Pharaoh

Pharaoh - Wikipedia Pharaoh From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). Pharaoh of Egypt The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. A typical depiction of a pharaoh. After Djoser of the Third Dynasty, pharaohs were usually depicted wearing the nemes headdress, a false beard, and an ornate kilt. DetailsStyle Five-name titularyFirst monarch Narmer or Menes (by tradition)Last monarch Cleopatra and CaesarionFormation c. 3150 BCAbolition 30 BCResidence Varies by eraAppointer Divine right pr-ˤ3"Great house"in hieroglyphs nswt-bjt"King of Upper and Lower Egypt"in hieroglyphs Pharaoh (/ˈfɛəroʊ/, US also /ˈfeɪroʊ/;[1]Arabic: فرعون Phar'aon or Fir'aun Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Pǝrro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE,[2] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army.[3] Religiously, the pharaoh officiated over religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new temples. He was responsible for maintaining Maat (mꜣꜥt), or cosmic order, balance, and justice, and part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.[4]During the early days prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Deshret or the "Red Crown", was a representation of the Kingdom of Lower Egypt, while the Hedjet, the "White Crown", was worn by the kings of the kingdom of upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the Pschent, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties like the Khat, Nemes, Atef, Hemhem crown, and Khepresh. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these headdresses or crowns would be worn together. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Regalia 2.1 Scepters and staves 2.2 The Uraeus 3 Crowns and headdresses 3.1 Deshret 3.2 Hedjet 3.3 Pschent 3.4 Khat 3.5 Nemes 3.6 Atef 3.7 Hemhem 3.8 Khepresh 3.9 Physical evidence 4 Titles 4.1 Nesu Bity name 4.2 Horus name 4.3 Nebty name 4.4 Golden Horus 4.5 Nomen and prenomen 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links Etymology[edit] The word pharaoh ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound pr ꜥꜣ, /ˌpaɾuwˈʕaʀ/ "great house," written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ꜥꜣ "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ꜥꜣ "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace.[5] From the Twelfth Dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, May it Live, Prosper, and be in Health", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III (c. 1479–1425 BCE) in the New Kingdom, after the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, pharaoh became the form of address for a person who was king.[6]The earliest instance where pr ꜥꜣ is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Akhenaten, who reigned c. 1353–1336 BCE, which is addressed to "Great House, May it Live, Prosper, and be in Health".[7] During the Eighteenth Dynasty (16th to 14th centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late Twenty-first Dynasty (10th century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appelative.[8]From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as ḥm, "Majesty".[9][note 1] The term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the Twenty-Second Dynasty and Twenty-third Dynasty.[citation needed]For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun.[10] This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the Twenty-second Dynasty kings. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is specifically dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenq, beloved of Amun", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I—the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty—including Alan Gardiner in his original 1933 publication of this stela.[11] Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.[citation needed]By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *[par-ʕoʔ] whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Koine Greek: Φερων.[12] In the Hebrew Bible, the title also occurs as Hebrew: פרעה‎ [parꜥōh];[13] from that, in the Septuagint, Koine Greek: φαραώ pharaō, and then in Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it Arabic: فرعون‎ firꜥawn with n (here, always referring to the one evil king in the Book of Exodus story, by contrast to the good king Aziz in surah Yusuf's story). The Arabic combines the original ayin from Egyptian along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelled it "Pharao", but the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, *[par-ʕoʔ] evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ pərro and then ərro by mistaking p- as the definite article "the" (from ancient Egyptian pꜣ).[14]Other notable epithets, nswt is translated to "king", jty for "monarch or sovereign", nb for "lord"[9][note 2] and ḥqꜣ for "ruler". Regalia[edit] Scepters and staves[edit] Beaded Scepter of Khasekhemwy (Museum of Fine Arts in Boston). Sceptres and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt.[15] One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos.[15] Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff.[16] The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook.[17] The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to prehistoric Egypt. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to Naqada III. Another scepter associated with the king is the was-sceptre.[17] This is a long staff mounted with an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the First Dynasty. The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities. The flail later was closely related to the heqa-scepter (the crook and flail), but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead.[18] The Uraeus[edit] The earliest evidence known of the Uraeus—a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the First Dynasty. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.[19] Crowns and headdresses[edit] Main article: Crowns of Egypt .thumbinner{width:100%!important;max-width:none!important}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:none!important;width:100%!important;text-align:center}}]]>Narmer PaletteNarmer wearing the white crownNarmer wearing the red crown Deshret[edit] The red crown of Lower Egypt, the Deshret crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times and symbolised chief ruler. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada, and later, Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer Macehead and the Narmer Palette. Hedjet[edit] The white crown of Upper Egypt, the Hedjet, was worn in the Predynastic Period by Scorpion II, and, later, by Narmer. Pschent[edit] This is the combination of the Deshret and Hedjet crowns into a double crown, called the Pschent crown. It is first documented in the middle of the first dynasty. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.[20] Khat[edit] Den The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser. Nemes[edit] The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes. The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara shows the king wearing the nemes headdress.[20] Statuette of Pepy I (ca. 2338-2298 B.C.E.) wearing a nemes headdress Brooklyn Museum Atef[edit] Osiris is shown to wear the Atef crown, which is an elaborate Hedjet with feathers and disks. Depictions of Pharaohs wearing the Atef crown originate from the Old Kingdom. Hemhem[edit] The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of Nemes, Pschent, or Deshret crowns. It is an ornate triple Atef with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage (depiction) of this crown begins during the Early 18th dynasty of Egypt. Khepresh[edit] Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh crown has been depicted since the New Kingdom. Physical evidence[edit] Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite their widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown has ever been discovered. Tutankhamun's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his crook and flail, but no crown was found among the funerary equipment. Diadems have been discovered.[21]It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.[22] Titles[edit] Main article: Ancient Egyptian royal titulary During the early dynastic period kings had three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesu Bity name was added during the first dynasty. The Nebty name was first introduced toward the end of the first dynasty.[20] The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche.[23] By the Middle Kingdom, the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen[24] for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known. Nesu Bity name[edit] The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomen, was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee". The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.[20] Horus name[edit] The Horus name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh. The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka, before the first dynasty.[25] The Horus name of several early kings expresses a relationship with Horus. Aha refers to "Horus the fighter", Djer refers to "Horus the strong", etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus names. Khasekhemwy refers to "Horus: the two powers are at peace", while Nebra refers to "Horus, Lord of the Sun".[20] Nebty name[edit] The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the first dynasty. The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt Nekhbet and Wadjet.[20][23] The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign).[20] Golden Horus[edit] The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king. The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the pyramids and obelisks are representations of (golden) sun-rays. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus conquering Set.[20] Nomen and prenomen[edit] The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (nsw bity) or Lord of the Two Lands (nebtawy) title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Re. The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (sa-ra) or the title Lord of Appearances (neb-kha).[23] Nomen and prenomen of Ramesses III See also[edit] Ancient Egypt portal Monarchy portal List of pharaohs Coronation of the pharaoh Great Royal Wife, the chief wife of a male pharaoh Egyptian chronology Pharaohs in the BibleNotes[edit] ^ The Bible refers to Egypt as the "Land of Ham" ^ nb.f means "his lord", the monarchs were introduced with (.f) for his, (.k) for your.[9] References[edit] ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 ^ Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs the Reign-by-reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 2012. Print. ^ "Pharaoh". AncientEgypt.co.uk. The British Museum. 1999. Retrieved 20 December 2017. ^ Mark, Joshua (2 September 2009). "Pharaoh - Ancient History Encyclopedia". ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited. Retrieved 20 December 2017. ^ A. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Grammar (3rd edn, 1957), 71–76. ^ Redmount, Carol A. "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt." p. 89–90. Michael D. Coogan, ed. The Oxford History of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press. 1998. ^ Hieratic Papyrus from Kahun and Gurob, F. LL. Griffith, 38, 17. Although see also R. Mond and O. Myers (1940), Temples of Armant, pl. 93, 5, for an instance possibly dating from the reign of Thutmose III. ^ "pharaoh" in Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. ^ a b c Doxey, Denise M. (1998). Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets in the Middle Kingdom: A Social and Historical Analysis. BRILL. p. 119. ISBN 90-04-11077-1. ^ J-M. Kruchten, Les annales des pretres de Karnak (OLA 32), 1989, pp.474–8. ^ Alan Gardiner, "The Dakhleh Stela", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 19, No. 1/2 (May, 1933) pp. 193–200. ^ Herodotus, Histories 2.111.1. See Anne Burton (1972). Diodorus Siculus, Book 1: A Commentary. Brill., commenting on ch. 59.1. ^ Elazar Ari Lipinski: Pesach - A holiday of questions. About the Haggadah-Commentary Zevach Pesach of Rabbi Isaak Abarbanel (1437–1508). Explaining the meaning of the name Pharaoh.] Published first in German in the official quarterly of the Organization of the Jewish Communities of Bavaria: Jüdisches Leben in Bayern. Mitteilungsblatt des Landesverbandes der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden in Bayern. Pessach-Ausgabe = Nr. 109, 2009, ZDB-ID 2077457-6, S. 3–4. ^ Walter C. Till: "Koptische Grammatik." VEB Verläg Enzyklopädie, Leipzig, 1961. p. 62. ^ a b Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 158. ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 159. ^ a b Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 160. ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 161. ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 162. ^ a b c d e f g h Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001 ISBN 978-0-415-26011-4 ^ Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign. Thames and Hudson, 2012, pp. 21, 77. ^ Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamen, 1998, p. 95. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 ^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2000, p. 477 ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, pp. 57f. Bibliography[edit] Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012. Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76. Jan Assmann, "Der Mythos des Gottkönigs im Alten Ägypten," in Christine Schmitz und Anja Bettenworth (hg.), Menschen - Heros - Gott: Weltentwürfe und Lebensmodelle im Mythos der Vormoderne (Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009), pp. 11–26.External links[edit] Find more aboutPharaohat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Digital Egypt for Universities 10 Influential Pharaohs Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pharaohs.vteAncient Egypt topics Outline Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts Agriculture Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture) Art Astronomy Chronology Cities (list) Clothing Cuisine Dynasties Funerary practices Geography Great Royal Wives History Language Literature Mathematics Medicine Military Music Mythology People Pharaohs (list) Philosophy Religion Sites Technology Trade Writing Egyptology Egyptologists Museums Book Category Ancient Egypt portal WikiProject Commons vtePharaohsProtodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)PeriodDynastyPharaohs  (malefemale♀)uncertainProtodynastic(pre-3150 BC)Lower Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double FalconUpper Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer / MenesEarly Dynastic(3150–2686 BC)I Narmer / Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith♀ Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus BirdII Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I KhasekhemwyOld Kingdom(2686–2181 BC)III Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet HuniIV Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf ThamphthisV Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi UnasVI Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah1st Intermediate(2181–2040 BC)VII/VIII Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer KhuiIX Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety SetutX Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety MerykareMiddle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)PeriodDynastyPharaohs  (malefemale♀)uncertainMiddle Kingdom(2040–1802 BC)XI Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IVNubia Segerseni Qakare Ini IyibkhentreXII Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu♀2nd Intermediate(1802–1550 BC)XIII Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre SankhptahiXIV Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-HarXV Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi KhamudiXVI Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi IIIAbydos Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny SnaaibXVII Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao KamoseNew Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)PeriodDynastyPharaohs  (malefemale♀)uncertainNew Kingdom(1550–1070 BC)XVIII Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut♀ Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten♀ Tutankhamun Ay HoremhebXIX Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret♀XX Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI3rd Intermediate(1069–664 BC)XXI Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes IIXXII Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IVXXIII Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre IniXXIV Tefnakht BakenranefXXV Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa TanutamunLate Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)PeriodDynastyPharaohs  (malefemale♀)uncertainLate(664–332 BC)XXVI Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik IIIXXVII Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius IIXXVIII AmyrtaeusXXIX Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites IIXXX Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo IIXXXI Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius IIIHellenistic(332–30 BC)Argead Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IVPtolemaic Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV♀ Cleopatra♀ Ptolemy XV CaesarionDynastic genealogies 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st PtolemaicList of pharaohs vteAncient Egyptian titularyRoyal titulary Great Royal Wife Khenemetneferhedjet PharaohReligious titulary Divine Adoratrice of Amun God's Wife God's Wife of Amun High Priests of Amun High Priest of Osiris High Priest of Ptah High Priest of Ra Lector priest Servant in the Place of Truth Two LadiesCourtly and administrative titulary Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King Haty-a High steward Iry-pat Khekeret-nisut Nomarch Overseer of the treasuries Overseer of Upper Egypt Treasurer Viceroy of Kush Vizier Book Ancient Egypt portal Authority control BNE: XX528957 BNF: cb11954986w (data) GND: 4133037-7 LCCN: sh85100578 SUDOC: 027528928 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pharaoh&oldid=863612771" Categories: Ancient Egyptian titlesHeads of stateRoyal titlesNoble titlesPharaohsPositions of authorityTorah monarchsTorah peopleTitles of national or ethnic leadershipDeified peopleEgyptian royal titlesHidden categories: Articles containing Coptic-language textArticles containing Ancient Egyptian-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2010Articles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles 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