Oasis - Wikipedia Oasis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Isolated source of fresh water in a desert For the English band, see Oasis (band). For other uses, see Oasis (disambiguation). This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Oasis" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara Date palm trees in Liwa Oasis. In geography, an oasis (/oʊˈeɪsɪs/; plural: oases /oʊˈeɪsiːz/) is the combination of a human settlement and a cultivated area (often a date palm grove) in a desert or semi-desert environment.[1]Oases also provide habitat for animals and spontaneous plants. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Historical significance 4 Growing plants 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links Etymology[edit] The word oasis came into English via Latin: oasis from Ancient Greek: ὄασις óasis, which in turn is a direct borrowing from Demotic Egyptian. The word for oasis in the later attested Coptic language (the descendant of Demotic Egyptian) is wahe or ouahe which means a "dwelling place".[2] Description[edit] Oases are made fertile when sources of freshwater, such as underground rivers or aquifers, irrigate the surface naturally or via man-made wells.[3] The presence of water on the surface or underground is necessary and the local or regional management of this essential resource is strategic, but not sufficient to create such areas: continuous human work and know-how (a technical and social culture) are essential to maintain such ecosystems.[4][5]. Rain showers provide subterranean water to sustain natural oases, such as the Tuat. Substrata of impermeable rock and stone can trap water and retain it in pockets, or on long faulting subsurface ridges or volcanic dikes water can collect and percolate to the surface. Any incidence of water is then used by migrating birds, which also pass seeds with their droppings which will grow at the water's edge forming an oasis. It can also be used to plant crops. Historical significance[edit] The location of oases has been of critical importance for trade and transportation routes in desert areas; caravans must travel via oases so that supplies of water and food can be replenished. Thus, political or military control of an oasis has in many cases meant control of trade on a particular route. For example, the oases of Awjila, Ghadames, and Kufra, situated in modern-day Libya, have at various times been vital to both North-South and East-West trade in the Sahara Desert. The Silk Road across Central Asia also incorporated several oases. In North American history, oases have been less prominent since the desert regions are smaller, but in the USA they have allowed colonisation of the western desert regions around the Rockies. Las Vegas is an example of such a settlement. Growing plants[edit] People who live in an oasis must manage land and water use carefully; fields must be irrigated to grow plants like apricots, dates, figs, and olives. The most important plant in an oasis is the date palm, which forms the upper layer. These palm trees provide shade for smaller trees like peach trees, which form the middle layer. By growing plants in different layers, the farmers make best use of the soil and water. Many vegetables are also grown and some cereals, such as barley, millet, and wheat, are grown where there is more moisture.[6] In summary, an oasis palm grove is a highly anthropized and irrigated area that supports a traditionally intensive and polyculture-based agriculture[1]. The oasis is integrated into its desert environment through an often close association with nomadic transhumant livestock farming (very often pastoral and sedentary populations are clearly distinguished). However, the oasis is emancipated from the desert by a very particular social and ecosystem structure. Responding to environmental constraints, it is an integrated agriculture that is conducted with the superposition (in its typical form) of two or three strata creating what is called the "oasis effect "[1] : the first and highest stratum is made up of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and maintains freshness; an intermediate stratum includes fruit trees (orange, banana, pomegranate, apple, etc.); the third stratum, in the shade, of herbaceous plants (market gardening, fodder, cereals).Gallery[edit] Al Ain Oasis in the city of Al Ain, Arabian Peninsula Taghit in Algeria, North Africa Ein Gedi in Israel, Middle East Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in Utah, North America See also[edit] Wetlands portal Great Man-Made River – the world's largest irrigation project; developed in Libya to connect cities with fossil water. Guelta Mirage Oasification Qanat – Water management system using underground channels Wadi – River valley, especially a dry (ephemeral) riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain Water supply – Provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations or othersReferences[edit] ^ a b c ‹See Tfd›(in French) Battesti, Vincent (2005) Jardins au désert: Évolution des pratiques et savoirs oasiens: Jérid tunisien. Paris: IRD éditions. ISBN 978-2-7177-2584-1. ^ Douglas Harper. "Etymonline - Origin of 'Oasis'". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-07-30. ^ Society, National Geographic (2011-06-10). "oasis". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2018-04-30. ^ Vincent Battesti, The Power of a Disappearance: Water in the Jerid region of Tunisia in B. R. Johnston et al. (eds), Water, Cultural Diversity & Global Environmental Change: Emerging Trends, Sustainable Futures?, 2012, UNESCO/Springer, p. 77-96. ISBN 978-9400717732. ^ Vincent Battesti, Resources and Appropriations: Back to the Jerid Oases (Tunisia) after the Revolution, Études rurales 2015, vol. 2013/2 (192): 153-175 ISSN 0014-2182 ISBN 978-2-7132-2398-3 ^ "Oasis | geological feature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-04-30. Bibliography[edit] Battesti, Vincent (2005). Jardins au désert, Évolution des pratiques et savoirs oasiens, Jérid tunisien. Paris: IRD Éditions. p. 440. ISBN 9782709915649.External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Oasis (category) The dictionary definition of oasis at WiktionaryvteWetlandsGenerally Acrotelm Aquatic ecosystem Aquatic plants Atchafalaya Basin Backswamp Bayou Beach meadow Blackwater river Blanket bog Bog Bog garden Brackish marsh Callows Carr Cataract bog Ciénega Clean Water Act Clearwater river Coastal bog Coniferous swamp Constructed wetland Dambo Drainage basin Estuary Fen Flark Flood-meadow Flooded grasslands and savannas Freshwater marsh Freshwater swamp forest Grass valley Guelta Halosere Hydrosere Igapó Ings Interdunal wetland Intertidal wetland Karst Kermi bog Kettle Lagg Mangrove Marsh Marsh gas Mere Mire Misse Moorland Muck Mudflat Muskeg Oasis Palsa bog Paludification Palustrine wetland Plateau bog Pocosin Polygonal bog Pond Peat swamp forest Poor fen Pothole Raised bog Reed bed Rich fen Riparian zone River delta Salt marsh Salt pannes and pools Shrub swamp Slough String bog Swamp Telmatology Tidal marsh Upland bog Wet meadow Will-o'-the-wisp Várzea forest Vernal pool Whitewater river YaéréClassification systems Wetland classification A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia National Wetlands Inventory Ramsar ConventionOrganizations Bangladesh Haor and Wetland Development Board Delta Waterfowl Foundation Ducks Unlimited Wetlands International Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust Authority control GND: 4042861-8 LCCN: sh85093584 NDL: 00568777 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oasis&oldid=906566256" Categories: OasesFluvial landformsPhysical geographyHidden categories: Articles with French-language external linksArticles with short descriptionArticles lacking in-text citations from April 2018All articles lacking in-text citationsArticles needing additional references from December 2009All articles needing additional referencesArticles containing Latin-language textArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with NDL identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page In other projects Wikimedia Commons Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages AlemannischالعربيةAsturianuAzərbaycancaবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGàidhligGalego한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתಕನ್ನಡქართულიҚазақшаKiswahiliKurdîКыргызчаLatinaLatviešuLietuviųLumbaartMagyarമലയാളംმარგალურიمصرىBahasa MelayuNederlands日本語NorskNorsk nynorskOccitanOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்తెలుగుไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng ViệtWinarayייִדיש粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 16 July 2019, at 17:56 (UTC). 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