Sibiu - Wikipedia Sibiu From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search City SibiuHermannstadt / NagyszebenCityCoat of armsSibiuLocation of Sibiu within RomaniaCoordinates: 45°47′34″N 24°09′07″E / 45.79278°N 24.15194°E / 45.79278; 24.15194Coordinates: 45°47′34″N 24°09′07″E / 45.79278°N 24.15194°E / 45.79278; 24.15194Country RomaniaCounty SibiuStatusCounty seatFounded1191 (first official record)Government • MayorAstrid Fodor (FDGR)Area • Total121 km2 (47 sq mi)Elevation415 m (1,362 ft)Population (2011 census[1]) • Total147,245 • Density1,132/km2 (2,930/sq mi)Time zoneUTC+2 (EET) • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)Postal Code55xxxxArea code(s)+40 269/369Car Large Square, general view towards North Sibiu (Romanian: [siˈbiw], antiquated Sibiiu; German: Hermannstadt [ˈhɛʁmanʃtat], Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Hungarian: Nagyszeben [ˈnɒcsɛbɛn]) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.[1] Located some 275 km (171 mi) north-west of Bucharest,[2] the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania. Sibiu is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania and was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of Luxembourg.[3] Formerly the centre of the Transylvanian Saxons, the old city of Sibiu was ranked as "Europe's 8th-most idyllic place to live" by Forbes in 2008.[4]The city administers the Păltiniș ski resort. Contents 1 History 2 Geography 2.1 City districts 3 Climate 4 Demographics 4.1 Population dynamics 4.2 Population by religious denomination 5 Politics 6 Economy 7 Transport 7.1 Air 7.2 Road 7.3 Rail 7.4 Cycling 8 Culture 8.1 Museums and parks 8.2 Events 8.3 European Cultural Capital 9 Tourism 9.1 Main sights 10 Health 11 Education 12 Sports 12.1 Teams 13 Natives 14 Twinned towns 15 Consulates in Sibiu 16 Gallery 17 See also 18 References 19 Bibliography 20 External links History[edit] See also: Timeline of Sibiu The first official record referring to the Sibiu area comes from 1191, when Pope Celestine III confirmed the existence of the free prepositure of the German settlers in Transylvania, the prepositure having its headquarters in Sibiu, named Cibinium at that time.[5]In the 14th century, it was already an important trade centre. In 1376, the craftsmen were divided in 19 guilds. Sibiu became the most important ethnic German city among the seven cities that gave Transylvania its German name Siebenbürgen (literally seven citadels).[6][7] It was home to the Universitas Saxorum (Community of the Saxons), a network of pedagogues, ministers, intellectuals, city officials, and councilmen of the German community forging an ordered legal corpus and political system in Transylvania since the 1400s.[8][9] During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became the second- and later the first-most important centre of Transylvanian Romanian ethnics. The first Romanian-owned bank had its headquarters here (The Albina Bank), as did the ASTRA (Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Romanian's People Culture). After the Romanian Orthodox Church was granted status in the Habsburg Empire from the 1860s onwards, Sibiu became the Metropolitan seat, and the city is still regarded as the third-most important centre of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Between the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and 1867 (the year of the Ausgleich), Sibiu was the meeting-place of the Transylvanian Diet, which had taken its most representative form after the Empire agreed to extend voting rights in the region. After World War I, when Austria-Hungary was dissolved, Sibiu became part of Romania; the majority of its population was still ethnic German (until 1941) and counted a large Romanian community, as well as a smaller Hungarian one. Starting from the 1950s and until after 1990, most of the city's ethnic Germans emigrated to Germany and Austria. Among the roughly 2,000 who have remained is Klaus Johannis, the current[update] President of Romania. Geography[edit] Topographic map of the Sibiu region Panoramic view of Sibiu historic center, looking East. Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania at 45°47′34″N 24°09′07″E / 45.792784°N 24.152069°E / 45.792784; 24.152069. Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km from the Făgăraș Mountains, 12 km from the Cibin Mountains, and about 15 km from the Lotru Mountains, which border the depression in its southwestern section. The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Gușteriței Hill. The Cibin river as well as some smaller streams runs through Sibiu. The geographical position of Sibiu makes it one of the most important transportation hubs in Romania with important roads and railway lines passing through it. City districts[edit] The following districts are part of Sibiu. Some were villages annexed by the city but most were built as the city developed and increased its surface. Historic Center - Divided into the Upper Town and Lower Town Centru (Centre) Lupeni Trei Stejari Vasile Aaron Hipodrom I, II, III, IV Valea Aurie (Golden Valley) Tilișca Ștrand Turnișor (Little Tower; German: Neppendorf) Piața Cluj Țiglari Terezian Reșița Lazaret Gușterița (German: Hammersdorf) Broscărie Viile Sibiului Tineretului Veteranilor de Război The Southern part, including the ASTRA National Museum Complex and the Zoo, also falls within the city limits. Climate[edit] Sibiu's climate is humid continental with average temperatures of 8 to 9 °C (46 to 48 °F). The average rainfall is 627 l/m2, and there are about 120 days of hard frost annually. Climate data for Sibiu (1981–2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 15.6 (60.1) 21.3 (70.3) 30.6 (87.1) 30.2 (86.4) 32.1 (89.8) 35.4 (95.7) 38.3 (100.9) 38.4 (101.1) 39.5 (103.1) 32.5 (90.5) 27.0 (80.6) 19.3 (66.7) 39.5 (103.1) Average high °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 4.5 (40.1) 10.1 (50.2) 16.0 (60.8) 21.3 (70.3) 24.2 (75.6) 26.3 (79.3) 26.2 (79.2) 21.4 (70.5) 16.2 (61.2) 9.1 (48.4) 3.1 (37.6) 15.0 (59) Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8 (27) −1.2 (29.8) 3.8 (38.8) 9.6 (49.3) 14.9 (58.8) 18.0 (64.4) 19.7 (67.5) 19.1 (66.4) 14.4 (57.9) 9.1 (48.4) 3.4 (38.1) −1.3 (29.7) 8.9 (48) Average low °C (°F) −6.9 (19.6) −5.9 (21.4) −1.2 (29.8) 3.9 (39) 8.6 (47.5) 11.6 (52.9) 13.3 (55.9) 12.7 (54.9) 8.7 (47.7) 3.5 (38.3) −1.2 (29.8) −5.3 (22.5) 3.5 (38.3) Record low °C (°F) −31.8 (−25.2) −31.0 (−23.8) −24.5 (−12.1) −12.0 (10.4) −3.6 (25.5) 1.0 (33.8) 4.2 (39.6) 1.0 (33.8) −3.6 (25.5) −9.4 (15.1) −21.3 (−6.3) −29.8 (−21.6) −31.8 (−25.2) Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.9 (0.98) 25.0 (0.984) 33.9 (1.335) 52.8 (2.079) 69.0 (2.717) 92.9 (3.657) 92.0 (3.622) 76.7 (3.02) 59.8 (2.354) 39.9 (1.571) 31.3 (1.232) 31.0 (1.22) 629.2 (24.772) Average snowfall cm (inches) 11.0 (4.33) 11.0 (4.33) 7.4 (2.91) 4.8 (1.89) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.7 (0.67) 4.5 (1.77) 6.5 (2.56) 46.9 (18.46) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.2 10.5 11.2 13.1 15.2 14.5 13.3 10.4 10.6 9.0 9.7 12.1 140.8 Average relative humidity (%) 87 79 71 67 68 71 71 72 76 78 80 86 75 Mean monthly sunshine hours 68 97 138 164 215 228 248 238 172 148 89 61 1,866 Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[10] Ogimet (mean temperatures and sun 1981–2010)[11]Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000),[12] NOAA (snowfall 1961–1990),[13]Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1989–2008)[14]Demographics[edit] As of 2011 census data, Sibiu has a population of 147,245, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census,[1] making it the 14th-largest city in Romania. The ethnic breakdown was as follows:[15] Romanians 95.9% Hungarians 1.6% Germans (Transylvanian Saxons) 1.1% Roma 0.4%A 2017 estimate placed the population at 169,316, a 14.98 percent increase since 2011. This increase brings Sibiu's population close to the numbers observed in 1992 when the highest population was recorded.[16] Population dynamics[edit] Census[17] Ethnic structure Year Population %± Romanians Hungarians Germans 1850 12,765 — 2,089 977 8,790 1880 19,446 + 41.4% 2,810 2,065 14,327 1890 21,465 + 9.8% 4,581 3,199 13,148 1900 29,577 + 31.7% 7,106 5,747 16,141 1910 33,489 + 12.4% 8,824 7,252 16,832 1920 32,748 – 2.2% 8,553 4,291 18,218 1930 49,345 + 40.4% 19,006 6,782 22,045 1941 63,765 + 25.5% 33,829 4,262 23,574 1948 60,602 – 5% 37,371 5,060 16,359 1956 90,475 + 39.5% 60,526 4,772 24,636 1966 109,515 + 19% 78,548 5,124 25,387 1977 151,005 + 31.8% 119,507 5,111 25,403 1992 169,610 + 11.6% 158,863 4,163 5,605 2002 154,892 – 9% 148,269 3,135 2,508 2011 147,245 – 5% 131,414 2,131 1,481 Population by religious denomination[edit] Today, most of the population is Romanian Orthodox. Protestants and Roman Catholics represent about 5% of the population. Confessions in Sibiu Confession 1910 2002 Eastern Orthodox 18% 91% Greek-Catholic (Uniate) 8% 1% Roman Catholic 20% 2% Evangelical Lutheran 42% 2% Reformed 7% 1% Jewish 4% < 1 % Other 1% 4% Politics[edit] Sibiu city council composition in 2004:   Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania   Social Democratic Party   National Liberal Party   Democratic Party Although ethnic Germans make up less than 2% of Sibiu's population, Klaus Johannis, the former president of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR) and current president of Romania, served as mayor of Sibiu from 2000 to 2014. Johannis was overwhelmingly reelected in 2004 (with 88.7% of votes) and 2008 (with 83.3% of the votes cast) and his party gained an absolute majority in the city council in that year. After the 2014 presidential elections, the interim position for mayor of the city was filled by deputy mayor Astrid Fodor who in the 2016 local elections won the seat with a majority of votes.[18]Despite winning the local elections with a majority of votes and a high approval rating, the current administration is beginning to be viewed as slow moving and lacking transparency. Another issue that is affecting the current administraiton's approval ratings is the lack of investments and innovations.     Party Seats Current Council   Democratic Forum of Germans 12                           National Liberal Party 5                           Social Democratic Party 6                         Economy[edit] Sibiu is an important economic hub for Romania, with a high rate of foreign investments. It is also an important hub for the manufacturing of automotive components and houses factories belonging to ThyssenKrupp Bilstein-Compa, Takata Corporation, Continental Automotive Systems, and NTN-SNR ball bearings. Other local industries are machine components, textiles, agro-industry, and electrical components (Siemens). The city also contains Romania's second-largest stock exchange, the Sibiu Stock Exchange which is set to merge with the Bucharest Stock Exchange in 2018.[19]The main industrial activities of Sibiu take place in two industrial zones located on the outskirts of the city: East industrial zone (East Economic Center), alongside the railway to Brașov and Râmnicu Vâlcea West industrial zone (West Economic Center),[20] near the exit to Sebeș, close to the AirportA commercial zone located in the Șelimbăr commune plays an important role in the economy of Sibiu. It houses a mall and other large retailers. Another factor that plays an important role in the economy of the city is tourism, which has been increasing at a steady rate since 2007. Transport[edit] Sibiu International Airport LocationSibiu is well served in terms of transport and infrastructure. In 2010 a city bypass was opened, significantly reducing the road traffic inside the city. Tursib[21] is the city's internal transportation system operator. Air[edit] Sibiu Airport, Blue Air flight. Sibiu has one of the most modern international airports in Romania, with direct connections to Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Italy and Spain while connections to other European countries being scheduled to start in summer 2018 Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland. Road[edit] Sibiu is an important node in the European road network, being on two different European routes (E68 and E81). At a national level, Sibiu is located on three different main national roads, DN1, DN7 and DN14. The Romanian Motorway A1 will link the city with Pitești and the Romanian western border, near Arad. From the remaining 332 km of motorway towards the border with Hungary Nadlac, a total of 276 km is completed and the last 56 km are currently under construction, while the timeline for the segment towards Pitești is targeted for completion for the year 2025 (construction will start no sooner than 2019). Sibiu' s ring road as part of A1 motorway was completed on 1 December 2010. Sibiu is also an important hub for the international bus links with the biggest passenger transporter in Romania, Atlassib, based here. Transport companies are also providing coach connections from Sibiu to a large number of locations in Romania. Public bus transportation in Sibiu Rail[edit] Main article: Sibiu railway station Sibiu is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 200 (Brasov - Făgăraș - Sibiu - Simeria - Arad - Romanian Western Border) and on Line 206 (Sibiu - Mediaș). The city is served by five rail stations: the Main Station (Gara Mare), the Little Station (Gara Micǎ), Turnișor, Sibiu Triaj, Halta Ateliere Zonă . It has an important diesel-powered locomotives depot and a freight terminal. Numerous Inter City trains (nicknamed Blue Arrows) connect Sibiu to other major cities in Romania: Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Craiova, Timișoara and Bucharest. Cycling[edit] Over the last six years, Sibiu has enjoyed a revival of cycling. The bicycle way in the city span for 43 kilometers. Bicycle rentals have offered a boost for the local economy with several small rental centers and a bigger rental center that is administered by the I'Velo Bike Sharing group. Culture[edit] Sibiu is one of Romania's most culturally lively cities. It has 2 theatres and a philharmonic orchestra along with other smaller private theatrical venues and a theatre studio housed by the Performing Arts and Acting section of Lucian Blaga University, where students hold monthly representations. The Radu Stanca National Theatre[22] is one of the leading Romanian theatres. With origins dating back to 1787, it attracts some of the best-known Romanian directors, such as Gábor Tompa and Silviu Purcărete. It has both a Romanian-language and a German-language section, and presents an average of five shows a week. The Gong Theatre is specialised in puppetry, mime and non-conventional shows for children and teenagers. It also presents shows in both Romanian and German. The State Philharmonic of Sibiu[23] presents weekly classical music concerts, and educational concerts for children and teenagers. The concerts take place in the newly restored Thalia Hall, a concert and theatre hall dating from 1787, situated along the old city fortifications. Weekly organ concerts are organised at the Evangelical Cathedral during summers, and thematic concerts are presented by the Faculty of Theology choir at the Orthodox Cathedral. The Sibiu International Theatre Festival is an annual festival of performing arts. Since 2016, it is the largest performance arts festival in the world.[24] Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu. Museums and parks[edit] Sibiu's museums are organised around two entities: the Brukenthal National Museum and the ASTRA National Museum Complex. The Brukenthal Museum consists of an Art Gallery and an Old Books Library located inside the Brukenthal Palace, a History Museum located in the old town hall building, a Pharmacy Museum located in one of the first apothecary shops in Europe, dating from the 16th century, a Natural History Museum and a Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies. The ASTRA National Museum Complex focuses on ethnography, and consists of a Traditional Folk Civilisation Museum, a 96-hectare open-air museum located in Dumbrava Forest south of Sibiu, a Universal Ethnography Museum, a Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation and a Museum of Saxon Ethnography and Folk Art. Also planned is a Museum of the Culture and Civilisation of the Romany People. Bicycle riders in Sub Arini park, in Sibiu. The Dumbrava Sibiului Natural Park stretches over 960 hectares and it is situated 4 km away from the center of the city in the southwest direction along the road towards Răşinari. Also, here you can find the Zoological Garden and Ethnography Museum. There is a Steam Locomotives Museum close to the railway station, sheltering around 40 locomotives, two of which are functional. The first park in the city was The Promenade, later called "The Disabled Promenade." established in 1791, today part of Parcul Cetății (Citadel Park). Current arrangement of the park, including the space between the walls, dates from 1928. The Sub Arini Park, established in 1856 is one of the biggest and best-maintained parks in Romania. There are other green spaces in the city center, the best known being Astra Park, established in 1879. Tineretului Park Other parks: Tineretului Park, Reconstrucției Park, Corneliu Coposu Park, Petöfi Sándor Park, Piața Cluj Park, Ștrand Park, Cristianului Park, Țițeica Park, Vasile Aaron Park, Lira Park. The distribution of green space is good compared to other Romanian cities. Events[edit] Citadel Park, with the 16 century City wall Several festivals are organised yearly in Sibiu, the most prestigious of them being the Sibiu International Theatre Festival, organized each spring at the end of May. Medieval Festival organized every year in August, reviving the medieval spirit of Transylvania. The Artmania Festival is held every Summer since 2006 and as of 2008 the Rockin' Transilvania Festival is also held in Sibiu. The oldest Jazz Festival in Romania is organized here, as well as the "Carl Filtsch" festival for young classical piano players, the "Astra Film" documentary film festival, the Transylvania calling Festival a Multi Cultural 6 day Open Air Music festival! 26–31 July 2007, a medieval arts festival and many more smaller cultural events.[25]Feeric Fashion Week is also hosted here. Sibiu was awarded by IGCAT (International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism) to be part of the European Regions of Gastronomy program, event that will promote in 2019 the region's culinary heritage, multi-ethnic traditions and multi-cultural community. European Cultural Capital[edit] The designation as a European Cultural Capital for 2007, owed greatly to the excellent collaboration with Luxembourg, but also to what many regard as a miraculous social rebirth taking place in the city during the last years. The Cultural Capital status was expected to bring about an abrupt increase in quantity and quality of cultural events in 2007. Tourism[edit] In 2007, Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture (together with Luxembourg). This was the most important cultural event that has ever happened in the city, and a great number of tourists came, both domestic and foreign. The city of Sibiu and its surroundings are one of the most visited areas in Romania. It holds one of the best preserved historical sites in the country, many of its medieval fortifications having been kept in excellent state. Its old center has begun the process for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Sibiu and its surrounding area have many significant museums, with 12 institutions housing art collections, paintings, and exhibits in decorative arts, archeology, anthropology, history, industrial archeology and history of technology and natural sciences. The city also lies close to the Făgăraș Mountains - a very popular trekking destination, close to the Păltiniș and Arena Platos ski resorts - popular winter holiday destinations, and it is at the heart of the former Saxon communities in Transylvania renowned for its fortified churches. Fortified Lutheran church of Gușterița neighbourhood, 13th century Since 2007, a traditional Christmas market is held for the first time in Sibiu, Romania. The first of its kind in Romania, it is inspired by Viennese Christmas markets, being a project developed by the Social Attaché of the Austrian Embassy in Romania, dr.h.c. Barbara Schöfnagel It was held in the "Lesser Square" (Piața Mică) with 38 small stalls, a small stage and an area dedicated to children, having several mechanical attractions installed there. Since 2008 the market is held in the "Grand Square" and grew to a number of about 70 stalls, a bigger stage was set up, where Christmas carols concerts are held. An ice skating rink and a children's workshop are also attractions which have been added in the following years.[26] It was the first Christmas Market in Romania,[27] but soon other Christmas markets emerged across the country. In 2013, the Sibiu Christmas markets was included in the "15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe"[28]In 2019 Sibiu will host the European Gastronomical capital, by encouraging the local producers and local businesses in the field of food production and culinary culture, traditional gourmet workshops in the villages of the region, promoting peasant farms and gastronomic circuits, or developing public programs to support small producers in gastronomy and of the hospitality industry in the Sibiu region.[29] Main sights[edit] Sibiu Lutheran Cathedral Market in the Large Square, 1790, painting by Franz Neuhauser the Younger Christmas Fair in the Large Square Coopers Tower The House with Caryatids on Mitropoliei Street, constructed in 1786 Pasajul Scărilor (Passage of the Stairs) in the Lower Town Much of the city's aspect is due to its position, easily defensible, but allowing horizontal development. The old city of Sibiu lies on the right bank of the Cibin River, on a hill situated at about 200 m from the river. It consists of two distinct entities: the Upper Town and the Lower Town. Traditionally, the Upper Town was the wealthier part and commercial outlet, while the Lower Town served as the manufacturing area. The Lower Town (German: Unterstadt, Romanian: Orașul de jos) comprises the area between the river and the hill, and it developed around the earliest fortifications. The streets are long and quite wide for medieval city standards, with small city squares at places. The architecture is rather rustic: typically two-storey houses with tall roofs and gates opening passages to inner courts. Most of the exterior fortifications were lost to industrial development and modern urban planning in the mid-late 19th century; only four towers still exist. A building associated with newer urbanism of the period is the Independența Highschool. This area has the oldest church in the city, dating back to 1292. The Upper Town (German: Oberstadt, Romanian: Orașul de sus) is organised around three city squares and a set of streets along the line of the hill. As the main area for burgher activities, the area contains most points of interest in the city. Grand Square (German: Großer Ring, Romanian: Piața Mare ) is, as its name suggests, the largest square of the city, and has been the center of the city since the 15th century. At 142 meters long and 93 meters wide, it is one of the largest ones in Transylvania. Brukenthal Palace, one of the most important Baroque monuments in Romania, lies on the north-western corner of the square. It was erected between 1777 and 1787 as the main residence for the Governor of Transylvania Samuel von Brukenthal. It houses the main part of the National Brukenthal Museum, opened in 1817, making it one of the oldest museums in the world. Next to the palace is the Blue House or Moringer House, an 18th-century Baroque house bearing the old coat of arms of Sibiu on its façade. Interior of the Sibiu Orthodox CathedralOn the north side is the Jesuit Church, along with its dependencies, the former residence of the Jesuits in Sibiu. Also on the north side, at the beginning of the 20th century an Art Nouveau building was constructed on the west part, now it houses the mayor's office. Liars Bridge in Lesser Square, erected in 1859 Next to the Jesuit Church on the north side is the Council Tower, one of the city's symbols. This former fortification tower from the 13th century has been successively rebuilt over the years. The building nearby used to be the City Council's meeting place; beneath it lies an access way between the Grand Square and the Lesser Square. On the south and east sides are two- or three-storey houses, having tall attics with small windows known as the city's eyes. Most of these houses are dated 15th to 19th centuries, and most of them are Renaissance or Baroque in style. Lesser Square (Small Square, German: Kleiner Ring) as its name implies, is a smaller square situated in the northern part of the Upper Town. After the 2007 rehabilitation there has been an increase in the number of small businesses such as pubs and restaurants in this area. The square is connected to the other two squares and to other streets by small, narrow passages. The main access from the Lower City is through Ocnei Street, which divides the square in two. The street passes under the Liar's Bridge - the first bridge in Romania to have been cast in iron (1859).[30]To the right of the bridge is another symbol of the city, The House of the Arts, a 14th-century arched building formerly belonging to the Butchers' Guild. On the left side of the bridge is the Luxemburg House, a Baroque four-storey building. Huet Square is the third of the three main squares of Sibiu. Its most notable feature is the Evangelical Lutheran Cathedral in its center. It is the place where the earliest fortifications have been built in the late 12th century or early 13th century. The buildings around this square are mainly Gothic. On the west side lies the Brukenthal Highschool, in place of a former 14th-century school. The Thick TowerThe Fortifications of Sibiu made the city one of the most important fortified cities in Central Europe. Multiple rings were built around the city, most of them out of clay bricks. The south-eastern fortifications are the best kept, and all three parallel lines are still visible. The first is an exterior earth mound, the second is a 10-meter-tall red brick wall, and the third line comprises towers linked by another 10-meter-tall wall. All structures are connected via a labyrinth of tunnels and passageways, designed to ensure transport between the city and lines of defense. In the 16th century more modern elements were added to the fortifications, mainly leaf-shaped bastions. Two of these survived to this day, as the Haller Bastion (all the way down Coposu Boulevard) and "Soldisch Bastion". The Passage of the Stairs, leads down to the lower section of Sibiu. It descends along some fortifications under the support arches. It is the most picturesque of the several passages linking the two sides of the old city. Health[edit] Sibiu County Hospital Sibiu is one of the important medical centers of Romania, housing many important medical facilities: County Hospital Academic Emergency Hospital; Hospital of Pediatrics; Military Emergency Hospital; CFR Hospital (Romanian Railways Hospital); "Dr. Gheorghe Preda" Psychiatry Hospital other smaller private clinicsThe city also houses one of the largest private hospitals in the country, Polisano. Education[edit] Samuel von Brukenthal High School Sibiu is an important centre of higher education, with over 23,000 students in four public and private higher institutions.[31][32][33][34]The Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu was founded in 1990, with five faculties: Engineering and Sciences; Language Sciences; History and Law; Medicine; Food and Textile Processing Technology. Nowadays, there are 10 faculties and departments. Sibiu also houses the Nicolae Bălcescu Land Forces Academy and the Military Foreign Language Center as well as two private universities, Romanian-German University and Alma Mater University. In Sibiu there are 20 educational institutions on the secondary level, the most important of which are: Gheorghe Lazăr National College - sciences and informatics, first opened in 1692 as a Jesuit College Gheorghe Lazăr National CollegeSamuel von Brukenthal National College - German language high school Octavian Goga National College - social sciences, sciences, informatics and linguistics Onisifor Ghibu Theoretical Highschool - informatics, sciences, sports, theater and linguistics Andrei Șaguna National College - training for school teacher and linguistics Constantin Noica Theoretical Highschool - sciences and linguistics Daniel Popovici Barcianu Highschool - agricultural sciences George Baritiu National College - economic sciences Nicolae Iorga Elementary school Regina Maria Elementary schoolSports[edit] Sala Transilvania The city houses a municipal stadium, a multi-functional arena building, a rugby court, a municipal pool and several private tennis courts. Also, several sports international competitions are taking place every year: Sibiu Cycling Tour (in July), Red Bull Romaniacs Hard Enduro Rallye (around July), Sibiu Open (formerly held in September), Sibiu Rally (currently held in October). Teams[edit] FootballAFC HermannstadtRugbyCSM SibiuVolleyballCSM Sibiu (men) CSS Sibiu (women)BasketballCSU Sibiu (men)HandballCSM Sibiu (women) CSM Sibiu (men)Speed SkatingCSS SibiuNatives[edit] See also: Category:People from Sibiu. Michael Gottlieb Agnethler, botanist Alexandru Apolzan, football player Arthur Arz von Straussenburg, Austro-Hungarian general Florin Barbu, bass player in Romanian bands Timpuri Noi and Proconsul Claudiu Baștea Ion Besoiu, Romanian actor Miklós Borsos, Hungarian sculptor Dan Burincă Andrei Codrescu, American writer Sabina Cojocar, Romanian gymnast Alexandru Curtean Steve Holmes, German pornographic actor Victor Iliu, Romanian film director Klaus Iohannis, president of Romania Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten, Austro-Hungarian general, see also Siege of Przemyśl Mircea Mureșan, Romanian film director Alexandru Mușina, Romanian poet Steliana Nistor, Romanian gymnast Hermann Oberth, space flight technology pioneer Nicolaus Olahus, Catholic archbishop of Esztergom Oskar Pastior, poet and translator Dan Perjovschi, Romanian artist Claudia Presecan, Romanian gymnast Iancu Sasul, Moldavian ruler Viorel Tilea, Romanian diplomat Twinned towns[edit] Sibiu has twinning agreements with: Bauru, Brazil, since 1995. Butuan, Philippines Columbia, USA, since 1994. Deventer, the Netherlands, since 2007.[35] Klagenfurt, Austria, since 1990. Landshut, Germany, since 2002. Marburg, Germany, since 2005. Mechelen, Belgium, since 1996. Rennes, France, since 1999. Valencia, Venezuela, since 1993. Wirral, United Kingdom, since 1994. Takayama, Gifu, Japan, since 2009. Consulates in Sibiu[edit] Federal Republic of Germany - Consulate-GeneralHonorary Consulates: Republic of Austria Grand Duchy of LuxembourgGallery[edit] Copper engraving of Sibiu (Hermanstatt), c. 1630. A busy market scene in Sibiu, 1818 Sibiu and surroundings in the 18th century Sibiu region at the beginning of the 20th century Turnul Sfatului in Small Square The Small Square of Sibiu, during Feeric Fashion Week closing gala - 2016 Huet Square, seen from the tower of the Lutheran Cathedral See also[edit] List of castles in Romania Timeline of Sibiu Tourism in Romania Villages with fortified churches in TransylvaniaReferences[edit] ^ a b c "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013. ^ City Distance Tool Archived 2010-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. at ^ "Sibiu Cultural Capital Website". Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ Beckett, Edward; Olson, Parmy. "In Pictures: Europe's Most Idyllic Places To Live". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2018-02-13. ^ The History of Sibiu Archived 2009-04-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The History of the Transylvanian Saxons Archived 2016-04-22 at the Wayback Machine., ^ Sibiu, or Hermannstadt? A Romanian City with German TraditionsPublished/Revised June 11, 2014 Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., ^ The vanished Romanian German community through Hitler's population transfer, soviet deportation, & mass emigration Archived 2016-03-16 at the Wayback Machine., ^ The Saxons’ Land, or the Royal Domain (Fundus Regius) Archived 2015-07-15 at the Wayback Machine., ^ "World Weather Information Service – Sibiu". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on July 26, 2017. Retrieved July 25, 2017. ^ "CLIMAT summary for 15260: Sibiu (Romania) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved July 25, 2017. ^ "AIR TEMPERATURE (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2015. ^ "Sibiu Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 9, 2015. ^ "Klimatafel von Hermannstadt (Sibiu), Siebenbürgen / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved November 23, 2016. ^ "2011 census data" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ "Statistică: în șase ani Sibiul a crescut cu aproape 70.000 de locuitori | Turnul Sfatului Online". Turnul Sfatului Online (in Romanian). 2017-10-01. Archived from the original on 2015-05-26. Retrieved 2017-10-08. ^ "Erdély etnikai és felekezeti statisztikája". Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ "Rezultate finale 5 iunie + 19 iunie 2016 - Biroul Electoral Central". Archived from the original on 17 December 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ "Sbiu Stock Exchange Website". Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ (PDF) Missing or empty |title= (help) ^ Tursib Archived 2007-05-22 at the Wayback Machine. - Official Site ^ Radu Stanca National Theatre Archived 2006-09-09 at the Wayback Machine. - Official Site ^ State Philharmonic of Sibiu Archived 2012-11-20 at the Wayback Machine. - Official Site ^ Insider, Ro (17 January 2017). "Sibiu International Theater Festival becomes world's biggest". Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ 2006 Cultural Programme Archived 2006-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Târgul de Crăciun din Sibiu Archived 2009-12-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Press Release Primaria Sibiu ^ "Christmas Traveling: 15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe". 7 December 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ Sibiu Guide ^ WR. "The Bridge of Lies, Sibiu·". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ ULBS, Departamentul de Comunicaţii și Marketing al. ":: L B U S :: About LBUS". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ Land Forces Military Academy Archived 2015-01-30 at the Wayback Machine. at ^ "Universitatea Romano-Germana din Sibiu". Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ "Istoricul Universitatii Alma Mater Sibiu - Universitatea Alma Mater Sibiu". Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018. ^ (in Romanian) Sibiu Town Hall Official Site, Acordul de infratire intre Sibiu si orasul Deventer din Olanda Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine., 23 May 2007 Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Sibiu External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sibiu. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Official Sibiu Online website — tourism and history information and images. (in Romanian), (in English), (in German) Official Sibiu Tourism website (in Romanian), (in English), (in German) Sibiu Heritage website (in Romanian), (in English) - Locuri si evenimente din Sibiu, Romania (in Romanian) Sibiu — reference for surface area, population, etc. (2005). Restoration of Historical Monuments in Sibiu —photo gallery and projects' report. Official Sibiu European Cultural Capital 2007 website (in Romanian), (in English), (in German) The Diplomat: article; "Sibiu as Capital of Culture" (in Romanian) photos, videos, and retirement information Sibiu in pictures Pictures of SibiuvteSibiu County, RomaniaCities Sibiu (county seat) MediașTowns Agnita Avrig Cisnădie Copșa Mică Dumbrăveni Miercurea Sibiului Ocna Sibiului Săliște TălmaciuCommunes Alma Alțâna Apoldu de Jos Arpașu de Jos Ațel Axente Sever Bazna Bârghiș Biertan Blăjel Boița Brateiu Brădeni Bruiu Chirpăr Cârța Cârțișoara Cristian Dârlos Gura Râului Hoghilag Iacobeni Jina Laslea Loamneș Ludoș Marpod Merghindeal Micăsasa Mihăileni Moșna Nocrich Orlat Păuca Poiana Sibiului Poplaca Porumbacu de Jos Racovița Rășinari Râu Sadului Roșia Sadu Slimnic Șeica Mare Șeica Mică Șelimbăr Șura Mare Șura Mică Tilișca Târnava Turnu Roșu Valea Viilor Vurpăr vteCities in Romania by population1,000,000+ Bucharest200,000+ Cluj-Napoca Timișoara Iași Constanța Craiova Brașov Galați Ploiești100,000+ Oradea Brăila Arad Pitești Sibiu Bacău Târgu Mureș Baia Mare Buzău Botoșani Satu Mare complete list municipalities metropolitan areas counties vteCounty seats of Romania (alphabetical order by county) Alba Iulia Arad Pitești Bacău Oradea Bistrița Botoșani Brașov Brăila Buzău Reșița Călărași Cluj-Napoca Constanța Sfântu Gheorghe Târgoviște Craiova Galați Giurgiu Târgu Jiu Miercurea Ciuc Deva Slobozia Iași Bucharest Baia Mare Drobeta-Turnu Severin Târgu Mureș Piatra Neamț Slatina Ploiești Satu Mare Zalău Sibiu Suceava Alexandria Timișoara Tulcea Vaslui Râmnicu Vâlcea FocșaniBucharest (national capital) vteEuropean Capitals of Culture 1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette Authority control WorldCat Identities GND: 4072443-8 MusicBrainz: d50f578f-bb1f-4dc5-8962-aa80de3a1ab7 VIAF: 147718991 Retrieved from "" Categories: SibiuPopulated places in Sibiu CountyCapitals of Romanian countiesCities in Romania1190 establishments in EuropeGerman communities in RomaniaCapitals of the Principality of TransylvaniaPopulated places established in the 12th centuryHidden categories: CS1 Romanian-language sources (ro)Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 German-language sources (de)Pages with citations lacking titlesPages with citations having bare URLsArticles with Romanian-language external linksArticles with short descriptionCoordinates on WikidataArticles containing German-language textArticles containing Hungarian-language textArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2014All articles containing potentially dated statementsPages using div col with small parameterCommons category link is on WikidataArticles with German-language external linksWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikivoyage Languages AcèhAlemannischالعربيةAragonésArmãneashtiAsturianuAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBoarischBrezhonegCatalàCebuanoČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGalego한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתქართულიLadinoLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLimburgsLumbaartMagyarमराठीBahasa MelayuBaso MinangkabauМонголNederlands日本語NorskNorsk nynorskOccitanپنجابیPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaТатарча/tatarçaไทยТоҷикӣTürkçeTürkmençeУкраїнськаاردوVènetoTiếng ViệtVolapükWalonWinaray粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 26 October 2018, at 12:04 (UTC). 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For more information about sibiu check the Wikipedia article here

ZME Science posts about sibiu

Sibiu / Hermannstadt – one of medieval Europe’s finest cities

Tue, Nov 24, 2009


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