Sandwich - Wikipedia Sandwich From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Sandwich (disambiguation). Food made of two pieces of sliced bread with fillings such as meat or vegetables in between SandwichA bacon, lettuce and tomato sandwichMain ingredientsBread, meat, cheese, salad vegetables, sauce or savoury spread Cookbook: Sandwich  Media: Sandwich A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type.[1][2][3] The sandwich began as a portable finger food in the Western world, though over time it has become prevalent worldwide. Sandwiches are a popular type of lunch food, taken to work, school, or picnics to be eaten as part of a packed lunch. The bread may be plain or be coated with condiments, such as mayonnaise or mustard, to enhance its flavour and texture. As well as being homemade, sandwiches are also widely sold in restaurants and can be served hot or cold.[4][5] There are both savoury sandwiches, such as deli meat sandwiches, and sweet sandwiches, such as a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. The sandwich is named after its supposed inventor, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.[6][7]The Wall Street Journal has described it as Britain's "biggest contribution to gastronomy".[8] Contents 1 History 2 Language 3 Pre-made sandwiches 4 Varieties 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External links History The modern concept of a sandwich using slices of bread as found within the West can arguably be traced to 18th-century Europe. However, the use of some kind of bread or bread-like substance to lie under (or under and over) some other food, or used to scoop up and enclose or wrap some other type of food, long predates the eighteenth century, and is found in numerous much older cultures worldwide. The ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder is said to have wrapped meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs in a soft matzah—flat, unleavened bread—during Passover in the manner of a modern wrap made with flatbread.[9] Flat breads of only slightly varying kinds have long been used to scoop or wrap small amounts of food en route from platter to mouth throughout Western Asia and northern Africa. From Morocco to Ethiopia to India, bread is baked in flat rounds, contrasting with the European loaf tradition. During the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and usually stale bread, called "trenchers", were used as plates.[10] After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to a dog or to beggars at the tables of the wealthy, and eaten by diners in more modest circumstances. The immediate culinary precursor with a direct connection to the English sandwich was to be found in the Netherlands of the seventeenth century, where the naturalist John Ray observed[11][12] that in the taverns beef hung from the rafters "which they cut into thin slices and eat with bread and butter laying the slices upon the butter"—explanatory specifications that reveal the Dutch belegde broodje, open-faced sandwich, was as yet unfamiliar in England. Initially perceived as food that men shared while gaming and drinking at night, the sandwich slowly began appearing in polite society as a late-night meal among the aristocracy. The sandwich's popularity in Spain and England increased dramatically during the nineteenth century, when the rise of industrial society and the working classes made fast, portable, and inexpensive meals essential.[13] In London, for example, at least seventy street vendors were selling ham sandwiches by 1850; during that decade sandwich bars also became an important form of eating establishment in western Holland, typically serving liver and salt beef sandwiches.[14]In the United States, the sandwich was first promoted as an elaborate meal at supper. By the early twentieth century, as bread became a staple of the American diet, the sandwich became the same kind of popular, quick meal as was already widespread in the Mediterranean.[13] Language The first written usage of the English word appeared in Edward Gibbon's journal, in longhand, referring to "bits of cold meat" as a "Sandwich".[15] It was named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, an eighteenth-century English aristocrat. It is said that he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, and others began to order "the same as Sandwich!"[6][7] It is commonly said that Lord Sandwich was fond of this form of food because it allowed him to continue playing cards, particularly cribbage, while eating, without using a fork, and without getting his cards greasy from eating meat with his bare hands.[6]The rumour in its familiar form appeared in Pierre-Jean Grosley's Londres (Neuchâtel, 1770), translated as A Tour to London in 1772;[16] Grosley's impressions had been formed during a year in London in 1765. The sober alternative is provided by Sandwich's biographer, N. A. M. Rodger, who suggests Sandwich's commitments to the navy, and to politics and the arts, mean the first sandwich was more likely to have been consumed at his desk. Before being known as sandwiches, this food combination seems to simply have been known as "bread and meat" or "bread and cheese".[6] These two phrases are found throughout English drama from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.[6]In the United States, a court in Boston, Massachusetts, ruled in 2006 that a sandwich includes at least two slices of bread[1] and "under this definition, this court finds that the term 'sandwich' is not commonly understood to include burritos, tacos, and quesadillas, which are typically made with a single tortilla and stuffed with a choice filling of meat, rice, and beans."[17] The issue stemmed from the question of whether a restaurant that sold burritos could move into a shopping centre where another restaurant had a no-compete clause in its lease prohibiting other "sandwich" shops. In Spain, where the word sandwich is borrowed from the English language,[18] it refers to a food item made with English sandwich bread.[19] It is otherwise known as a bocadillo. Similar usage applies in other Spanish-speaking cultures, such as Mexico, where the word torta is also used for a popular variety of roll-type sandwiches. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term sandwich is more narrowly defined than in the United States: it refers only to an item which uses sliced bread from a loaf.[citation needed] An item with similar fillings, but using an entire bread roll cut horizontally in half, is always referred to as a roll. (In South Australia, there is a regional variant of the roll, superficially similar to a club sandwich, where the bread roll is sliced three times with parallel cuts, and filling is put in the first and third openings, but not the second. This makes the resulting double cut roll easier to handle: the top half and the bottom half are eaten separately.) Any hot item based on a bread roll is referred to as a burger, never as a sandwich. However, hot sliced (not ground) beef between two slices of toasted bread is referred to as a steak sandwich: it is the sliced loaf bread that distinguishes the steak sandwich from a burger.[citation needed]The verb to sandwich has the meaning "to position anything between two other things of a different character, or to place different elements alternately,"[20] and the noun sandwich has related meanings derived from this more general definition. For example, an ice cream sandwich consists of a layer of ice cream between two layers of cake or biscuit.[21] Similarly, Oreos and Custard Creams are described as sandwich biscuits (UK/Commonwealth) or sandwich cookies (US) because they consist of a soft filling between the baked layers.[22]The word butty (a reference to the fact that butter is often used in British sandwiches) is common in some northern parts of England as a slang synonym for "sandwich", particularly to refer to certain kinds of sandwiches including the chip butty, bacon butty, or sausage butty.[23]Sarnie is a similar colloquialism.[24] Likewise, the word sanger is used for sandwich in Scottish dialect.[citation needed] The colloquial Scottish word piece may refer either to a sandwich or to a light meal, especially one that includes a sandwich. For example, the phrase jeely piece refers to a jam sandwich.[25] Pre-made sandwiches It has been suggested that UK's first pre-made packaged sandwiches were sold by Marks & Spencer in 1980.[26] As they proved wildly popular, a small experiment involving five stores rapidly grew to cover more than one hundred stores. Within a year, the store was looking for ways to manufacture sandwiches at an industrial scale. However, the first pre-packed sandwiches date from well before this. British Home Stores sold pre-packed sandwiches in the 1960s (see the Radio Times 3 November 2018 p. 167), and earlier even than that, Marks and Spencer (Brighton branch) began selling them in the 1950s, and then in the 1960s in the Oxford Street branch, London. (See the Radio Times 10 November 2018 p. 160) In 2017, the sandwich industry made and sold £8 billion in sandwiches in the UK alone.[26] Varieties The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Further information: List of sandwiches and List of American sandwiches Among the many varieties of sandwich popular in the United States are the BLT, cheese sandwich, club sandwich, Dagwood, French dip, hamburger, Monte Cristo, muffuletta, pastrami on rye, peanut butter and jelly sandwich, cheesesteak, pilgrim, po' boy, Reuben, sloppy joe, and submarine.[27] Gallery Hamburger Reuben sandwich Club sandwich Croque-monsieur, a French ham and cheese hot sandwich Peanut butter and jelly sandwich A Philadelphia-style cheesesteak, a type of submarine sandwich Smoked meat sandwich French bread sandwich with fries Sandwich making Shawarma sandwich Doner sandwich Chicken breast sandwich A meat and cheese sandwich with various toppings and a side dish of coleslaw An open sandwich with smoked horse meat in the Netherlands Bacon, egg and cheese sandwich Salmon-and-cream-cheese sandwiches on pieces of baguette English sandwiches, crustless on a plate Sandwich with fried egg, tomato and cucumber Sandwich filled with olives and sliced red tomatoes A pre-packaged sandwich See also Butterbrot Finger food Fuzzy concept § Sandwich example List of bread dishes List of sandwiches List of American sandwiches List of foods Panino (also called by the plural panini) Sandwich cake (layer cake) Sandwiches de miga Soup and sandwich Tramezzino Vada pav References ^ a b Abelson, Jenn (10 November 2006). "Arguments spread thick". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2009. ^ "sandwich". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 29 March 2012. ^ Foundations of Restaurant Management & Culinary Arts Level Two. Pearson. 2011. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-13-138022-6. ^ Foundations of Restaurant Management & Cullinary Arts Level Two. Pearson. 2011. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-13-138022-6. ^ Becoming a Foodservice professional Year 1. National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. 1999. p. 306. ISBN 1-883904-87-0. ^ a b c d e What's Cooking America, Sandwiches, History of Sandwiches. 2 February 2007. ^ a b "Sandwich celebrates 250th anniversary of the sandwich". BBC News Online. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. ^ Marks, Kathy (17 May 1997). "BLT: British, lousy and tasteless". The Independent. London. ^ Bavli Pesachim 115a; See also Passover Hagadah ^ Meads, Chris (2001). Banquets set forth: banqueting in English Renaissance drama. Manchester University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-7190-5567-9. ^ Ray, John (1673). Observations topographical, moral, & physiological; made in a journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France …. London, England: John Martyn. p. 51. ^ Ray, Observations topographical, moral, & physiological; made in a journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France … (vol. I, 1673) quoted in Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches (1987:152). ^ a b Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, Solomon H. Katz, editor (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York) 2003 ^ Alan Davidson and Tom Jaine (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 712. ISBN 978-0199677337. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary gives its appearance as 1762. ^ Grosley, Londres (Neuchatel, 1770) and A Tour to London, or, New observations on England and its inhabitants, translated from the French by Thomas Nugent (London: Printed for Lockyer Davis) 1772; Hexmasters Faktoider: Sandwich: English quotes from Grosley 1772 ^ White City Shopping Ctr., LP v. PR Rests., LLC, 21 Mass. L. Rep. 565 (Mass. Super. Ct. 2006) ^ Collado, Asunción López (January 1994). Hostelería, curso completo de servicios. Asunción López Collado (in Spanish). ISBN 978-84-283-2035-1. Retrieved 11 July 2010. ^ "Consultorio gastronómico". La Verdad Digital S.L. (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 July 2010. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary ^ Taste Taste: Ice Cream Sandwiches, ^ Oreo Sandwich Biscuits, ^ "Butty". Retrieved 13 August 2019. ^ "Sarnie". Retrieved 13 August 2019. ^ "Parliamo Scots? - Food". Rampant Scotland. Retrieved 28 November 2016. ^ a b Knight, Sam (24 November 2017). "How the Sandwich Consumed Britain". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 December 2017. ^ Carlos, Brenda. "Fascinating Facts about the Sandwich". Retrieved 5 October 2011. External links Sandwichat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity The British Sandwich AssociationvteBreadTypes Brown bread Chapati Flatbread Injera Multigrain bread Naan Paratha Pitta Quick Rye bread Salt-rising Sandwich bread Soda bread Sourdough Texas toast Unleavened White bread Whole wheatIngredients Baker's yeast Barm Calcium propanoate Eggs Fat Flour Flour treatment agent Leavening agent Milk Salt Sugar WaterEquipment Oven Bread machine Bread pan Dough scraper Farinograph Lame Peel Stand mixer Weighing scalesProcesses Autolysis Baking Biga Chorleywood bread process Kneading Leavening Maillard reaction No-knead bread Proofing Pre-ferment Pre-slicing Sponge and dough Steaming Straight dough Vienna processUses Bread crumbs Bread bowl Bread pudding Croutons French toast Stuffing Sandwiches ToastOther Breadmaking Baker percentage Bread in Europe History of breadList articles American breads Brand name breads Bread dishes Bread rolls British breads Buns Indian breads Pakistani breads Quick breads Sweet breads Toast dishes Category vteHamburgersTypes Angus burger Buffalo burger Cheeseburger Chili burger Chori burger Coconut burger Hamburger Hamdog Jucy/Juicy Lucy Luther Burger Naan burger Patty melt Rice burger Slider Slopper Slugburger Steak burger Veggie burgerBrand name Bacon Deluxe Baconator Big Classic Big King Big Mac Big N' Tasty Burger King premium burgers McDonald's Deluxe line Quarter Pounder WhopperOverview Cheeseburger history History of the hamburger History of the hamburger in the United StatesList articles List of hamburger restaurants List of hamburgersRelated topics Hamburg steak Patty Salisbury steak Sandwich Sloppy joe Category: Hamburgers (food) vteEnglish cuisineRoman timesDishes SausagesMiddle AgesExemplars Utilis Coquinario The Forme of Cury (c. 1390)Dishes Apple pie Bacon Banbury cake Cheesecake Custard Game pie Gingerbread Kippers Mince pie Mortis Pasty Pease pudding Pie Pottage16th centuryExemplars Thomas Dawson (The Good Huswifes Jewell, 1585)Dishes Black pudding Fruit fool Pancake Scones Syllabub Trifle (without jelly)17th centuryExemplars Elinor Fettiplace (Receipt Book, 1604) Gervase Markham (The English Huswife, 1615) Robert May (The Accomplisht Cook, 1660) Hannah Woolley (The Queen-like Closet or Rich Cabinet 1670) Kenelm Digby (The Closet Opened 1699)Dishes Battalia pie Currant bun Queen of Puddings Sponge cake Sussex pond pudding Sweet and sour Tea18th centuryExemplars Mary Kettilby (A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery 1714) John Nott (The Cooks and Confectioners Dictionary, 1723) Eliza Smith (The Compleat Housewife 1727) Hannah Glasse (The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy 1747) Elizabeth Raffald (The Experienced English Housekeeper 1769) Richard Briggs (The English Art of Cookery 1788) William Augustus Henderson (The Housekeeper's Instructor 1791)Dishes Bread and butter pudding Christmas pudding Chutney Cottage or Shepherd's pie Eccles cake Jellied eels Jugged hare Ketchup Marmalade Parkin Piccalilli Pork pie Roast beef Sandwich Scouse Suet pudding Toad in the hole Trifle (with jelly) Welsh rabbit Yorkshire pudding19th centuryExemplars Mrs Rundell (A New System of Domestic Cookery 1806) Eliza Acton (Modern Cookery for Private Families 1845) Charles Elmé Francatelli (The Modern Cook 1846) Isabella Beeton (Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management 1861)Dishes Bubble and squeak Cauliflower cheese Cobbler Devilled kidneys Faggots Fish and chips Full English breakfast HP Sauce Ice cream cone Lancashire hotpot Potted shrimps Sausage roll Steak and kidney pudding Battenberg cake Eton mess Eve's pudding Jam roly-poly Lardy cake Madeira cake Summer pudding Worcestershire sauce20th centuryExemplars Elizabeth David (A Book of Mediterranean Food 1950) Constance Spry Marguerite Patten Jane Grigson Delia Smith Rick Stein Nigel Slater Keith Floyd Marco Pierre White Fergus Henderson Gordon Ramsay Gary RhodesDishes Bakewell tart Beef Wellington Carrot cake Chicken tikka masala Crumble Knickerbocker glory Ploughman's lunch Salad cream21st centuryExemplars Michel Roux Jr. (Le Gavroche) Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall (River Cottage) Antony Worrall Thompson Heston Blumenthal (The Fat Duck) Mary Berry Clarissa Dickson Wright (A History of English Food 2011)Related Food in England (1954) List of English dishes List of English cheeses List of puddings Rationing in the United Kingdom vteStreet foodStreet foods Acarajé Aloo chaat Aloo tikki Anticucho Apam balik Arancini Arepa Asinan Bagel Bakpau Bakso Balık ekmek Banana cue Bánh canh Bánh hỏi Bánh mì sandwich Bánh xèo Batagor Beef Pares Beguni Belgian waffle Beondegi Bhelpuri Binaki Binatog Biryani Bourekas Bratwurst Brochette Bublik Bubur ayam Bun cha Bungeo-ppang Bunny chow Burrito Breakfast burrito Calzone Calamares Camote cue Cart noodle Chaat Chebureki Chiko Roll Chimichanga Chinese bhel Cockle (bivalve) Cōng yóu bǐng Covrigi Coxinha Crêpe Currywurst Dahi puri Dak-kkochi Dim sum Donkey Burger Dosa Doubles Douhua Empanada Enchilada Esquites Falafel Farinata Fish ball Focaccia French fries French tacos Fried chicken Navajo frybread Galette-saucisse Ginanggang Gorengan Ghugni Gukhwappang Gyeranppang Gyro Haleem Hot dog Isaw Idli Jhalmuri Jiaozi Kaassoufflé Kachori Kapsalon Kati roll Kebab Chapli kebab Doner kebab Kyinkyinga Shami kebab List of kebabs Kerak telor Ketoprak Khachapuri Khanom Tokyo Kikiam Knish Kwek Kwek Laksa Lángos Luchi Malatang Mami Maruya Masala puri Meat pie Mie ayam Murtabak Naan Nem chua rán Obwarzanek krakowski Pad thai Pajeon Pakora Paneer tikka Pani câ meusa Panini Panipuri Panzerotti Papri chaat Paratha Pasty Pav Bhaji Pempek Pepito Peremech Pho Piadina Picarones Pilaf Pinasugbo Pirozhki Pizza al taglio Pizzetta Plăcintă Pljeskavica Poha Poutine Pretzel Punugulu Puri Quail eggs Quesadilla Rat-on-a-stick Ražnjići Rogan josh Rojak Roti Roti john Roujiamo Rumali roti Rustico Sabich Samosa Sandwich Sardenara Satay Scaccia Seblak Sevpuri Sfenj Shao Kao Shashlik Shawarma Sicilian pizza Siomay Soto Souvlaki Stigghiola Taco Korean taco Tahri Tahu gejrot Tahu sumedang Takoyaki Tamale Tandoori chicken Tangbao Taquito Tauge goreng Tornado potato Turon Vada Vada pav Vastedda Vietnamese noodles Xôi Yakitori ZapiekankaFood trucks Big Gay Ice Cream Truck Chef Jeremiah Chi'Lantro BBQ Clover Food Lab Coolhaus Don Chow Tacos Grease trucks The Grilled Cheese Truck The Halal Guys Harry's Cafe de Wheels Kelvin Natural Slush Co. KIND Movement Kogi Korean BBQ Korilla BBQ Maximus/Minimus Off the Grid Philadelphia Mobile Food Association Pincho Man Pølsevogn Taco BusBy location Hong Kong India Chennai Mumbai Indonesia Mexico Philippines South Korea ThailandMobile catering Field kitchen Food booth Food cart Food truck Food truck rally Hot dog cart Hot dog stand Ice cream van Sausage wagon Taco stand Yatai Pojangmacha WürstelstandLists List of street foods List of food trucks Food trucks in Tampa, FloridaSee also Food street Category: Street food vteSandwichesList of sandwiches Afghani burger Bagel toast Bánh mì Bocadillo Breakfast Bacon, egg and cheese Bun kebab Cemita Chimichurris Chip butty Chocolate Chopped Cheese Chow mein Crisp Dagwood Donkey Burger Doughwich Egg Fluffernutter Fool's Gold Loaf Gatsby Guajolota Hamdog Ice cream Jam Mitraillette Mother-in-law Pambazo Peanut butter, banana and bacon Pistolette Pocket Sabich Sándwich de milanesa Sandwiches de miga Sincronizada Smørrebrød Spaghetti Spatlo Spiedie St. Paul Tea Toast Tramezzino Trancapecho WrapCheese Carrozza Cheese and tomato Cheese dream Cheese on toast Grilled cheese Limburger Melt PebeteFish and seafood Bake and Shark Balık ekmek Fischbrötchen Fish finger Lobster roll Prawn roll Salmon burger Sol over Gudhjem Tuna fishMeat American sub Barbecue Bauru Bologna Chacarero Chicken Chivito Choripán Club Cuban Cudighi Doner kebab Donkey Burger Francesinha Francesinha poveira Fried-brain Gua bao Gyro Italian Jibarito Kati roll Kottenbutter Medianoche Pepito Po' boy Redonkadonk Roujiamo Sailor Shawarma Shooter's Slider Sloppy joe Strammer Max Submarine Tonkatsu Torta Torta ahogada Wrap roti WurstbrotBeef Barros Luco Beef on weck Cheesesteak Corned beef Denver French dip Hamburger List of hamburgers Italian beef Montreal-style smoked meat Pastrami on rye Reuben Roast beef Sloppy joe Steak burger Steak Tavern TongueHam and pork Bacon Barros Jarpa BLT Croque-monsieur Flæskesteg Ham and cheese Ham and egg bun Ham salad Jambon-beurre Monte Cristo Porchetta Pork chop bun Pork tenderloin Toast HawaiiSausage Braunschweiger Liverwurst Maxwell Street Polish Mortadella Polish Boy PorilainenOpen Butterbrot Canapé Crudos Dyrlægens natmad Gerber Horseshoe Mollete Muisjes Obložené chlebíčky Pan bagnat Panini Smørrebrød ZapiekankaVegetarian Baked bean Cucumber Dabeli Doubles Lettuce Peanut butter and jelly Tomato Vada pav Vegetable Related Sandwich bread Sandwich loaf Soup and sandwich  Category: Sandwiches Food portal Authority control LCCN: sh85117253 NDL: 00570097 Retrieved from "" Categories: SandwichesBritish cuisineAmerican cuisineStreet foodWorld cuisineTypes of foodBread dishesHidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources (es)Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesArticles with short descriptionUse dmy dates from November 2014Use British English from May 2012All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2014Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016Articles with limited geographic scope from April 2019Pages in non-existent country centric categoriesWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with NDL identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikibooks Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages AlemannischÆngliscالعربيةAragonésAsturianuAtikamekwAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهBân-lâm-gúБългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàČeštinaCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschEestiΕλληνικάЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGaeilgeGalego한국어ՀայերենԱրեւմտահայերէնहिन्दीHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaIsiXhosaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתJawaಕನ್ನಡქართულიҚазақшаKreyòl ayisyenLatinaLatviešuLietuviųLumbaartMagyarമലയാളംBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄Nederlands日本語NorskNorsk nynorskNouormandOccitanଓଡ଼ିଆਪੰਜਾਬੀPiemontèisPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்తెలుగుไทยᏣᎳᎩTsetsêhestâheseTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوTiếng Việtייִדיש粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 13 August 2019, at 20:11 (UTC). 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