds of participants are successfully held on a yearly basis, such as the triathlon race Extreme Man Menorca or the single-staged ultramarathon race Trail Menorca Camí de Cavalls. In 2014 it was announced that the island would host the 18th editions of the Island Games in 2019,[13] however Menorca later pulled out of hosting the event, citing a change of government as the main reason.[14] Language[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The two official languages are Catalan and Spanish.[15] Natives to the island speak the variety of Catalan called Menorquí, and they typically speak Spanish fluently as a second language; many immigrants are monolingual in Spanish. Between Menorquí and standard Catalan proper, as with most Balearic dialects, the most distinctive difference is the different word used for the article "the", where Menorquí uses "es" for masculine and "sa" for feminine. Menorquí thus shares the source of its article with many Sardinian varieties (masc. sing. su, fem sing. sa), rather than the standard Catalan "el" and "la", common to other Romance languages (e.g. Spanish el, la, Italian il, la), corresponding to a form which was historically used along the Costa Brava of Catalonia, from where it is supposed that the islands were repopulated after being conquered from the Moors. Menorquí also has a few English loan words dating back to the British occupation such as "grevi", "xumaquer", "boinder" and "xoc" taken from "gravy", "shoemaker", "bow window" and "chalk", respectively. Food and drink[edit] Bottle of Gin Xoriguer, the typical gin from Menorca. It is very often mixed with lemonade Wine production has been known on the island since ancient times, but it went into a heavy decline over the last century. Now, several new, small wineries have started up, producing wines locally.[16] Lingering British influence is seen in the Menorcans' taste for gin, which during local festes honoring towns' patron saints is mixed with lemonade (or bitter lemon) to make a golden liquid known as Pomada. Gin from Menorca is not derived from grain alcohol but from wine alcohol (eau de vie de vin), making it more akin to brandy. It has the distinction to have geographical identity protection. Probably the best known gin is Gin Xoriguer which is named after the typical Menorcan windmill which was used to make the first gin. One of the reasons it is also known as Gin de Minorca or Gin de Mahón. Also famous is Mahón cheese, a cheese typical of the island. One origin story of mayonnaise is that it was brought back to France from Mahon, Menorca, after Louis-François-Armand du Plessis de Richelieu's victory over the British at the city's port in 1756.[17] Sweets known as flaons are one of the typical gastronomic products of Menorca. Wildlife[edit] Flowers[edit] Menorca is rich in wild flowers with over 900 species of flowering plants recorded. Many are those typical of the Mediterranean but some are endemic. There are 24 or 25 species of orchid found and of these most flower early in the year in late March, April and May. Insects[edit] Cleopatra, Algendar gorge. 30 species of butterflies have been recorded on Menorca and most are on the wing from March to late September. The species that occur include the Cleopatra, Lang's short tailed blue and the two-tailed pasha. Despite not having many large wetlands dragonflies abound on Menorca. Seventeen species have been recorded including the emperor dragonfly. List of butterflies of Menorca List of dragonflies of Menorca Reptiles and amphibians[edit] There are three species of amphibia: green toad (Bufo viridis), marsh frog and stripeless tree frog (Hyla meridionalis). The common lizard seen all over the island is the Italian wall lizard (Podarcis siculus) although the Moroccan rock lizard (Scelaris perspicillata) also occurs. The Balearic endemic Lilford's wall lizard (Podarcis lilfordi) can be found on many of the offshore islands. Two species of gecko can be found on Menorca, the Moorish (Tarentola mauritanica) and the Turkish (Hemidactylus turcicus) also called the Mediterranean house gecko. Four species of snake occur: the viperine snake (Natrix maura), grass snake, false smooth snake (Macroprotodon cucullatus) and the ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris). Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is quite common and can be found all over the island. Two terrapin species are also found, the native European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and the introduced American red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta). Birds[edit] The birdlife of Menorca is very well known. Menorca is a well watched island which is on the migration route of many species and good number of passage migrants can be seen in spring. Residents include Audouin's gull, blue rock thrush and Thekla lark. Booted eagle and red kite are easy to see as is Egyptian vulture in the right habitat. In summer there are bee-eaters and Menorca has major colonies of Cory's shearwater and Balearic shearwater. Mammals[edit] Menorca has no large native mammals. There are some small mammals including rabbits, bats, rats, mice, pine martens and a subspecies of North African hedgehog. Municipalities[edit] Municipal boundaries in Menorca The major towns are Port Mahon and Ciutadella de Menorca. The island is administratively divided into eight municipalities (from west to east): Ciutadella de Menorca (or just Ciutadella locally) – the ancient capital of Menorca until 1722. Ferreries Es Mercadal Fornells, which belongs to the municipality of Es Mercadal. Famous for its lobster stew. Es Migjorn Gran (or Es Mitjorn Gran) – hometown of Joan Riudavets. Alaior Cala En Porter – a tourist and residential area Port Mahon (officially Maó in Catalan, Mahón in Spanish) – became the capital in 1722 during British rule due to its strategic natural harbour. Llucmassanes – a small hamlet which belongs to the municipality of Maó. Sant Climent, which belongs to the municipality of Maó. Es Castell – Founded by the British and originally named as Georgetown. Sant Lluís – Founded by the French and originally named Saint-Louis. The areas and populations of the municipalities (according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Spain) are: Municipality Area (km2) Census Population 1 November 2001 Actual Population 1 January 2010 Ciutadella de Menorca 186.3 23,103 29,247 Ferreries 66.1 4,048 4,620 Es Mercadal 138.3 3,089 5,398 Es Migjorn Gran 31.4 1,167 1,539 Alaior 109.9 7,108 9,399 Port Mahon (Maó) 117.2 23,315 29,050 Es Castell 11.7 6,424 7,926 Sant Lluís 34.8 3,270 7,204 Totals 695.7 71,524 94,383 Gallery[edit] Taula from the site of Talatí de Dalt about 4 km (2 mi) west of Maó. Cales Coves of Menorca. Note the hand-hewn entrances to the caves. Menorcan countryside Cala Trebalúger Martello tower, Alcaufar with Illa de l'aire lighthouse in the distance. Cala Galdana See also[edit] Gymnesian Islands Illa de l'Aire List of butterflies of Menorca List of dragonflies of Menorca Manûrqa Menorca Airport Menorca Sun Roman Catholic Diocese of Menorca References[edit] ^ C. Michael Hogan (2007) Knossos fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian ^ Henry Christmas, The Shores and Islands of the Mediterranean, Published 1851, R. Bentley ^ a b Elukin, Jonathan M. Living Together, Living Apart : Rethinking Jewish-Christian Relations in the Middle Ages. Vol. Jews, Christians, and Muslims from the ancient to the modern world. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007. ^ Bradbury, Scott, ed. trans. (1996). Severus of Minorca: Letter on the Conversion of the Jews (Oxford Early Christian Texts). Oxford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-19-826764-5.  ^ Gregory, Desmond (1990). Minorca, the Illusory Prize: A History of the British Occupations of Minorca between 1708 and 1802. Cranbury, NJ, USA: Associated University Presses, Inc. p. 132. ISBN 0-8386-3389-7.  ^ "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800". Robert Davis (2004). ISBN 1-4039-4551-9. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Minorca / Aeropuerto". November 2015.  ^ "Valores Climatológicos Extremos. Minorca / Aeropuerto". December 2017.  ^ "Menorca Sea Temperature". Retrieved 14 December 2017.  ^ "Menorca, Spain - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 14 December 2017.  ^ Website Oficial Minorca Archived 2 May 2003 at ^ Minorca Culture Information ^ ^ [1] ^ Article 4, Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands, 2007: "The Catalan language, typical of the Balearic Islands, will have official consideration, together with Spanish." ^ Miquel Hudin (2013), Vinologue Minorca, Leavenworth Press, p. 75, ISBN 978-0-983-77187-6  ^ Trager, James (1995). The Food Chronology. New York: Henry Hold and Company. p. 163.  Further reading[edit] Burns, Robert I., (1990) "Muslims in the Thirteenth Century Realms of Aragon: Interaction and Reaction", p. 67, In: Powell, J.M. (ed.) Muslims under Latin Rule, 1100–1300, p. 57–102, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05586-6. Hearl, G., (1996). A Birdwatchers guide to Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. Arlequin Press. pp56. ISBN 1-900159-20-1 Pons, G., (2000). Les papallones diurnes de les balears., pp87. Edicions Documenta Balear, Palma de Mallorca. Carlo Ginzburg, "The Conversion of the Jews of Minorca (A.D. 417–418)," in Idem, Threads and Traces: True False Fictive (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2011) Taylor, David Wilson (1975). Minorca. ISBN 0 7153 6787 0 (Great Britain) ISBN 0 8117 1032 7 (United States) First full account of Minorca in English since John Armstrong's memoirs of 1740. [2] External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Minorca. Find more aboutMinorcaat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity UNESCO's Minorca Biosphere Reserve v t e Municipalities in the Balearic Islands Majorca Alaró Alcúdia Algaida Andratx Ariany Artà Banyalbufar Binissalem Búger Bunyola Calvià Campanet Campos Capdepera Consell Costitx Deià Escorca Esporles Estellencs Felanitx Fornalutx Inca Lloret de Vistalegre Lloseta Llubí Llucmajor Manacor Mancor de la Vall Maria de la Salut Marratxí Montuïri Muro Palma Petra Sa Pobla Pollença Porreres Puigpunyent Ses Salines Sant Joan Sant Llorenç des Cardassar Santa Eugènia Santa Margalida Santa Maria del Camí Santanyí Selva Sencelles Sineu Sóller Son Servera Valldemossa Vilafranca de Bonany Menorca Alaior Es Castell Ciutadella de Menorca Ferreries Mahón Es Mercadal Es Migjorn Gran Sant Lluís Ibiza Ibiza Sant Antoni de Portmany Sant Joan de Labritja Sant Josep de sa Talaia Santa Eulària des Riu Formentera Formentera v t e British Empire Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire Europe 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State North America 17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century 1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven 1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay 1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands 1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 *Dominion of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 *Saint Kitts and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949. South America 1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5 4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982. Africa 17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt 1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia 6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003. Asia 17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century 1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives 1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles) 8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty Oceania 18th and 19th centuries 20th century 1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands 1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12 1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13 9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea. Antarctica and South Atlantic Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand) 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island (1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands). 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For more information about Menorca check the Wikipedia article here

ZME Science posts about Menorca

Enjoying Menorca in a luxury beachfront villa

Mon, Jan 7, 2013


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