Pamukkale - Wikipedia Pamukkale From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Pamukale) Jump to navigation Jump to search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Pamukkale" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)PamukkaleUNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameHierapolis-PamukkaleLocationDenizli, TurkeyCriteriaCultural and Natural: (iii)(iv)(vii)Reference485Inscription1988 (12th Session)Area1,077 ha (4.16 sq mi)°55′26″N 29°07′24″E / 37.92389°N 29.12333°E / 37.92389; 29.12333Coordinates: 37°55′26″N 29°07′24″E / 37.92389°N 29.12333°E / 37.92389; 29.12333Location of Pamukkale in Turkey Travertine terrace formations at Pamukkale. Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli in southwestern Turkey. The area is famous for a carbonate mineral left by the flowing water.[1] It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. The ancient Greco-Roman city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about 2,700 metres (8,860 ft) long, 600 m (1,970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away. Known as Pamukkale (Cotton Castle) or ancient Hierapolis (Holy City), this area has been drawing the weary to its thermal springs since the time of Classical antiquity.[1] The Turkish name refers to the surface of the shimmering, snow-white limestone, shaped over millennia by calcium-rich springs. Dripping slowly down the vast mountainside, mineral-rich waters foam and collect in terraces, spilling over cascades of stalactites into milky pools below. Legend has it that the formations are solidified cotton (the area's principal crop) that giants left out to dry.[citation needed]Tourism is and has been a major industry in the area for thousands of years, due to the attraction of the thermal pools.[1] As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Hierapolis, causing considerable damage.[citation needed] An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools.[citation needed]Overshadowed by natural wonder, Pamukkale's well-preserved Roman ruins and museum have been remarkably underestimated and unadvertised; tourist brochures over the past 20 years have mainly featured photos of people bathing in the calcium pools. Aside from a small footpath running up the mountain face, the terraces are all currently off-limits, having suffered erosion and water pollution at the feet of tourists. Contents 1 Geology 2 Archeology 2.1 Museum 3 Tourist attraction 4 Protecting the thermal waters 5 Gallery 6 Sister cities 7 Similar places 8 Notes 9 External links Geology[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Pamukkale's terraces are made of travertine, a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs.[1]In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from 35 °C (95 °F) to 100 °C (212 °F). The water that emerges from the spring is transported 320 metres (1,050 ft) to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section 60 to 70 metres (200 to 230 ft) long covering an expanse of 24 metres (79 ft) to 30 metres (98 ft). When the water, supersaturated with calcium carbonate, reaches the surface, carbon dioxide de-gasses from it, and calcium carbonate is deposited. Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft gel which eventually crystallizes into travertine. Panoramic view of travertine terraces at Pamukkale Archeology[edit] Main article: Hierapolis This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Museum[edit] In this museum, alongside historical artifacts from Hierapolis, there are also artifacts from Laodiceia, Colossae, Tripolis, Attuda and other towns of the Lycos (Çürüksu) valley. In addition to these, the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük that includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze Age craft. Artifacts from the Caria, Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. The museum's exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and the open areas in the eastern side which are known to have been used as the library and gymnasium. The artifacts in open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone. Hierapolis is broken down into ruins. Tourist attraction[edit] Pamukkale (video) Play media Short video showing the Pamukkale natural siteProblems playing this file? See media help.Pamukkale is a tourist attraction. It is recognized as a World Heritage Site together with Hierapolis. Hierapolis-Pamukkale was made a World Heritage Site in 1988.[2]The underground volcanic activity which causes the hot springs also forced carbon dioxide into a cave, which was called the Plutonium, which here means "place of the god Pluto". This cave was used for religious purposes by priests of Cybele, who found ways to appear immune to the suffocating gas. Tadpoles can be found in the pools.[3] Protecting the thermal waters[edit] The hotels built in the 1960s were demolished as they were draining the thermal waters into their swimming pools and caused damage to the terraces.[citation needed] The water supply to the hotels is restricted in an effort to preserve the overall site and to allow deposits to regenerate.[4]Access to the terraces is not allowed and visitors are asked to follow the pathway.[4] Gallery[edit] The pools of Pamukkale Hot springs of Pamukkale The reflection of the limestone in a hot spring at Pamukkale The town of Pamukkale, at the foot of the hot springs A hanging limestone wall at Pamukkale Limestone wall The pools of Pamukkale The pools of Pamukkale Beautiful Pamukkale travertines during winter Travertine hot springs at Pamukkale Travertine hot springs at Pamukkale Travertine terraces of Pamukkale at springtime Sister cities[edit] The village of Pamukkale has two sister cities: Eger, Hungary Las Vegas, United StatesSimilar places[edit] These locations are also well known for their travertine formations: Egerszalók in Hungary[citation needed] Badab-e Surt in Iran[citation needed] Mammoth Hot Springs in the USA[citation needed] Pink and White Terraces in New Zealand[5][6] Hierve el Agua in Mexico[citation needed] The White Whale in Italy - Bagni San Filippo (Siena)[citation needed] Baishuitai in China[citation needed] Garmchashma in Tajikistan[7] Tatev in Armenia[8] Terme di Saturnia in Italy[citation needed] Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area, A similar UNESCO world heritage travertine cascade in China. Dolok Tinggi Raja in Simalungun Sumatra Indonesia[9][circular reference]Notes[edit] ^ a b c d Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-89577-087-5. ^ "Hierapolis-Pamukkale World Heritage Site". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2007-06-23. ^ "Pamukkale Turkey Hotel And Hostel Redesigned". PRLog. 2009-01-10. Retrieved 2009-09-02. ^ a b Pamukkale Travetines Denizli ^ Bunn, Rex; Nolden, Sascha (2017-06-07). "Forensic cartography with Hochstetter's 1859 Pink and White Terraces survey: Te Otukapuarangi and Te Tarata". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 0: 39–56. doi:10.1080/03036758.2017.1329748. ISSN 0303-6758. ^ Bunn and Nolden, Rex and Sascha (December 2016). "Te Tarata and Te Otukapuarangi: Reverse engineering Hochstetter's Lake Rotomahana Survey to map the Pink and White Terrace locations". Journal of New Zealand Studies. NS23: 37–53. ^ Garmchashma in Tajikistan ^ Satani Kamurj ^ "Dolok Tinggi Raja - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas". External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pamukkale.Pamukkale official site Pamukkale travel guide from Wikivoyage Pamukkale - spherical panorama 360 degree UNESCO World Heritage site datasheet The Marble Stairs of Heaven on Earth: Pamukkale Pamukkale Travel Guide Photos and first hand account of visit including Hierapolis and Cleopatra's pool Visiting the Cotton Castle – on Youtube Video from Pamukkale (4k, UltraHD)vteUNESCO World Heritage Sites in TurkeyAegean Aphrodisias Ephesus Hierapolis / Pamukkale Pergamon Xanthos / Letoon1Black Sea Hittite Capital of Hattusa SafranboluCentral Anatolia Göreme and Rock Sites of Cappadocia Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük Divriği Great Mosque and HospitalEast Anatolia Historic city of AniMarmara Archaeological Site of Troy Bursa and Cumalıkızık Historic Areas of Istanbul Selimiye Mosque and its Social ComplexMediterranean Xanthos / Letoon1Southeastern Anatolia Mount Nemrut in Commagene Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Göbekli Tepe1 Shared with other regions Retrieved from "" Categories: World Heritage Sites in TurkeyArchaeological sites in the Aegean RegionDenizliHot springs of TurkeyGeography of Denizli ProvinceLandforms of Denizli ProvinceTourist attractions in Denizli ProvinceProtected areas of TurkeyPamukkale DistrictHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from August 2009All articles needing additional referencesCoordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2017Articles needing additional references from June 2017Articles needing additional references from July 2009Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2018Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015All articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from March 2019Commons category link is on WikidataArticles containing video clips Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikivoyage Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages AfrikaansالعربيةAzərbaycancaবাংলাБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиCatalàČeštinaDanskΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoفارسیFrançaisGalego客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתქართულიKiswahiliКыргызчаLatviešuLietuviųMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംNederlandsNorsk nynorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSlovenčinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்ไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng Việt中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 8 June 2019, at 16:54 (UTC). 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ZME Science posts about Pamukale

The Pamukkale Springs – Turkey’s “cotton castle”

Sat, Aug 1, 2009


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