Munich - Wikipedia
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For other uses of "Munich" or "München", see Munich (disambiguation).
in Bavaria, Germany
From top: Marienplatz with Neues Rathaus and Frauenkirche in the background,Nymphenburg Palace, Englischer Garten, Maximilianeum, Feldherrnhalle and Allianz Arena
FlagCoat of arms
Coordinates: 48°08′N 11°34′E / 48.133°N 11.567°E / 48.133; 11.567Coordinates: 48°08′N 11°34′E / 48.133°N 11.567°E / 48.133; 11.567Country
Upper Bavaria District
Berg am Laim
1158Government • Lord Mayor
Dieter Reiter (SPD) • Governing parties
SPD / CSUArea • City
310.43 km2 (119.86 sq mi)Elevation
520 m (1,710 ft)Population (2016-12-31) • City
1,464,301 • Density
4,700/km2 (12,000/sq mi) • Urban
CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)Postal codes
www.muenchen.de Mariensäule at Marienplatz
Aerial view of Munich
Alps behind the skyline of Munich
Munich (/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen);Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and the 12th largest city in the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million. The Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 6 million people.The city is a major centre of art, technology, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism in Germany and Europe and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, and being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015[update].The name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich strongly resisted the Counter-Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science. In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared.
In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP. The first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were heavily bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics. The 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, and population growth. The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz and MunichRE.
Munich is home to many universities, museums and theatres. Its numerous architectural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany. It is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest population density in Germany (4,500 people per km²) . Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, making up 37.7% of its population.
1.1 Origin as medieval town
1.2 Capital of reunited Bavaria
1.3 World War I to World War II
6.1 Inner city
6.2 Royal avenues and squares
6.3 Other boroughs
7.3 Ice hockey
7.5 Road Running
7.7 River surfing
8.3 Arts and literature
8.4 Hofbräuhaus and Oktoberfest
8.5 Culinary specialities
8.6 Beers and breweries
9.1 Colleges and universities
9.2 Primary and secondary schools
10 Scientific research institutions
10.1 Max Planck Society
10.2 Fraunhofer Society
10.3 Other research institutes
11.4 Top 10 largest companies in Munich (2016)
12.1 Munich International Airport
12.2 Other airports
12.3 München Hauptbahnhof
12.4 Public transportation
12.4.1 Munich Public Transportation Statistics
12.5 Individual transportation
13 Around Munich
13.1 Nearby towns
14 International relations
15 Famous people
15.1 Born in Munich
15.2 Notable residents
16 See also
18 External links
Main articles: History of Munich and Timeline of Munich
Munich city large coat of arms
Origin as medieval town
Munich in the 16th century
Plan of Munich in 1642
The first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document. The document was signed in Augsburg. By then, the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route.
In 1175, Munich received city status and fortification. In 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, and Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. (Wittelsbach's heirs, the Wittelsbach dynasty, ruled Bavaria until 1918.) In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria.
Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468.
Capital of reunited Bavaria
Marienplatz, Munich about 1650
Banners with the colours of Munich (left) and Bavaria (right) with the Frauenkirche in the background
When Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court (see Orlando di Lasso and Heinrich Schütz). During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, and also of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reformation, and also built the Hofbräuhaus for brewing brown beer in 1589.
The Catholic League was founded in Munich in 1609.
In 1623, during the Thirty Years' War, Munich became electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity, but in 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden. When the bubonic plague broke out in 1634 and 1635, about one third of the population died. Under the regency of the Bavarian electors, Munich was an important centre of baroque life, but also had to suffer under Habsburg occupations in 1704 and 1742.
In 1806, the city became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria, with the state's parliament (the Landtag) and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising being located in the city. Twenty years later, Landshut University was moved to Munich. Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the first three Bavarian kings. Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings. On the other hand, Ludwig II, known the world over as the fairytale king, was mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside. Nevertheless, his patronage of Richard Wagner secured his posthumous reputation, as do his castles, which still generate significant tourist income for Bavaria. Later, Prince Regent Luitpold's years as regent were marked by tremendous artistic and cultural activity in Munich, enhancing its status as a cultural force of global importance (see Franz von Stuck and Der Blaue Reiter).
World War I to World War II
Unrest during the Beer Hall Putsch
Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, life in Munich became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany led to food and fuel shortages. During French air raids in 1916, three bombs fell on Munich.
After World War I, the city was at the centre of substantial political unrest. In November 1918 on the eve of German revolution, Ludwig III and his family fled the city. After the murder of the first republican premier of Bavaria Kurt Eisner in February 1919 by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, the Bavarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. When Communists took power, Lenin, who had lived in Munich some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was ended on 3 May 1919 by the Freikorps. While the republican government had been restored, Munich became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists soon rose to prominence.
Bombing damage to the Altstadt. Note the roofless and pockmarked Altes Rathaus looking up the Tal. The roofless Heilig-Geist-Kirche is on the right of the photo. Its spire, without the copper top, is behind the church. The Talbruck gate tower is missing completely.
In 1923, Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power. The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in 1933. The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau, 16 kilometres (9.9 miles) north-west of the city. Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("Capital of the Movement"). The NSDAP headquarters were in Munich and many Führerbauten ("Führer-buildings") were built around the Königsplatz, some of which still survive.
The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement by Britain and France leading up to World War II. It was in Munich that British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain assented to the annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region into Greater Germany in the hopes of sating the desires of Hitler's Third Reich.
Munich was the base of the White Rose, a student resistance movement from June 1942 to February 1943. The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.
The city was heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II by 71 air raids over five years.
After US occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid. In 1957, Munich's population surpassed 1 million. The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt ("secret capital") in the decades after World War II.
Munich was the site of the 1972 Summer Olympics, during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian fedayeen in the Munich massacre, when gunmen from the Palestinian "Black September" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.
Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide – a 2011 survey ranked Munich as 4th. The same company also ranks Munich as the 39th most expensive in the world and most expensive major city in Germany. Munich enjoys a thriving economy, driven by the information technology, biotechnology, and publishing sectors. Environmental pollution is low, although as of 2006[update] the city council is concerned about levels of particulate matter (PM), especially along the city's major thoroughfares. Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution. Today, the crime rate is low compared with other large German cities, such as Hamburg or Berlin. For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown" among the English-speaking residents. German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people". Due to the high standard of living in and the thriving economy of the city and the region, there was an influx of people and Munich's population surpassed 1.5 million by June 2015, an increase of more than 20% in 10 years.
The inner city (2013).
Munich: View from the Englischer Garten
Munich lies on the elevated plains of Upper Bavaria, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the northern edge of the Alps, at an altitude of about 520 m (1,706 ft) ASL. The local rivers are the Isar and the Würm.
Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills. Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich.
Munich's city climate lies between the humid continental climate (Köppen classification: Dfb) and the oceanic climate (Köppen classification: Cfb).
The city centre lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate. The warmest month, on average, is July. The coolest is January.
Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer. The most precipitation occurs in June, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February.
The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany. The Alps affect the city's climate in other ways too; for example, the warm downhill wind from the Alps (föhn wind), which can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours even in the winter.
Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps.
At Munich's official weather station, the highest and lowest temperatures ever measured are 37 °C (99 °F), on 13 August 2003, and −31.6 °C (−24.9 °F), on 12 February 1929.
Climate data for Munich City 1981–2010 (extremes 1954–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Data derived from "CDC (Climate Data Center)". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
Source #2: Extremes: "Monatsauswertung". sklima.de (in German). SKlima. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
Climate data for Munich Airport (1971–2000)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: "Munich". World Weather Information Service. World Meteorological Organisation. June 2011.
Source #2: "Climate Munich – Germany". climatedata.eu. Climate Data. "Muenchen-Flughafen, Germany". Climate-Charts.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
Main article: Population growth of Munich
Historical populationYearPop.±%150013,447— 160021,943+63.2%175032,000+45.8%1880230,023+618.8%1890349,024+51.7%1900499,932+43.2%1910596,467+19.3%1920666,000+11.7%1930728,900+9.4%1940834,500+14.5%1950823,892−1.3%19601,055,457+28.1%19701,311,978+24.3%19801,298,941−1.0%19901,229,026−5.4%20001,210,223−1.5%20051,259,584+4.1%20101,353,186+7.4%20111,364,920+0.9%20121,388,308+1.7%20131,402,455+1.0%20151,450,381+3.4%From only 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was 100,000 in 1852, 250,000 in 1883 and 500,000 in 1901. Since then, Munich has become Germany's third largest city. In 1933, 840,901 inhabitants were counted, and in 1957 over 1 million.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)In July 2017, Munich had 1.42 million inhabitants; 421,832 foreign nations resided in the city as of 31.12.2017 with 50.7% of these residents being citizens of EU member states, and 25.2% citizens in European states not in the EU (including Russia and Turkey). The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (39,204), Croats (33,177), Italians (27,340), Greeks (27,117), Polish (27,945), Austrians (21,944), and Romanians (18,085).
The largest foreign resident groups by 31.12.2017
Bosnia and Herzegovina
About 45% of Munich's residents are not affiliated with any religious group, this ratio represents the fastest growing segment of the population. As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership. As of 31 December 2017, 31.8% of the city's inhabitants were Roman Catholic, 11.4% Protestant, 0.3% Jewish , and 3.6% were members of an Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodox or Oriental Orthodox). About 1% adhere to other Christian denominations. There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city.
Bavarian State Chancellery
Munich's current mayor is Dieter Reiter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Munich has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since 1948. This is atypical because Bavaria – and particularly southern Bavaria – has long been identified with conservative politics, with the Christian Social Union gaining absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since 1946. Bavaria's second most populous city, Nuremberg, is also one of the very few Bavarian cities governed by an SPD-led coalition.
As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament, the Staatskanzlei (the State Chancellery) and of all state departments.
Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany and the European Patent Office.
Main article: Boroughs of Munich
Since the administrative reform in 1992, Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke, which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters.
Allach-Untermenzing (23), Altstadt-Lehel (1), Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied (22), Au-Haidhausen (5), Berg am Laim (14), Bogenhausen (13), Feldmoching-Hasenbergl (24), Hadern (20), Laim (25), Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (2), Maxvorstadt (3), Milbertshofen-Am Hart (11), Moosach (10), Neuhausen-Nymphenburg (9), Obergiesing (17), Pasing-Obermenzing (21), Ramersdorf-Perlach (16), Schwabing-Freimann (12), Schwabing-West (4), Schwanthalerhöhe (8), Sendling (6), Sendling-Westpark (7), Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln (19), Trudering-Riem (15) and Untergiesing-Harlaching (18).
Main article: Architecture of Munich
The New Town Hall and Marienplatz
Viktualienmarkt with the Altes Rathaus
The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built. A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over 100 historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich 30th.
At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz – a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column in its centre – with the Old and the New Town Hall. Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive – the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city. The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus, a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast (Palace of Justice) and a fountain.
The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city. It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in 1158. Nearby St. Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Spirit) was converted to baroque style from 1724 onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt, the most popular market of Munich.
The Frauenkirche is the best known building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture. Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. Other baroque churches in the inner city include the Bürgersaalkirche, the Dreifaltigkeitskirche, the St. Anna Damenstiftskirche and St. Anna im Lehel, the first rococo church in Bavaria. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam, pioneering artists of the rococo period.
The large Residenz palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury and the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia, the Palais Preysing, the Palais Holnstein and the Prinz-Carl-Palais. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.
Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved (and in parts excellently reconstructed) townhouses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes. St. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich.
Royal avenues and squares
Ludwigstraße from above, Highlight Towers in the background
Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with magnificent official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs:
The neoclassical Brienner Straße, starting at Odeonsplatz on the northern fringe of the Old Town close to the Residenz, runs from east to west and opens into the impressive Königsplatz, designed with the "Doric" Propyläen, the "Ionic" Glyptothek and the "Corinthian" State Museum of Classical Art, on its back side St. Boniface's Abbey was erected. The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal, Munich's gallery and museum quarter (as described below).
Ludwigstraße also begins at Odeonsplatz and runs from south to north, skirting the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, the St. Louis church, the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces. The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture. The
Siegestor (gate of victory) sits at the northern end of Ludwigstraße, where the latter passes over into Leopoldstraße and the district of Schwabing begins.
The neo-Gothic Maximilianstraße starts at Max-Joseph-Platz, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east. The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus, the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology. After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum, home of the state parliament. The western portion of Maximilianstraße is known for its designer shops, luxury boutiques, jewellery stores, and one of Munich's foremost five-star hotels, the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten.
Prinzregentenstraße runs parallel to Maximilianstraße and begins at Prinz-Carl-Palais. Many museums can be found along the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst, the Bavarian National Museum and the Schackgalerie. The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument, then passing the Villa Stuck and Hitler's old apartment. The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.
Building in Schwabing
In Schwabing and Maxvorstadt, many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit buildings can be found. Rows of elegant town houses and spectacular urban palais in many colours, often elaborately decorated with ornamental details on their façades, make up large parts of the areas west of Leopoldstraße (Schwabing's main shopping street), while in the eastern areas between Leopoldstraße and Englischer Garten similar buildings alternate with almost rural-looking houses and whimsical mini-castles, often decorated with small towers. Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century. The wealthy district of Bogenhausen in the east of Munich is another little-known area (at least among tourists) rich in extravagant architecture, especially around Prinzregentenstraße. One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is Villa Stuck, famed residence of painter Franz von Stuck.
Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Schloss Nymphenburg (Nymphenburg Palace), some 6 km (4 mi) north west of the city centre, is surrounded by an impressive park and is considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful royal residences. 2 km (1 mi) northwest of Nymphenburg Palace is Schloss Blutenburg (Blutenburg Castle), an old ducal country seat with a late-Gothic palace church. Schloss Fürstenried (Fürstenried Palace), a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich. The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim (Schleissheim Palace), located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim, a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim (the old palace), Neues Schloss Schleissheim (the new palace) and Schloss Lustheim (Lustheim Palace). Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. The
Bavaria statue before the neo-classical
Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese. The Grünwald castle is the only medieval castle in the Munich area which still exists.
St Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs. Another church of Johann Michael Fischer is St George in Bogenhausen. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco. Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps. Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus, the Arabella High-Rise Building, the Highlight Towers, Uptown Munich, Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters next to the Olympic Park. Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums (as described below).
In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne, a former US army base, near Stadelheim Prison.
Hofgarten with the dome of the state chancellery near the Residenz
Munich is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks. The Englischer Garten, close to the city centre and covering an area of 3.7 km2 (1.4 sq mi) (larger than Central Park in New York), is one of the world's largest urban public parks. It contains a famous nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. It is considered the "green lung" of Munich and one of the city's best-loved features. It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson, Count of Rumford, for both pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless. Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches (along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach), which get crowded in summer. In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: it has lots of old trees, thick undergrowth, winding streams, hidden meadows and is pervaded by numerous romantic pathways. Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.
Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark, Westpark, and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace (with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg to the north), and Schleissheim Palace. The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten, near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten, founded in 1780 for deer, which still live there.
The city's zoo is the Tierpark Hellabrunn near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city. Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad, the largest waterpark in Munich.
Main article: Sports in Munich
Allianz Arena, the home stadium of Bayern Munich
Olympiasee in Olympiapark, Munich
Main article: Football in Munich
Munich is home to several professional football teams including Bayern Munich, Germany's most successful club and a multiple UEFA Champions League winner. Other notable clubs include 1860 Munich, who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but at the moment play in the Regionalliga Bayern (4th tier) due to a relegation on financial grounds; and former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching now playing in the 3. Liga.
FC Bayern Munich Basketball is currently playing in the Beko Basket Bundesliga. The city hosted the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1993, where the German national basketball team won the gold medal.
The city's ice hockey club is EHC Munich.
Munich hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, where the Munich Massacre took place. It was one of the host cities for the 2006 Football World Cup, which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium, but in a new football specific stadium, the Allianz Arena. Munich bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, but lost to Pyeongchang. In September 2011 the DOSB President Thomas Bach confirmed that Munich would bid again for the Winter Olympics in the future.
Regular annual road running events in Munich are the Munich Marathon in October, the Stadtlauf end of June, the company run B2Run in July, the New Year's Run on 31 December, the Spartan Race Sprint, the Olympia Alm Crosslauf and the Bestzeitenmarathon.
Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools and eight outdoor swimming pools, which are operated by the Munich City Utilities (SWM) communal company. Popular indoor swimming pools include the Olympia Schwimmhalle of the 1972 Summer Olympics, the wave pool Cosimawellenbad, as well as the Müllersches Volksbad which was built in 1901. Further, swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See or the Langwieder lake district.
Surfer on the Eisbach river wave.
Munich has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year. Half a kilometre down the river, there is a second, easier wave for beginners, the so-called Kleine Eisbachwelle. Two further surf spots within the city are located along the river Isar, the wave in the Floßlände channel and a wave downstream of the Wittelsbacherbrücke bridge.
Main article: Bavarian dialects
The Bavarian dialects are spoken in and around Munich, with its variety West Middle Bavarian or Old Bavarian (Westmittelbairisch / Altbairisch). Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government, yet is recognised by the SIL and has its own ISO-639 code.
Bavarian National Museum
The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of palaeontology, geology, mineralogy,zoology, botany and anthropology.
The city has several important art galleries, most of which can be found in the Kunstareal, including the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst. Alte Pinakothek's monolithic structure contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two sprawling floors. Major displays include Albrecht Dürer's Christ-like Self-Portrait, his Four Apostles, Raphael's paintings The Canigiani Holy Family and Madonna Tempi as well as Peter Paul Rubens two-story-high Judgment Day. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. Before World War I, the Blaue Reiter group of artists worked in Munich. Many of their works can now be seen at the Lenbachhaus.
An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek and the Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Antiquities Collection). King Ludwig I managed to acquire such famous pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina for the Glyptothek. Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum.
The famous gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.
Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: the Museum Five Continents in Maximilianstraße is the second largest collection in Germany of artefacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Prinzregentenstraße rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings.
The former Dachau concentration camp is 16 km (10 mi) outside the city.
Arts and literature
Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso, W.A. Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger and Carl Orff. With the Munich Biennale founded by Hans Werner Henze, and the A*DEvantgarde festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre. Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich by native composers, for example Richard Strauss's famous tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra or Carl Orff's Carmina Burana.
The Nationaltheater, where several of Richard Wagner's operas had their premieres under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria, is the home of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Next door, the modern Residenz Theatre was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre before World War II. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's Idomeneo in 1781. The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the Prinzregententheater, has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy.
The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. Many important conductors have been attracted by the city's orchestras, including Felix Weingartner, Hans Pfitzner, Hans Rosbaud, Hans Knappertsbusch, Sergiu Celibidache, James Levine, Christian Thielemann, Lorin Maazel, Rafael Kubelík, Eugen Jochum, Sir Colin Davis, Mariss Jansons, Bruno Walter, Georg Solti, Zubin Mehta and Kent Nagano. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater. It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances.
The Golden Friedensengel
Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: the city has had a strong music scene in the 1960s and 1970s, with many internationally renowned bands and musicians frequently performing in its clubs. Furthermore, Munich was the centre of Krautrock in southern Germany, with many important bands such as Amon Düül II, Embryo or Popol Vuh hailing from the city. In the 1970s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with famous bands such as the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there. Munich also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder, who invented synth disco and electronic dance music, and Donna Summer, one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city. In the late 1990s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here. Other examples of notable musicians and bands from Munich are Konstantin Wecker, Willy Astor, Spider Murphy Gang, Münchener Freiheit, Lou Bega, Megaherz, FSK, Colour Haze and Sportfreunde Stiller.
Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz. This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day.
Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world. Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Henrik Ibsen and Hugo von Hofmannsthal.
The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz.
Vassily Kandinskys Houses in Munich (1908)
At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing, was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there. For example, Wassily Kandinsky chose Munich over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing at that time, had a profound influence on modern art.
Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called Prinzregentenzeit (literally "prince regent's time") under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich and Bavaria as a whole. Among them were luminaries such as Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Paul Heyse, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ludwig Thoma, Fanny zu Reventlow, Oskar Panizza, Gustav Meyrink, Max Halbe, Erich Mühsam and Frank Wedekind. For a short while, even Vladimir Lenin lived in Schwabing, where he wrote and published his most important work, What Is to Be Done? Central to Schwabing's bohemian scene (although they were actually often located in the nearby Maxvorstadt quarter) were Künstlerlokale (artist's cafés) like Café Stefanie or Kabarett Simpl, whose liberal ways differed fundamentally from Munich's more traditional localities. The Simpl, which survives to this day (although with little relevance to the city's contemporary art scene), was named after Munich's famous anti-authoritarian satirical magazine Simplicissimus, founded in 1896 by Albert Langen and Thomas Theodor Heine, which quickly became an important organ of the Schwabinger Bohème. Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.
Portrait of Oskar Maria Graf by Georg Schrimpf (1927)
The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: "München leuchtete" (literally "Munich shone"). Munich remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period, with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht, Peter Paul Althaus, Stefan George, Ricarda Huch, Joachim Ringelnatz, Oskar Maria Graf, Annette Kolb, Ernst Toller, Hugo Ball and Klaus Mann adding to the already established big names. Karl Valentin was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown. Between 1910 and 1940, he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt, who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches. After World War II, Munich soon again became a focal point of the German literary scene and remains so to this day, with writers as diverse as Wolfgang Koeppen, Erich Kästner, Eugen Roth, Alfred Andersch, Elfriede Jelinek, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Michael Ende, Franz Xaver Kroetz, Gerhard Polt, John Vincent Palatine and Patrick Süskind calling the city their home.
From the Gothic to the Baroque era, the fine arts were represented in Munich by artists like Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, Johann Baptist Straub, Ignaz Günther, Hans Krumpper, Ludwig von Schwanthaler, Cosmas Damian Asam, Egid Quirin Asam, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Michael Fischer and François de Cuvilliés.
Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann, Lovis Corinth, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach, Franz von Stuck, Karl Piloty and Wilhelm Leibl when Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in 1911. The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke and Alfred Kubin. Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing.
Munich was (and in some cases, still is) home to many of the most important authors of the New German Cinema movement, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Edgar Reitz and Herbert Achternbusch. In 1971, the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history. Munich served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them Ali: Fear Eats the Soul. The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the 1920s.
Logo of Bavaria Film
In 1919, the Bavaria Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's biggest film studios. Famous directors like Alfred Hitchcock, Billy Wilder, Orson Welles, John Huston, Ingmar Bergman, Stanley Kubrick, Claude Chabrol, Fritz Umgelter, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wolfgang Petersen and Wim Wenders made films there. Among the internationally well-known films produced at the studios are The Pleasure Garden by Alfred Hitchcock, The Great Escape by John Sturges, Paths of Glory by Stanley Kubrick, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory by Mel Stuart and both Das Boot and The Neverending Story by Wolfgang Petersen. To this day, Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry.
Hofbräuhaus and Oktoberfest
Main article: Oktoberfest
The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl, arguably the most famous beer hall worldwide, is located in the city centre. It also operates the second largest tent at the Oktoberfest, one of Munich's most famous attractions. For two weeks, the Oktoberfest attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents ("Bierzelte") and fairground attractions. The Oktoberfest was first held on 12 October 1810 in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest. Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October (Tag der deutschen Einheit, i. e., "Day of German Unity") is a Monday or Tuesday – then the Oktoberfest remains open for these days.
Weißwürste with sweet mustard and a pretzel
The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. Münchner Weißwurst ('white sausage') was invented here in 1857. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon – a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators – these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.
Beers and breweries
Augustiner brewery in Munich
Munich is famous for its breweries and the Weissbier (or Weißbier / Weizenbier, wheat beer) is a speciality from Bavaria. Helles, a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it's not old (only introduced in 1895) and is the result of a change in beer tastes. Helles has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkles, which gets its colour from roasted malt. It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but today it is more of a speciality. Starkbier is the strongest Munich beer, containing 6%–9% alcohol. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and popular during the Lenten Starkbierzeit (strong beer season), which begins on or before St. Joseph's Day (19 March). The beer served at Oktoberfest is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles.
Beer garden in Munich
There are countless Wirtshäuser (traditional Bavarian ale houses/restaurants) all over the city area, many of which also have small outside areas. Biergärten (beer gardens) are the most famous and popular fixtures of Munich's gastronomic landscape. They are central to the city's culture and serve as a kind of melting pot for members of all walks of life, for locals, expatriates and tourists alike. It is allowed to bring one's own food to a beer garden, however, it is forbidden to bring one's own drinks. There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least one thousand seats, with four of the most famous and popular in the Englischer Garten: Chinesischer Turm (Munich's second largest beer garden with 7,000 seats), Seehaus, Hirschau and Aumeister. Among locals, connoisseurs and well-informed tourists, Augustiner-Keller, near Hauptbahnhof (central station) at Arnulfstraße, is one of the most popular beer gardens in the city, since it is the only one in which Munich's most popular beer, Augustiner, is drawn from wooden barrels. Nockherberg, Hofbräukeller (not to be confused with the Hofbräuhaus) and Löwenbräukeller are other famous beer gardens. Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8,000 seats.
There are six main breweries in Munich:
Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu (separate brands Spaten and Franziskaner, the latter of which mainly for Weissbier)Also popular, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are especially Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse, the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich just as the Munich breweries do. Smaller breweries are becoming more prevalent in Munich, such as Giesinger Bräu. However, these breweries do not have tents at Oktoberfest.
Viktualienmarkt from above
The Viktualienmarkt is Munich's most popular market for fresh food and delicatessen. A very old feature of Munich's Fasching (carnival) is the dance of the Marktfrauen (market women) of the Viktualienmarkt in comical costumes.
The Auer Dult is held three times a year on the square around Mariahilf church and is one of Munich's oldest markets, well known for its hardware, trinkets and antiques.
Three weeks before Christmas, the Christkindlmarkt opens at Marienplatz and other squares in the city, selling Christmas goods.
Nightclub in Munich (Harry Klein)
Nightlife in Munich is located mostly in the city centre (Altstadt-Lehel) and the boroughs Maxvorstadt, Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt, Au-Haidhausen and Schwabing. Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane (party banana), a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.3 kilometres (0.8 miles) along Sonnenstraße, characterised by a high concentration of clubs, bars and restaurants. In recent years, the Feierbanane has become the mainstream focus of Munich's nightlife and tends to get quite crowded, especially on weekends. It also has sparked some debate among city officials regarding alcohol-related security issues and the party zone's general impact on local residents as well as day-time businesses.
Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt's two main quarters, Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, are both considered decidedly less mainstream than most other nightlife hotspots in the city and are renowned for their many hip and laid back bars and clubs as well as for being Munich's main centres of gay culture. On warm spring or summer nights, hundreds of young people can be seen gathering at Gärtnerplatz, where they lay down in the grass to relax, talk with friends and drink beer, occupying most of the square's available space in the process.
Maxvorstadt has many smaller bars that are especially popular with university students, whereas Schwabing, once Munich's first and foremost party district with legendary clubs such as Big Apple, PN, Domicile, Hot Club, Piper Club, Tiffany, Germany's first large-scale disco Blow Up and the underwater nightclub Yellow Submarine, as well as many bars such as Schwabinger 7 or Schwabinger Podium, has lost much of its nightlife activity in the last decades, mainly due to gentrification and the resulting high rents. It has become the city's most coveted and expensive residential district, attracting affluent citizens with little interest in partying.
Since the mid-1990s, the Kunstpark Ost and its successor Kultfabrik, a former industrial complex that was converted to a large party area near München Ostbahnhof in Berg am Laim, hosted more than 30 clubs and was especially popular among younger people and residents of the metropolitan area surrounding Munich. The Kultfabrik was closed at the end of the year 2015 to convert the area into a residential and office area. Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen. Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport.
Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and some survive only a few months, while others last many years. Beyond the already mentioned venues of the 1960s and 1970s, nightclubs with international recognition in recent history included Tanzlokal Größenwahn, Atomic Cafe, Ultraschall, KW – Das Heizkraftwerk, Natraj Temple and Babalu Bar. From 1995 to 2001, Munich was also home to the Union Move, one of the largest technoparades in Germany.
Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, both part of the Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt district. Freddie Mercury had an apartment near the Gärtnerplatz and transsexual icon Romy Haag had a club in the city centre for many years.
Munich has more than 100 night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits.
Kronebau at night
Some notable nightclubs are: popular techno clubs are MMA Club (Mixed Munich Arts), Blitz Club, Harry Klein, Rote Sonne, Bahnwärter Thiel, Bob Beaman, Pimpernel, Charlie and Palais. Popular mixed music clubs are Call me Drella, Cord, Wannda Circus, Tonhalle, Backstage, Muffathalle, Ampere, Pacha, P1, Minna Thiel and the party ship Alte Utting. Some notable bars (pubs are located all over the city) are Charles Schumann's Cocktail Bar, Havana Club, Sehnsucht, Bar Centrale, Ksar, Holy Home, Eat the Rich, Negroni, Die Goldene Bar and Bei Otto (a bavarian-style pub).
The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe. It was the first and still is one of only a few in Western Europe to also occupy a building of its own.
Colleges and universities
Main building of the LMU
Main building of the Technical University
University of Applied Sciences (HM)
TU Munich's Garching Campus
Academy of Fine Arts Munich
University of Television and Film
Munich is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1901 to Theodor Hänsch in 2005. Munich has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were protected at the emperor's court. The Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) and the Technische Universität München (TU or TUM), were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title elite university by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states (Länder). Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe (now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in 2006.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), founded in 1472 in Ingolstadt, moved to Munich in 1826
Technical University of Munich (TUM), founded in 1868
Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, founded in 1808
Bundeswehr University Munich, founded in 1973 (located in Neubiberg)
Deutsche Journalistenschule, founded in 1959
Bayerische Akademie für Außenwirtschaft, founded in 1989
Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, founded in 1830
International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences
International School of Management
Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München, founded in 1971
Munich Business School (MBS), founded in 1991
Munich Intellectual Property Law Center (MIPLC)
Munich School of Philosophy, founded in 1925 in Pullach, moved to Munich in 1971
Munich School of Political Science
Munich University of Applied Sciences (HM), founded in 1971
New European College, founded in 2014
Pionierschule und Fachschule des Heeres für Bautechnik
Ukrainian Free University, founded in 1921 (from 1945 – in Munich)
University of Television and Film Munich (Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film), founded in 1966
Globe Business College MunichPrimary and secondary schools
Grundschule in Munich:
Grundschule an der Gebelestraße
Grund- und Mittelschule an der Hochstraße
Grundschule an der Stuntzstraße
Grundschule Gertrud Bäumer Straße
Grundschule an der Südlichen AuffahrtsalleeGymnasiums in Munich:
Edith-Stein-Gymnasium der Erzdiözese München und Freising
Wittelsbacher GymnasiumRealschule in Munich:
Maria Ward Mädchenrealschule
Isar Realschule München
Städtische Hermann-Frieb RealschuleInternational schools in Munich:
Lycée Jean Renoir (French school)
Japanische Internationale Schule München
Bavarian International School
Munich International School
European School, MunichScientific research institutions
Fraunhofer Headquarters in Munich
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society, an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area:
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching
Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law, München
Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law, München
Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Andechs-Erling (Biological Rhythms and Behaviour), Radolfzell, Seewiesen (Reproductive Biology and Behaviour)
Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner Heisenberg Institute), München
Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (also in Greifswald)
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, München
Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, München (closed)
Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, GarchingFraunhofer Society
The Fraunhofer Society, the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area:
Applied and Integrated Security – AISEC
Embedded Systems and Communication - ESK
Modular Solid-State Technologies - EMFT
Building Physics – IBP
Process Engineering and Packaging – IVVOther research institutes
European Southern Observatory's headquarter in Garching
Botanische Staatssammlung München, a notable herbarium
CESifo, theoretical and applied research in economics and finance
European Southern Observatory
Helmholtz Zentrum München
Zoologische Staatssammlung MünchenEconomy
BMW Headquarters building (one of the few buildings that has been built from the top to the bottom) and the bowl shaped BMW museum
Siemens-Forum in Munich
The HypoVereinsbank tower
Munich has the strongest economy of any German city and the lowest unemployment rate (3.0% in June 2014) of any German city of more than a million people (the others being Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne). The city is also the economic centre of southern Germany. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February 2005 for the economic prospects between 2002 and 2011 in 60 German cities.
Munich is a financial centre and a global city and holds the headquarters of many headquarters including more listed by the DAX than any other German city, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as McDonald's and Microsoft.
Munich holds the headquarters of Siemens AG (electronics), BMW (car), MAN AG (truck manufacturer, engineering), Linde (gases) and Rohde & Schwarz (electronics). Among German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, purchasing power is highest in Munich (€26,648 per inhabitant) as of 2007[update]. In 2006, Munich blue-collar workers enjoyed an average hourly wage of €18.62 (ca. $20).The breakdown by cities proper (not metropolitan areas) of Global 500 cities listed Munich in 8th position in 2009. Munich is also a centre for biotechnology, software and other service industries. Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the aircraft engine manufacturer MTU Aero Engines, the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei, the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri, the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies (headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg), lighting giant Osram, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.
Munich has significance as a financial centre (second only to Frankfurt), being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz (insurance) and Munich Re (re-insurance).
Munich is the largest publishing city in Europe and home to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, one of Germany's largest daily newspapers. The city is also the location of the programming headquarters of Germany's largest public broadcasting network, ARD, while the largest commercial network, Pro7-Sat1 Media AG, is headquartered in the suburb of Unterföhring. The headquarters of the German branch of Random House, the world's largest publishing house, and of Burda publishing group are also in Munich.
The Bavaria Film Studios are located in the suburb of Grünwald. They are one of Europe's biggest and most famous film production studios.
Top 10 largest companies in Munich (2016)
Munich located employeesBMW
Technische Universität München
The trade fair transport logistic is held every two years at the Neue Messe München (Messe München International).
Munich International Airport
Munich International Airport (MUC)
Franz Josef Strauss International Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM) is the second-largest airport in Germany and seventh-largest in Europe after London Heathrow, Paris Charle de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Madrid and Istanbul Atatürk. It is used by about 34 million passengers a year, and lies some 30 km (19 mi) north east of the city centre. It replaced the smaller Munich-Riem airport in 1992. The airport can be reached by suburban train lines S8 from the east and S1 from the west of the city. From the main railway station the journey takes 40–45 minutes. An express train will be added that will cut down travel time to 20–25 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks. A magnetic levitation train (called Transrapid), which was to have run at speeds of up to 400 km/h (249 mph) from the central station to the airport in a travel time of 10 minutes, had been approved, but was cancelled in March 2008 because of cost escalation and after heavy protests.Lufthansa opened its second hub at the airport when Terminal 2 was opened in 2003.
In 2008, the Bavarian state government granted a license to expand Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use. These plans were opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area as well as other branches of local Government, including the city of Munich, which took the case to court. However, in October 2009, the permit allowing up to 9725 business flights per year to depart from or land at Oberpfaffenhofen was confirmed by a regional judge.Despite being 110 km (68 mi) from Munich, Memmingen Airport has been advertised as Airport Munich West. After 2005, passenger traffic of nearby Augsburg Airport was relocated to Munich Airport, leaving the Augsburg region of Bavaria without an air passenger airport within close reach.
Main article: München Hauptbahnhof
Munich main railway station
München Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station located in the city centre. The first Munich station was built about 800 metres to the west in 1839. A station at the current site was opened in 1849 and it has been rebuilt numerous times, including to replace the main station building, which was badly damaged during World War II.
München Hauptbahnhof is one of the three long distance stations in Munich, the others being München Ost (to the east) and München-Pasing (to the west). All three are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs. München Hauptbahnhof sees about 450,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in Germany, such as Hamburg Hauptbahnhof and Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof. It and München Ost are two of the 21 stations in Germany classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 1 station. The mainline station is a terminal station with 32 platforms. The subterranean S-Bahn with 2 platforms and U-Bahn stations with 6 platforms are through stations.ICE highspeed trains stop at Munich-Pasing and Munich-Hauptbahnhof only. InterCity and EuroCity trains to destinations east of Munich also stop at Munich East. Since 28 May 2006 Munich has been connected to Nuremberg via Ingolstadt by the 300 km/h (186 mph) Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway line.
Public transport network
Westfriedhof platform of the Munich U-Bahn
Munich's S-Bahn at the Marienplatz station
For its urban population of 2.6 million people, Munich and its closest suburbs have one of the most comprehensive in the world, incorporating the Munich U-Bahn (underground railway), the Munich S-Bahn (suburban trains), trams and buses. The system is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund GmbH). The Munich tramway is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since 1876. Munich also has an extensive network of bus lines.
The extensive network of subway and tram lines assist and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. The 700m-long Kaufinger Straße, which starts near the Main train station, forms a pedestrian east-west spine that traverses almost the entire centre. Similarly, Weinstraße leads off northwards to the Hofgarten. These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike. The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes result from applying the principle of "filtered permability", which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths, which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip (see image). The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid.
Munich Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Munich, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 56 min. 11% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 10 min, while 6% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.2 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Munich motorway network
Munich is an integral part of the motorway network of southern Germany. Motorways from Stuttgart (W), Nuremberg, Frankfurt and Berlin (N), Deggendorf and Passau (E), Salzburg and Innsbruck (SE), Garmisch Partenkirchen (S) and Lindau (SW) terminate at Munich, allowing direct access to the different parts of Germany, Austria and Italy.
Traffic, however, is often very heavy in and around Munich. Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour as well as at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany. There are few "green waves" or roundabouts, and the city's prosperity often causes an abundance of obstructive construction sites. Other contributing factors are the extraordinarily high rates of car ownership per capita (multiple times that of Berlin), the city's historically grown and largely preserved centralised urban structure, which leads to a very high concentration of traffic in specific areas, and sometimes poor planning (for example bad traffic light synchronisation and a less than ideal ring road).
Main article: Cycling in Munich
Cycling has a strong presence in the city and is recognised as a good alternative to motorised transport. The growing number of bicycle lanes are widely used throughout the year. Munich cyclists have a reputation for being quite daring or even careless, being frequently seen as a nuisance by drivers, especially when their numbers multiply in the warmer months. Cycle paths can be found alongside the majority of sidewalks and streets, although the newer and/or renovated ones are much easier to tell apart from pavements than older ones. The cycle paths usually involve a longer route than by the road, as they are diverted around objects, and the presence of pedestrians can make them quite slow.
A modern bike hire system is available within the area bounded by the Mittlerer Ring.
The Munich agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Alpine foothills comprising about 2.6 million inhabitants. Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau, Freising, Erding, Starnberg, Landshut and Moosburg are today part of the Greater Munich Region, formed by Munich and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich Metropolitan Region, which has a population of about 6 million people.
Wasserburg am Inn
South of Munich, there are numerous nearby freshwater lakes such as Lake Starnberg, Ammersee, Chiemsee, Walchensee, Kochelsee, Tegernsee, Schliersee, Simssee, Staffelsee, Wörthsee, Kirchsee and the Osterseen (Easter Lakes), which are popular among the people of Munich for recreation, swimming and watersports and can be quickly reached by car and a few also by Munich's S-Bahn.
Plaque in the Neues Rathaus (New City Hall) showing Munich's twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Munich is twinned with the following cities (date of agreement shown in parentheses).
Edinburgh, United Kingdom (1954)
Verona, Italy (1960)
Bordeaux, France (1964)
Sapporo, Japan (1972)
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (1989)
Kiev, Ukraine (1989)
Harare, Zimbabwe (1996)
See also: List of honorary citizens of Munich
Born in Munich
Herbert Achternbusch, born in 1938, film director
Percy Adlon, born in 1935, film director
Briana Banks, born in 1978, porn actress
Moritz Bleibtreu, born in 1971, actor
Gedeon Burkhard, born in 1969, actor
Andy Fetscher, born in 1980, film director, cinematographer and screenplay writer
Therese Giehse, 1898–1975, actress
Michael Haneke, born in 1942, filmmaker and writer
Werner Herzog, born in 1942, film director
Curd Jürgens, 1915–1982, actor
Max Neal, 1865–1941, dramatist
Uschi Obermaier, born in 1946, sex symbol of the late sixties
Lola Randl, born in 1980, film director and screenwriter
Wolfgang Reitherman, 1909–1985, animator and director of Disney movies
Jeri Ryan, actress, born in 1968
Julia Stegner, born in 1984, top model
Karl Valentin, 1882–1948, comedian, author and film producer
Fritz Wepper, born in 1941, actor
Nico Liersch, born in 2000, actor
Willy Bogner, born in 1942, fashion designer and director of photography
Rudolph Moshammer, 1940–2005, fashion designer
Lou Bega, born in 1975, singer-songwriter
Harold Faltermeyer, born in 1952, composer and record producer
Joey Heindle, born in 1993, DSDS participant in season 9.
Lubomyr Melnyk, born in 1948, composer and pianist
Nick Menza, born in 1968, Megadeth drummer
Brent Mydland, born in 1952, Grateful Dead keyboardist
Charles Oberthür, 1819–1895, composer
Carl Orff, 1895–1982, composer
Wolfgang Sawallisch, 1923–2013, conductor and pianist
Ralph Siegel, born in 1945, composer
Sportfreunde Stiller, popular German rock band
Richard Strauss, 1864–1949, composer
Nobel Prize laureates
Eduard Buchner, 1860–1917, chemist and Nobel Prize winner
Ernst Otto Fischer, 1918–2007, chemist and Nobel Prize winner
Robert Huber, born in 1937, chemist and Nobel Prize winner
Wassily Leontief, 1905–1999, economist and Nobel Prize winner
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, 1911–1979, biochemist and Nobel Prize winner
Rudolf Mössbauer, 1929–2011, physicist and Nobel Prize winner
Arno Allan Penzias, born in 1933, physicist and Nobel Prize winner
Elisabeth of Bavaria, 1837–1898, Empress "Sisi" of Austria
Isabeau of Bavaria, 1371–1435, queen-consort of France
Ludwig II the Dream King, at Nymphenburg
Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein, born in 1967
Franz Marc, 1880–1916, painter
Karl von Piloty, 1826–1886, painter
Carl Amery, 1922–2005, writer, President of the German PEN Center and founding member of the German Green Party
Leon Feuchtwanger, 1884–1958, writer
Heinrich Himmler, 1900–1945, leading member of the Nazi Party, main perpetrator of the Holocaust
Dr. Carljörg Lacherbauer, 1902–1967, co-founder of Christian Social Union (CSU), Post-war mayor and secretary of the Department of Justice
Heinrich Müller, 1900–1945, chief of the Gestapo
Franz Josef Strauss, 1915–1988, Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria
Franz Beckenbauer, born in 1945, former footballer and honorary president of Bayern Munich
Korbinian Holzer, born in 1988, ice hockey player who currently plays in the NHL for the Toronto Maple Leafs
Fabian Johnson, born in 1987, German born soccer player who plays for Borussia Monchengladbach and the United States National Team
Philipp Lahm, born in 1983, footballer who played for Bayern Munich
Christoph Schubert, born in 1982, Ice hockey Player who currently plays in the NHL for the Winnipeg Jets
Frank Shorter, born 1947, champion distance runner
Lion Feuchtwanger, 1884-1958, writer
Golo Mann, 1909–1994, writer
Klaus Mann, 1906–1949, writer
Eugen Roth, 1895–1976, writer
Simran Sethi, born in 1970, environmental journalist
Angie Westhoff, born in 1965, children's author
Andreas Baader, 1943–1977, Red Army Faction leader
Eva Braun, 1912–1945, Adolf Hitler's mistress and later wife
Adolf Abraham Halevi Fraenkel, 1891–1965, mathematician
Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, 1789–1849, inventor of the Gabelsberger shorthand writing system
Jean Baptiste Holzmayer, 1839–1890, teacher, archaeologist and folklorist
Traudl Humps, 1920–2002, Adolf Hitler's personal secretary during the Second World War
Dr. E. Lee Spence, born in 1947, pioneer underwater archaeologist and shipwreck historianNotable residents
Max Emanuel Ainmiller painter
Pope Benedict XVI, born Joseph Ratzinger, former Archbishop of Munich-Freising
Gudrun Burwitz, daughter of Heinrich Himmler
Manfred Eicher, record producer and founder of ECM Records
Albert Einstein, 1879–1955, Nobel Prize–winning physicist, grew up in Munich
Hans Magnus Enzensberger, born 1929, author
Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1945–1982, film director
Roger C. Field, inventor, industrial designer
Joseph von Fraunhofer, optician
Asger Hamerik, composer
Werner Heisenberg, Nobel Prize–winning physicist
Adolf Hitler, home address is 16, Prinzregentenplatz
Brigitte Horney, actress (Münchhausen)
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet, who received his PhD from Munich in 1907
Wassily Kandinsky, 1866–1944, painter*
Erich Kästner, author
Erich Kästner (camera designer), movie camera designer, chief designer at ARRI
Orlande de Lassus, composer
Franz von Lenbach, painter
Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary
Justus von Liebig, chemist
Ernst Mach, physicist and philosopher
Sepp Maier, born 1944, football goalkeeper
Thomas Mann, 1875–1955, Nobel Prize–winning author
Helene Mayer, fencer
Freddie Mercury, lead singer of Queen
Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer and manufacturer
Lola Montez, courtesan to King Ludwig I
Gerd Müller, born 1945, footballer
David Dalhoff Neal, painter
William of Ockham, English medieval philosopher
Georg Ohm, physicist
Marsilius of Padua, Italian medieval scholar
Max Planck, Nobel Prize–winning physicist
Lucia Popp, Slovak-born opera singer
Ludwig Prandtl, father of modern aerodynamics
Max Reger, composer, organist, pianist and conductor
Wilhelm Röntgen, Nobel Prize–winning physicist
Willibald Sauerländer, art historian
Max Schreck, actor
Arnold Schwarzenegger, former Governor of California, bodybuilder and actor, resided at Christophstr. 1 and worked at Rolf Putziger's gym at Schillerstr. 36 from 1966 to 1968
Bastian Schweinsteiger, footballer
Franz von Stuck, painter and sculptor
Donna Summer, 1948–2012, singer, known as the "Queen of Disco" she was the most successful musical artist of the Disco era in the late 1970s and early 80's
Vardges Sureniants, Armenian painter
Fyodor Tyutchev, Russian Romantic poet
Richard Wagner, 1813–1883, composer
Heinrich Otto Wieland, Nobel Prize–winning chemist who successfully protected Jewish people
Stepan Bandera, Ukrainian nationalist, assassinated in October 1959See also
Outline of MunichReferences
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^ Names of European cities in different languages: M–P#M
^ Landeshauptstadt München, Redaktion. "Landeshauptstadt München – Bevölkerung". Landeshauptstadt München. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
^ a b "The Munich Metropolitan Region" (in German). Europäische Metropolregion München e.V. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
^ "Quality of Living City Rankings". Retrieved 28 June 2018.
^ "Munich Named The Most Livable City In The World". Forbes. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
^ "Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities (updated 2015)". Spotted by Locals.
^ Englund, Peter (1993). Ofredsår. Stockholm: Atlantis.
^ "Munich Travel Tourism Munich". muenchen.de. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
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^ "Ausstellung im Foyer". Stmf.bayern.de. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^  Mercer Human Resource Consulting Archived 11 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ 2007 Cost of Living Report Munich Mercer Human Resource Consulting Archived 10 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
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^ "Toytown Germany – English language news and chat". toytowngermany.com.
^ "Die ausländische Bevölkerung nach der Staatsangehörigkeit 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 19 June 2018.
^ "Die ausländische Bevölkerung nach der Staatsangehörigkeit 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 19 June 2018.
^ "Landeshauptstadt München: Bevölkerungsbestand - Aktuelle Jahreszahlen: Die Bevölkerung in den Stadtbezirken nach ausgewählten Konfessionen am 31.12.2017" (PDF). muenchen.de. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
^ "Bevölkerung im regionalen Vergleich nach Religion (ausführlich) in %". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. 2014. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
^ "Best 110 historic places worldwide". Traveler.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
^ "Olympia 2018 in Südkorea, München chancenlos". Die Welt (in German). 6 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
^ "Munich To Bid Once Again". Games Bids. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
^ "Public Indoor Swimming Pools in Munich". muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ "Public Outdoor Swimming Pools in Munich". muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ "Munich: Swimming pools". Munich City Utilities Company (SWM). Retrieved 5 September 2016.
^ "Lakes in Munich" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ Riverbreak Editorial Team. "River Surfing Spots: Eisbach". Riverbreak: The International River Surf Magazine. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
^ Toytown Germany. "River surfing in Munich". The Local Europe GmbH. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
^ "Museum Reich der Kristalle München". Lrz-muenchen.de. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
^ a b Hecktor, Mirko; von Uslar, Moritz; Smith, Patti; Neumeister, Andreas (1 November 2008). Mjunik Disco – from 1949 to now (in German). ISBN 978-3936738476.
^ "Giesinger Bräu München". Giesinger Bräu München (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-25.
^ "Corpus Techno: The music of the future will soon be history". MUNICHfound.com. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
^ "List of bars in Munich" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ "List of nightclubs in Munich" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ "Circus Krone: Europe's largest traditional circus". Munichfound.com. December 2005. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
^ "Management Studium – Private Hochschule – ISM Intern. School of Mgmt". ism.de. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
^ "Startseite". mpg.de.
^ "Study conducted by INSM (New Social Market Economy Initiative) and WirtschaftsWoche magazine". Icm-muenchen.de. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^ "Statistik der BA". statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
^ Artikel empfehlen: (27 September 2010). "Endlich amtlich: Köln ist Millionenstadt". Koeln.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
^ "In Hesse the purchasing power is highest in Germany – CyberPress". Just4business.eu. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^ Landeshauptstadt München, Direktorium, Statistisches Amt: Statistisches Jahrbuch 2007, page 206 (Statistical Yearbook of the City of Munich 2007) http://currency.wiki/18-62eur-usd
^ "Global 500 2008: Cities". Money.cnn.com. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^ "Insurance - Munich Financial Centre Initiative". www.fpmi.de. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
^ "Munich Literature House: About Us". Archived from the original on 4 April 2003. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
^ "Bavaria Film GmbH: Company Start". Bavaria-film.de. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
^ "Die 10 größten Arbeitgeber in München". Jobs-münchen.com. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
^ "Germany to build maglev railway". BBC News. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
^ "Germany Scraps Transrapid Rail Plans". Deutsche Welle. 27 March 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
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^ Süddeutsche.de GmbH, Munich, Germany. "Flughafen Oberpfaffenhofen – Business-Jets willkommen – München". sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved 25 July 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "OpenRailwayMap" (Map). Map of München Hauptbahnhof. Cartography by OpenStreetMap. OpenRailwayMap. 28 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-19.
^ "Lageplan Hauptbahnhof München" (PDF) (orientation map) (in German). Deutsche Bahn AG. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
^ "Munich Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
^ "Lakes in Munich's vicinity" (in German). muenchen.de – The official city portal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ "Partnerstädte". Muenchen.de (official website) (in German). Landeshauptstadt München. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
^ "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
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^ "Verona – Gemellaggi" (in Italian). Council of Verona, Italy. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
^ "Bordeaux – Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
^ "DSDS 2012: Kandidat Joey Heindle" (in German). RTL. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
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Official website for the City of Munich
Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund – public transport network
München Wiki – the open city wiki for Munich with more than 15,000 articles (in German)
On the brink: Munich 1918–1919
Munichfound – magazine for English speaking Münchners
Destination Munich – An online guide
Munich Airport – Official Website Franz Josef Strauss Airport
münchen.tv – local TV station
Historical Atlas of Munich (in German)PhotosEurope Pictures – Munich
Geocoded Pictures of Munich
Munich City Panoramas – Panoramic Views and virtual Tours
Globosapiens Travel Community – Travel Tips
Tales from Toytown – Photos of Munich
Munich photo galleryPlaces adjacent to MunichStuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg
Prague (Czech Republic),Landshut
Vaduz (Liechtenstein),Zürich (Switzerland)
Innsbruck (Austria),Bolzano (Italy)
vteBoroughs of Munich
Berg am Laim
vteMayors of MunichBavarian Kingdom
Franz Paul von Mittermayr
Josef von Teng
Kaspar von Steinsdorf
Alois von Erhardt
Johannes von Widenmayer
Wilhelm Georg von BorschtWeimar Republic
Karl ScharnaglThird Reich
Karl FiehlerFederal Republic
vte Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of GermanyCapitals of area states
Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Hanover (Lower Saxony)
City of Bremen (State of Bremen)
HamburgCapitals of former states
Freiburg im Breisgau (South Baden, 1949–1952)
Stuttgart (Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952)
Tübingen (Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)
1 Unlike the mono-city states Berlin and Hamburg, the State of Bremen consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.
vte Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria in Germany Urbandistricts
Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim
Neustadt an der Waldnaab
vteCities in Germany by population1,000,000+
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
vteSummer Olympic Games host cities
1904: St. Louis
1932: Los Angeles
1968: Mexico City
1984: Los Angeles
2016: Rio de Janeiro
2028: Los Angeles[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II
BNF: cb11864901q (data)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2189 3141
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