Menorca - Wikipedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation
Jump to search
"Minorca" redirects here. For other uses, see Minorca (disambiguation).
MenorcaFlag of MenorcaMenorcaShow map of Balearic IslandsMenorcaShow map of SpainGeographyLocationMediterranean SeaCoordinates39°58′N 4°05′E / 39.967°N 4.083°E / 39.967; 4.083Coordinates: 39°58′N 4°05′E / 39.967°N 4.083°E / 39.967; 4.083ArchipelagoBalearic IslandsArea695.7 km2 (268.6 sq mi)Highest elevation358 m (1,175 ft)Highest pointMonte ToroAdministrationSpainAutonomous CommunityBalearic IslandsProvinceBalearic IslandsCapital and largest cityMaó, Spanish Mahón (pop. 28,161)DemographicsDemonymMenorcanPopulation91,170 (1 January 2017)Pop. density131.05 /km2 (339.42 /sq mi)Menorca or Minorca (/mɪˈnɔːrkə/; Catalan: Menorca [məˈnɔɾkə]; Spanish: Menorca [meˈnoɾka]; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain. Its name derives from its size, contrasting it with nearby Majorca.
Menorca has a population of approximately 91,170 (at 1 January 2017). It is located 39°47' to 40°00'N, 3°52' to 4°24'E. Its highest point, called El Toro or Monte Toro, is 358 metres (1,175 feet) above sea level.
1.1 Jews of Menorca
1.2 Middle Ages
1.3 18th century
3.1 Traditional celebrations
5 Food and drink
6.3 Reptiles and amphibians
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Menorca" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The island is known for its collection of megalithic stone monuments: navetes, taules and talaiots, which indicate very early prehistoric human activity. Some of the earliest culture on Menorca was influenced by other Mediterranean cultures, including the Greek Minoans of ancient Crete (see also Gymnesian Islands). For example, the use of inverted plastered timber columns at Knossos is thought to have influenced early peoples of Menorca in imitating this practice.The end of the Punic wars saw an increase in piracy in the western Mediterranean. The Roman occupation of Hispania had meant a growth of maritime trade between the Iberian and Italian peninsulas. Pirates took advantage of the strategic location of the Balearic Islands to raid Roman commerce, using both Menorca and Majorca as bases. In reaction to this, the Romans invaded Menorca. By 123 BC both islands were fully under Roman control, later being incorporated into the province of Hispania Citerior.
In 13 BC Roman emperor Augustus reorganised the provincial system and the Balearic Islands became part of the Tarraconensis imperial province. The ancient town of Mago was transformed from a Carthaginian town to a Roman town.
Jews of Menorca
Historic map of Minorca by Piri Reis
The island had a Jewish population. The Letter on the Conversion of the Jews by a 5th-century bishop named Severus tells of the forced conversion of the island's 540 Jewish men and women in AD 418. Several Jews, including Theodore, a rich representative Jew who stood high in the estimation of his coreligionists and of Christians alike, underwent baptism. The act of conversion brought about, within a previously peaceful coexisting community, the expulsion of the ruling Jewish elite into the bleak hinterlands, the burning of synagogues, and the gradual reinstatement of certain Jewish families after the forced acceptance of Christianity, allowing the survival of those Jewish families who had not already perished. Many Jews remained within the Jewish faith while outwardly professing Christian faith. Some of these Jews form part of the Xueta community.
When Menorca became a British possession in 1713, they actively encouraged the immigration of foreign non-Catholics, which included Jews who were not accepted by the predominantly Christian inhabitants. When the Jewish community in Mahon requested the use of a room as a synagogue, their request was refused and they were denounced by the clergy. In 1781, when Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon, duc de Mahon invaded Menorca, he ordered all Jews to leave in four days. At that time, the Jewish community consisted of about 500 people and they were transported from Menorca in four Spanish ships to the port of Marseille.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Menorca" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The Vandals easily conquered the island in the 5th century. The Byzantine Empire recovered it in 534. Following the Moorish conquest of peninsular Spain, Menorca was annexed to the Caliphate of Córdoba in 903, with many Moors emigrating to the island.
Manûrqa (Arabic: منورقة) was the Arabicized name given to the island by the Muslims from its annexation to the Caliphate of Cordoba by 'Isâm al-Khawlânî in 903 until the rule of the last Muslim ra'îs, Abû 'Umar ibn Sa'îd in 1287. The only urban centre of the island was Madînat al Jazîra or al Manûrqa (modern Ciutadella). Most of the population lived in small farm communities organized under a tribal structure.
In 1231, after Christian forces took Majorca, Menorca chose to become an independent Islamic state, albeit one tributary to King James I of Aragon. The island was ruled first by Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd Hakam al Qurashi (1234–1282), and following his death by his son, Abû 'Umar ibn Sa'îd (1282–1287).
A Catalan-Aragonese invasion, led by Alfonso III, came on 17 January 1287; its anniversary is now celebrated as Menorca's national day. Once the island was captured, most of its Muslim inhabitants were enslaved and sold in the slave markets of Ibiza, Valencia and Barcelona, while others became Christians. Only one hundred Muslims were allowed to remain on the island.Until 1344 the island was part of the Kingdom of Majorca, a vassal state of the Crown of Aragon. Aragon subsequently annexed the kingdom and was then absorbed itself into the unified Spanish crown. During the 16th century, Turkish naval attacks destroyed Mahon, and the then capital, Ciutadella, before Turkish settlement took place on some of the island. In Mahon, Barbary pirates from North Africa took considerable booty and as many as 6,000 slaves. Various Spanish kings, including Philip III and Philip IV, styled themselves "King of Minorca" as a subsidiary title.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Menorca" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Battle of Minorca, 1756
Invaded by Britain's Royal Navy in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession, Minorca temporarily became a British possession. Great Britain took possession in 1713, under the terms of Article XI of the Treaty of Utrecht. Under the governorship of General Richard Kane, this period saw the island's capital moved to Port Mahon and a naval base established in that town's harbour.
In 1756, during the Seven Years' War, France captured the island after the Siege of Fort St Philip and a failed British relief attempt. Thanks to the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the British returned to the island again following Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War. In 1781, during the American War of Independence, the British were defeated for a second time, in this instance by a combination of French and Spanish forces, and on 5 January 1782 the Spanish regained control of the island, after a long siege of St. Philip's Castle in Port Mahon. On the feast of the Epiphany, as an expression of joy, King Charles III of Spain ordered the viceroys, captains general, governors, and military commanders to bring together the garrisons and to extend his greetings to army commanders on the so-called Pascua Militar. The British ceded the island back to Spain the next year in the Treaty of Versailles. Menorca was invaded by the British once again in 1798, during the French Revolutionary Wars, but it was finally and permanently repossessed by Spain by the terms of the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. The British influence can still be seen in local architecture, with elements such as sash windows.
As with the rest of the Balearic Islands, Menorca was not occupied by the French during the Peninsular War, as it was successfully protected by the Royal Navy, this time allied to Spain.
During the Spanish Civil War, Menorca stayed loyal to the Republican Spanish Government, while the rest of the Balearic Islands supported the Nationalists. It did not see ground combat, however the island was a target of aerial bombing by the pro-Nationalist Italians of Corpo Truppe Volontarie Air Force. Many Minorcans were also killed when taking part in a failed invasion of Majorca. Also some Majorcans and a priest were executed in Minorca during the Pedro Marqués Barber era (July–December 1936). After Nationalist victory in the Battle of Minorca in February 1939, the British Navy assisted in a peaceful transfer of power in Minorca and the evacuation of some political refugees aboard HMS Devonshire.
In October 1993, Minorca was designated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve. In July 2005, the island's application to become the 25th member of the International Island Games Association was approved.
As the major part of Balearic Islands, Menorca has a mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with mild winters and hot summers.
Climate data for Mahón – Minorca Airport 91m (1981–2010), Extremes (1965-2017)
Record high °C (°F)
Mean maximum °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Mean minimum °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Agencia Estatal de MeteorologíaSource #2: Agencia Estatal de MeteorologíaClimate data for Menorca
Average sea temperature °C (°F)
Average Ultraviolet index
Source: seatemperature.org Source: Weather Atlas Culture
Port de Maó (Mahón)
The location of Minorca in the middle of the western Mediterranean was a staging point for the different cultures since prehistoric times. This Balearic Island has a mix of colonial and local architecture.
The festes take place throughout the summer in different towns around the island, and have their origins in the early 14th century. The international opera week and international organ festival in Mahon, and the summer music festival and Capella Davidica concerts in Ciutadella are the main events of the island.
Minorca's cuisine is dominated by the Mediterranean diet which is known to be very healthy. While many of the locals have adopted modern attitudes they still uphold certain old traditions.
Menorquín horse ridden by caixer at festes
Minorca is especially well known for its traditional summer fiestas, which intrigue many visitors. The Festes de Sant Joan are held annually in Ciutadella de Menorca, during 23–25 June. The festes last for three days. On the first day, a man bears a well-groomed sheep upon his shoulders and parades around the local streets. In the late evening, main streets are closed and bonfires held upon them.
On the second day, locally bred black horses are dressed with ribbons and rosettes. The riders, or "caixers", ride the horses through the streets and, along with a tumultuous crowd of people, encourage them to rear up on their hind legs. The brave can be found running underneath them in an attempt to touch the horses hearts for good luck.The third day sees intense competition between the riders in a harmless form of jousting that involves spearing a suspended ring with a lance at considerable speed. The festes are brought to a close with a firework display.
As a small island, it is very seldom that there is a chance to see top level sport competitions in Menorca. In football, CF Sporting Mahonés managed to play in Segunda División B, the third level of the Spanish football league system, between 1987–1993 and between 2009–2012. In basketball, Menorca Bàsquet played in the Liga ACB, the first tier level men's professional basketball league in Spain, between 2005–2009 and in 2010–2011. Incidentally, both clubs dissolved in 2012 due to financial problems.
In the last years, some sport events that gather hundreds of participants are successfully held on a yearly basis, such as the triathlon race Extreme Man Menorca or the single-staged ultramarathon race Trail Menorca Camí de Cavalls. In 2014 it was announced that the island would host the 18th editions of the Island Games in 2019, however Menorca later pulled out of hosting the event, citing a change of government as the main reason.
The two official languages are Catalan and Spanish. Natives to the island speak the variety of Catalan called Menorquí, and they typically speak Spanish fluently as a second language; many residents originating from the mainland are monolingual in Spanish.
A 2014 survey carried out by the Government of the Balearic Islands found that 53.5% of participants identified themselves as Catalan speakers, 36.7% as Spanish speakers, and 7.7% as bilingual speakers.The Catalan spoken in Menorca is a variety known as Menorquí. Between Menorquí and standard Catalan, as with most Balearic dialects, the most distinctive difference is the different word used for the article "the", where Menorquí uses "es" for masculine and "sa" for feminine. Menorquí thus shares the source of its article with many Sardinian varieties (masc. sing. su, fem sing. sa), rather than the standard Catalan "el" and "la", similar to other Romance languages (e.g. Spanish el, la, Italian il, la), corresponding to a form which was historically used along the Costa Brava of Catalonia, from where it is supposed that the islands were repopulated after being conquered from the Moors.
Menorquí also has a few English loan words dating back to the British rule such as "grevi", "xumaquer", "boinder" and "xoc" taken from "gravy", "shoemaker", "bow window" and "chalk", respectively.
Food and drink
Bottle of Gin Xoriguer, the typical gin from Menorca. It is very often mixed with lemonade
Wine production has been known on the island since ancient times, but it went into a heavy decline over the last century. Now, several new, small wineries have started up, producing wines locally.Lingering British influence is seen in the Menorcans' taste for gin, which during local festes honoring towns' patron saints is mixed with lemonade (or bitter lemon) to make a golden liquid known as Pomada. Gin from Menorca is not derived from grain alcohol but from wine alcohol (eau de vie de vin), making it more akin to brandy. It has the distinction to have geographical identity protection. Probably the best known gin is Gin Xoriguer which is named after the typical Menorcan windmill which was used to make the first gin. One of the reasons it is also known as Gin de Minorca or Gin de Mahón.
Also famous is Mahón cheese, a cheese typical of the island.
One origin story of mayonnaise is that it was brought back to France from Mahon, Menorca, after Louis-François-Armand du Plessis de Richelieu's victory over the British at the city's port in 1756.Sweets known as flaons are one of the typical gastronomic products of Menorca.
Menorca is rich in wild flowers with over 900 species of flowering plants recorded. Many are those typical of the Mediterranean but some are endemic. There are 24 or 25 species of orchid found and of these most flower early in the year in late March, April and May.
Cleopatra, Algendar gorge.
30 species of butterflies have been recorded on Menorca and most are on the wing from March to late September. The species that occur include the Cleopatra, Lang's short tailed blue and the two-tailed pasha.
Despite not having many large wetlands dragonflies abound on Menorca. Seventeen species have been recorded including the emperor dragonfly.
List of butterflies of Menorca
List of dragonflies of MenorcaReptiles and amphibians
There are three species of amphibia: green toad (Bufo viridis), marsh frog and stripeless tree frog (Hyla meridionalis).
The common lizard seen all over the island is the Italian wall lizard (Podarcis siculus) although the Moroccan rock lizard (Scelaris perspicillata) also occurs. The Balearic endemic Lilford's wall lizard (Podarcis lilfordi) can be found on many of the offshore islands. Two species of gecko can be found on Menorca, the Moorish (Tarentola mauritanica) and the Turkish (Hemidactylus turcicus) also called the Mediterranean house gecko.
Four species of snake occur: the viperine snake (Natrix maura), grass snake, false smooth snake (Macroprotodon cucullatus) and the ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris).
Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is quite common and can be found all over the island. Two terrapin species are also found, the native European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and the introduced American red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta).
The birdlife of Menorca is very well known. Menorca is a well watched island which is on the migration route of many species and good number of passage migrants can be seen in spring. Residents include Audouin's gull, blue rock thrush and Thekla lark. Booted eagle and red kite are easy to see as is Egyptian vulture in the right habitat. In summer there are bee-eaters and Menorca has major colonies of Cory's shearwater and Balearic shearwater.
Menorca has no large native mammals. There are some small mammals including rabbits, bats, rats, mice, pine martens and a subspecies of North African hedgehog.
Municipal boundaries in Menorca
The major towns are Port Mahon and Ciutadella de Menorca. The island is administratively divided into eight municipalities (from west to east):
Ciutadella de Menorca (or just Ciutadella locally) – the ancient capital of Menorca until 1722.
Fornells, which belongs to the municipality of Es Mercadal. Famous for its lobster stew.
Es Migjorn Gran (or Es Mitjorn Gran) – hometown of Joan Riudavets.
Cala En Porter – a tourist and residential area
Port Mahon (officially Maó in Catalan, Mahón in Spanish) – became the capital in 1722 during British rule due to its strategic natural harbour.
Llucmassanes – a small hamlet which belongs to the municipality of Maó.
Sant Climent, which belongs to the municipality of Maó.
Es Castell – Founded by the British and originally named as Georgetown.
Sant Lluís – Founded by the French and originally named Saint-Louis.The areas and populations of the municipalities (according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Spain) are:
Census Population 1 November 2001
Census Population 1 November 2011
Estimated Population 1 January 2017
Ciutadella de Menorca
Es Migjorn Gran
Port Mahon (Maó)
Taula from the site of Talatí de Dalt about 4 km (2 mi) west of Maó.
Cales Coves of Menorca. Note the hand-hewn entrances to the caves.
Martello tower, Alcaufar with Illa de l'aire lighthouse in the distance.
Arenal d'en Castell
Illa de l'Aire
List of butterflies of Menorca
List of dragonflies of Menorca
Roman Catholic Diocese of MenorcaReferences
^ C. Michael Hogan (2007) Knossos fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian
^ Henry Christmas, The Shores and Islands of the Mediterranean, Published 1851, R. Bentley
^ a b Elukin, Jonathan M. Living Together, Living Apart : Rethinking Jewish-Christian Relations in the Middle Ages. Vol. Jews, Christians, and Muslims from the ancient to the modern world. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007.
^ Bradbury, Scott, ed. trans. (1996). Severus of Minorca: Letter on the Conversion of the Jews (Oxford Early Christian Texts). Oxford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-19-826764-5.
^ Gregory, Desmond (1990). Minorca, the Illusory Prize: A History of the British Occupations of Minorca between 1708 and 1802. Cranbury, NJ, USA: Associated University Presses, Inc. p. 132. ISBN 0-8386-3389-7.
^ "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800". Robert Davis (2004). ISBN 1-4039-4551-9.
^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Minorca / Aeropuerto". November 2015.
^ "Valores Climatológicos Extremos. Minorca / Aeropuerto". December 2017.
^ "Menorca Sea Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
^ "Menorca, Spain - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
^ Website Oficial Minorca Archived 2 May 2003 at Archive.today
^ "Minorca Geography - Information, climate and weather in Minorca". www.minorca.com.
^ "Island Games: Menorca pull out of hosting 2019 event". 6 July 2015 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
^ Article 4, Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands, 2007: "The Catalan language, typical of the Balearic Islands, will have official consideration, together with Spanish."
^ Diario de Ibiza: Las Pitiusas son las islas de Balears en las que menos se conoce y se usa el catalán (In Spanish)
^ Menorquin English words.
^ Miquel Hudin (2013), Vinologue Minorca, Leavenworth Press, p. 75, ISBN 978-0-983-77187-6
^ Trager, James (1995). The Food Chronology. New York: Henry Hold and Company. p. 163.
Burns, Robert I., (1990) "Muslims in the Thirteenth Century Realms of Aragon: Interaction and Reaction", p. 67, In: Powell, J.M. (ed.) Muslims under Latin Rule, 1100–1300, p. 57–102, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05586-6.
Fernandez-Arnesto, F. Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic 1229-1492; Mac Millan, 1987. p. 36.* Hearl, G., (1996). A Birdwatchers guide to Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. Arlequin Press. pp56. ISBN 1-900159-20-1
Carlo Ginzburg, "The Conversion of the Jews of Minorca (A.D. 417–418)," in Idem, Threads and Traces: True False Fictive (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2011)
Moll Mercadal, B. Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd ibn Hakam, Ra'îs de Manûrqa (631/1234-680/1289) Publicacions des Born nº5. 1999
Pons, G., (2000). Les papallones diurnes de les balears., pp87. Edicions Documenta Balear, Palma de Mallorca.
Taylor, David Wilson (1975). Minorca. ISBN 0 7153 6787 0 (Great Britain) ISBN 0 8117 1032 7 (United States) First full account of Minorca in English since John Armstrong's memoirs of 1740. External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Menorca.
Minorcaat Wikipedia's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Resources from Wikiversity
UNESCO's Minorca Biosphere Reserve
Manûrqa's society at the Ecomuseum Cap de Cavalleria of MenorcavteMunicipalities in the Balearic IslandsMallorca
Lloret de Vistalegre
Mancor de la Vall
Maria de la Salut
Sant Llorenç des Cardassar
Santa Maria del Camí
Vilafranca de BonanyMenorca
Ciutadella de Menorca
Es Migjorn Gran
Sant Antoni de Portmany
Sant Joan de Labritja
Sant Josep de sa Talaia
Santa Eulària des RiuFormentera
vte British Empire (1583–1997)
* Now a Commonwealth realm
Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Historical flags of the British EmpireEurope
1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK)
1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca
Since 1713 Gibraltar
1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate)
1813–1964 Malta (Colony)
1809–1864 Ionian Islands
1921–1931 Irish Free StateNorth America17th century and before18th century19th and 20th century
1579 New Albion
1605–1979 *Saint Lucia
Since 1619 Bermuda
1623–1883 Saint Kitts
1625–1650 Saint Croix
1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
since 1632 Montserrat
1636–1776 Rhode Island
1637–1662 New Haven
1643–1860 Bay Islands
Since 1650 Anguilla
1655–1850 Mosquito Coast
1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New-Jersey
Since 1666 Virgin Islands
Since 1670 Cayman Islands
1670–1870 Rupert's Land
1671–1816 Leeward Islands
1674–1702 East Jersey
1674–1702 West Jersey
1680–1776 New Hampshire
1686–1689 New England
1754–1820 Cape Breton Island
1763–1873 Prince Edward Island
1763–1783 East Florida
1763–1783 West Florida
1784–1867 New Brunswick
1791–1841 Lower Canada
1791–1841 Upper Canada
Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands
1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1
1833–1960 Windward Islands
1833–1960 Leeward Islands
1849–1866 Vancouver Island
1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands
1858–1866 British Columbia
1859–1870 North-Western Territory
1860–1981 *British Antigua and Barbuda
1866–1871 British Columbia
1867–1931 *Dominion of Canada2
1882–1983 *Saint Kitts and Nevis
1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago
1958–1962 West Indies Federation
1967–1983 West Indies Associated States
1. Occupied jointly with the United States.
2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada.
3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.South America
1631–1641 Providence Island
1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4
Since 1833 Falkland Islands5
Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5
4. Now a department of Colombia.
5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982.Africa17th and 18th centuries19th century20th century
Since 1658 Saint Helena14
1792–1961 Sierra Leone
1795–1803 Cape Colony
Since 1815 Ascension Island14
Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14
1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope
1816–1965 The Gambia
1874–1957 Gold Coast
1884–1900 Niger Coast
1891–1907 Central Africa
1895–1920 East Africa
1900–1914 Northern Nigeria
1900–1914 Southern Nigeria
1900–1910 Orange River
1910–1931 South Africa
1915–1931 South-West Africa
1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7
1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia
6. League of Nations mandate.
7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.Asia17th and 18th century19th century20th century
1702–1705 Pulo Condore
1762–1764 Manila and Cavite
1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang
1812–1824 Banka and Billiton
1826–1946 Straits Settlements
1841–1997 Hong Kong
1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate)
1882–1963 North Borneo
1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States
1891–1971 Muscat and Oman
1892–1971 Trucial States
1895–1946 Federated Malay States
1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate)
1945–1946 South Vietnam
1946–1963 North Borneo
1946–1948 Malayan Union
1948–1957 Federation of Malaya
Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus)
Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi TreatyOceania18th and 19th centuries20th century
1788–1901 New South Wales
1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania
1807–1863 Auckland Islands9
1824–1980 New Hebrides
1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia
1836–1901 South Australia
since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
1841–1907 New Zealand
1846-1847 North Australia
1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories
1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9
1889–1948 Union Islands9
1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11
1893–1978 Solomon Islands12
1907–1947 *New Zealand
1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru
1919–1949 New Guinea
1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13
9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand.
10. Suspended member.
11. Now Kiribati and *Tuvalu.
12. Now the *Solomon Islands.
13. Now *Papua New Guinea.Antarctica and South Atlantic
Since 1658 Saint Helena14
Since 1815 Ascension Island14
Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14
Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15
1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia)
1841–1947 Ross Dependency (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)
14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island (1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena.
15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).
BNF: cb119732415 (data)
WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 126106244
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Menorca&oldid=884107223"
Categories: MenorcaBiosphere reserves of SpainFormer British colonies and protectorates in EuropeIslands of the Balearic Islands1708 establishments in the British EmpireHidden categories: Webarchive template archiveis linksCoordinates on WikidataArticles containing Catalan-language textArticles containing Spanish-language textArticles needing additional references from January 2017All articles needing additional referencesArticles needing additional references from November 2017Articles containing Arabic-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2018Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016Commons category link is on WikidataWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiersWikipedia articles with NARA identifiersWikipedia articles with NKC identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiersUse dmy dates from August 2010
Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in
Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store
HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page
What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page
Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version
In other projects
AfrikaansالعربيةAragonésAsturianuБеларускаяBikol CentralБългарскиBrezhonegCatalàCebuanoČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGàidhligGalego한국어ՀայերենHornjoserbsceBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתქართულიLadinoLatinaLatviešuLietuviųMagyarМакедонскиमराठीBahasa MelayuNederlands日本語NorskNorsk nynorskOccitanPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSarduScotsSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaСрпски / srpskiSuomiSvenskaTagalogไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng ViệtWinaray中文 Edit links
This page was last edited on 19 February 2019, at 15:49 (UTC).
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;
For more information about Menorca check the Wikipedia article here
ZME Science posts about Menorca