Sinai

Sinai Peninsula - Wikipedia Sinai Peninsula From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Sinai) Jump to navigation Jump to search "Sinai" redirects here. For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). Relief map of the Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually /ˈsaɪnaɪ/) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, and is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north. The Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (c. 3100 BC). This comes in stark contrast to the region north of it, the Levant (present-day territories of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), which, due largely to its strategic geopolitical location and cultural convergences, has historically been the center of conflict between Egypt and various states of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. In periods of foreign occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt, also occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire (1517–1867) and the United Kingdom (1882–1956). Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis (known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression due to the simultaneous coordinated attack by the UK, France and Israel) of 1956, and during the Six-Day War of 1967. On 6 October 1973, Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War to retake the peninsula. In 1982, as a result of the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel withdrew from all of the Sinai Peninsula except the contentious territory of Taba, which was returned after a ruling by a commission of arbitration in 1989. Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, and biblical history. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in the Abrahamic faiths. Contents 1 Name 2 Geography 2.1 Climate 3 History 3.1 Ancient Egypt 3.2 Achaemenid Persian Period 3.3 Roman and Byzantine Periods 3.4 Ayyubid Period 3.5 Mamluk and Ottoman Periods 3.6 British control 3.7 Wars with Israel (1948, 56, 67, 67–70, 73) 3.8 1979 Peace Treaty with Israel and aftermath 3.9 Early 21st Century security issues 4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links Name[edit] Mount Sinai (Gabal Musa) The name Sinai (Hebrew: סִינַי‬, Classical Syriac: ܣܝܢܝ‎) may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin[1] or from the Hebrew word Seneh (Hebrew: סֶ֫נֶּה‎ Senneh)[2] The peninsula acquired the name due to the assumption that a mountain near Saint Catherine's Monastery is the Biblical Mount Sinai. However this assumption is contested.[3]Its modern Arabic name is سِينَاء Sīnāʼ  (Egyptian Arabic سينا Sīna; IPA: [ˈsiːnæ]). The modern Arabic is an adoption of the biblical name, the 19th-century Arabic designation of Sinai was Jebel el-Tûr.[4] In addition to its formal name, Egyptians also refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz (أرض الفيروز 'the land of turquoise'). The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or 'land of turquoise'.[5]In English, the name is now usually pronounced /ˈsaɪnaɪ/.[6][7] The traditional pronunciation is /ˈsaɪneɪ/ or /ˈsaɪneɪaɪ/.[8][9] Geography[edit] Image from Gemini 11 spacecraft, featuring part of Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in the foreground and the Levant in the background Sinai is triangular in shape, with northern shore lying on the southern Mediterranean Sea, and southwest and southeast shores on Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea. It is linked to the African continent by the Isthmus of Suez, 125 kilometres (78 mi) wide strip of land, containing the Suez Canal. The eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres (120 mi) wide. The peninsula's eastern shore separates the Arabian plate from the African plate.[10]The southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park. Most of the Sinai Peninsula is divided among the two governorates of Egypt: South Sinai (Ganub Sina) and North Sinai (Shamal Sina).[11] Together, they comprise around 60,000 square kilometres (23,000 sq mi) and have a population (January 2013) of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez (el-Sewais) is on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia (el-Isma'ileyyah) in the centre, and Port Said in the north. The largest city of Sinai is Arish, capital of the North Sinai, with around 160,000 residents. Other larger settlements include Sharm el-Sheikh and El-Tor, on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid (effectively a desert), mountainous and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine and Nekhel.[11] Climate[edit] Sinai is one of the coldest provinces in Egypt because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies. Winter temperatures in some of Sinai's cities and towns reach −16 °C (3 °F).[citation needed] History[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Sinai Peninsula in hieroglyphs BiauBj3w[12]'Mining country'[12] Ancient Egypt[edit] Sinai was called Mafkat or 'country of turquoise' by the ancient Egyptians[13][14] From the time of the First Dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Egyptian Arabic names Wadi Magharah and Serabit El Khadim. The mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable. These may be the first historically attested mines.[citation needed] Achaemenid Persian Period[edit] At the end of the time of Darius I, the Great (521–486 BCE) Sinai was part of the Persian province of Abar-Nahra, which means 'beyond the river [Euphrates]'.[15]Cambyses successfully managed the crossing of the hostile Sinai Desert, traditionally Egypt's first and strongest line of defence, and brought the Egyptians under Psamtik III, son and successor of Ahmose, to battle at Pelusium. The Egyptians lost and retired to Memphis; the city fell to the Persian control and the Pharaoh was carried off in captivity to Susa in mainland Persia. Roman and Byzantine Periods[edit] St. Catherine's Monastery is the oldest working Christian monastery in the world and the most popular tourist attraction on the peninsula. After the death of the last Nabatean king, Rabbel II Soter, in 106,[16] the Roman emperor Trajan faced practically no resistance and conquered the kingdom on 22 March 106. With this conquest, the Roman Empire went on to control all shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The Sinai Peninsula became part of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea.[17]Saint Catherine's Monastery on the foot of Mount Sinai was constructed by order of the Emperor Justinian between 527 and 565. Most of the Sinai Peninsula became part of the province of Palaestina Salutaris in the 6th century. Ayyubid Period[edit] During the Crusades it was under the control of Fatimid Caliphate. Later, Saladin abolished the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt and took this region under his control too. It was the military route from Cairo to Damascus during the Crusades. And in order to secure this route, he built a citadel on the island of Pharaoh in Taba known by his name 'Saladin's citadel'.[citation needed] Mamluk and Ottoman Periods[edit] The peninsula was governed as part of Egypt under the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt from 1260 until 1517, when the Ottoman Sultan, Selim the Grim, defeated the Egyptians at the Battles of Marj Dabiq and al-Raydaniyya, and incorporated Egypt into the Ottoman Empire. From then until 1906, Sinai was administered by the Ottoman provincial government of the Pashalik of Egypt, even following the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty's rule over the rest of Egypt in 1805. The wilderness of Sinai, 1862 British control[edit] In 1906, the Ottoman Porte formally transferred administration of Sinai to the Egyptian government, which essentially meant that it fell under the control of the United Kingdom, who had occupied and largely controlled Egypt since 1882. The border imposed by the British runs in an almost straight line from Rafah on the Mediterranean shore to Taba on the Gulf of Aqaba. This line has served as the eastern border of Egypt ever since. Wars with Israel (1948, 56, 67, 67–70, 73)[edit] Canadian and Panamanian UNEF UN peacekeepers in Sinai, 1974 At the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Egyptian forces entered the former British Mandate of Palestine from Sinai to support Palestinian and other Arab forces against the newly declared State of Israel. For a period during the war, Israeli forces entered the north-eastern corner of Sinai.[18] With the exception of Palestine's Gaza Strip, which came under the administration of the All-Palestine Government,[19] the western frontier of the former Mandate of Palestine became the Egyptian–Israeli frontier under the 1949 Armistice Agreement. In 1958, the Gaza Strip came under direct Egyptian military administration, though it was governed separately from Sinai, and was never annexed by Egypt. The Egyptian government maintained that Egyptian administration would be terminated upon the end of the conflict with Israel. In 1956, Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal,[20] a waterway marking the boundary between Egyptian territory in Africa and the Sinai Peninsula. Thereafter, Israeli ships were prohibited from using the Canal,[21] owing to the state of war between the two states. Egypt also prohibited ships from using Egyptian territorial waters on the eastern side of the peninsula to travel to and from Israel, effectively imposing a blockade on the Israeli port of Eilat. In October 1956, in what is known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression, Israeli forces, aided by Britain, and France (which sought to reverse the nationalization and regain control over the Suez Canal), invaded Sinai and occupied much of the peninsula within a few days. In March 1957, Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai, following strong pressure from the United States and the Soviet Union. Thereafter, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was stationed in Sinai to prevent any further conflict in the Sinai. On 16 May 1967, Egypt ordered the UNEF out of Sinai[22] and reoccupied it militarily. Secretary-General U Thant eventually complied and ordered the withdrawal without Security Council authorisation. In the course of the Six-Day War that broke out shortly thereafter, Israel captured the entire Sinai Peninsula, and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan (which Jordan had controlled since 1949), and the Golan Heights from Syria. The Suez Canal, the east bank of which was now occupied by Israel, was closed. Israel commenced efforts at large scale Israeli settlement in the Sinai Peninsula. Following the Israeli conquest of Sinai, Egypt launched the War of Attrition (1967–70) aimed at forcing Israel to withdraw from the Sinai. The war saw protracted conflict in the Suez Canal Zone, ranging from limited to large scale combat. Israeli shelling of the cities of Port Said, Ismailia, and Suez on the west bank of the canal, led to high civilian casualties (including the virtual destruction of Suez), and contributed to the flight of 700,000[23] Egyptian internal refugees. Ultimately, the war concluded in 1970 with no change in the front line.[24]On 6 October 1973, Egypt commenced Operation Badr to retake the Sinai, while Syria launched a simultaneous operation to retake the Golan Heights,[citation needed] thereby beginning the Yom Kippur War (known in Egypt and much of Europe as the October War). Egyptian engineering forces built pontoon bridges to cross the Suez Canal, and stormed the Bar-Lev Line, Israel's defensive line along the Suez Canal's east bank. Though the Egyptians maintained control of most of the east bank of the Suez Canal, in the later stages of the war, the Israeli military crossed the southern section of the Suez Canal, cutting off the Egyptian 3rd Army, and occupied a section of the Suez Canal's west bank. The war ended following a mutually agreed-upon ceasefire. After the war, as part of the subsequent Sinai Disengagement Agreements, Israel withdrew from immediate proximity with the Suez Canal, with Egypt agreeing to permit passage of Israeli ships. The canal was reopened in 1975, with President Sadat leading the first convoy through the canal aboard an Egyptian destroyer. 1979 Peace Treaty with Israel and aftermath[edit] Egypt-Israel border. Looking north from the Eilat Mountains In 1979, Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in which Israel agreed to withdraw from the entirety of the Sinai Peninsula. Israel subsequently withdrew in several stages, ending in 1982. The Israeli pull-out involved dismantling almost all Israeli settlements, including the settlement of Yamit in north-eastern Sinai. The exception was that the coastal city of Sharm el-Sheikh (which the Israelis had founded as Ofira during their occupation of the Sinai Peninsula) was not dismantled. The Treaty allows monitoring of Sinai by the Multinational Force and Observers, and limits the number of Egyptian military forces in the peninsula. Early 21st Century security issues[edit] Since the early 2000s, Sinai has been the site of several terror attacks against tourists, the majority of whom are Egyptian. Investigations have shown that these were mainly motivated by a resentment of the poverty faced by many Bedouin in the area. Attacking the tourist industry was viewed as a method of damaging the industry so that the government would pay more attention to their situation.[25] (See 2004 Sinai bombings, 2005 Sharm El Sheikh bombings and 2006 Dahab bombings). Since the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, unrest has become more prevalent in the area including the 2012 Egyptian-Israeli border attack in which 16 Egyptian soldiers were killed by militants. (See Sinai insurgency). Also on the rise are kidnappings of refugees. According to Meron Estifanos, Eritrean refugees are often kidnapped by Bedouin in the northern Sinai, tortured, raped, and only released after receiving a large ransom.[26][27]Under President el-Sisi, Egypt has implemented a rigorous policy of controlling the border to the Gaza Strip, including the dismantling of tunnels between Gaza and Sinai.[28] Demographics[edit] Two young Bedouins making bread in the desert The two governorates of North and South Sinai have a total population of 597,000 (January 2013). This figure rises to 1,400,000 by including Western Sinai, the parts of the Port Said, Ismailia and Suez Governorates lying east of the Suez Canal. Port Said alone has a population of roughly 500,000 people (January 2013). Portions of the populations of Ismailia and Suez live in west Sinai, while the rest live on the western side of the Suez Canal. Population of Sinai has largely consisted of desert-dwelling Bedouins with their colourful traditional costumes and significant culture.[29] Large numbers of Egyptians from the Nile Valley and Delta moved to the area to work in tourism, but development adversely affected the native Bedouin population.[citation needed] In order to help alleviate their problems, various NGOs began to operate in the region, including the Makhad Trust, a UK charity that assists the Bedouin in developing a sustainable income while protecting Sinai's natural environment, heritage and culture.[citation needed] Economy[edit] Dahab in Southern Sinai is a popular beach and diving resort See also: Tourism in Egypt Since the Israeli–Egyptian peace treaty, Sinai's scenic spots (including coral reefs offshore) and religious structures have become important to the tourism industry. The most popular tourist destination in Sinai are Mount Sinai (Jabal Musa) and St Catherine's Monastery, which is considered to be the oldest working Christian monastery in the world, and the beach resorts of Sharm el-Sheikh, Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba. Most tourists arrive at Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport, through Eilat, Israel and the Taba Border Crossing, by road from Cairo or by ferry from Aqaba in Jordan.[citation needed] See also[edit] Isthmus of Suez Operation Eagle Multinational Force and Observers Negev BedouinNatural placesBiblical Mount Sinai Desert of Paran Mitla Pass Manmade structuresNawamisWildlifeSinai leopard References[edit] ^ "Sinai Peninsula (peninsula, Egypt) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ "Sinai, Mount". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ See Biblical Mount Sinai for a fuller discussion. ^ J. W. Parker, The Bible Cyclopaedia vol. 2 (1843), p. 1143. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Sinai and Palestine: In Connection with Their History (1877), p. 29. ^ "Étude de la turquoise : de ses traitements et imitations" Archived 15 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., thesis by Claire Salanne, Université de Nantes, 2009. ^ "Definition of Sinai". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ "Sinai". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ John FARRAR (Classical Tutor at the Wesleyan Theological Institution, Richmond.) (1839). The Proper Names of the Bible; Their Orthography, Pronunciation, and Signification, Etc. p. 227.  ^ A Pronouncing Dictionary of the Holy Bible: Being a Concordance of Subjects and Complete Index to the Holy Scriptures. Virtue and Yorston. 1869. p. 215.  ^ Homberg, Catherine and Martina Bachmann, Evolution of the Levant Margin and Western Arabia Platform Since the Mesozoic, The Geological Society of London, 2010, p 65 ISBN 978-1862393066 ^ a b Ned Greenwood (1 January 2010). The Sinai: A Physical Geography. University of Texas Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-292-77909-9.  ^ a b The translation 'mining country' is not certain, see also Rainer Hannig: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch : (2800 - 950 v. Chr.). p. 1135. ^ http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=print_topic;f=8;t=008397 ^ Joseph Davidovits and Ralph Davidovits (2007). "Why Djoser's blue Egyptian faience tiles are not blue? Manufacturing Djoser's faience tiles at temperatures as low as 250 °C?". In Jean Claude Goyon, Christine Cardin. Proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Egyptologists (PDF). 1. Louvain/Paris/Dudley. p. 375.  ^ Iranchamber ^ Schürer, Emil; Millar, Fergus; Vermes, Geza (26 March 2015). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ:. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 583. ISBN 978-0-567-50161-5.  ^ Taylor, Jane: Petra And the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. I. B. Tauris 2001, ISBN 1860645089, p. 73-74 (online copy, p. 73, at Google Books) ^ Rogan, Eugene L. and Avi Shlaim, eds. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p. 99, 2007 ^ Shlaim, Avi (2001). Israel and the Arab Coalition. In Eugene Rogan and Avi Shlaim (eds.). The War for Palestine (pp. 97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79476-3 ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/egypt-nationalizes-the-suez-canal ^ "1956: Egypt Seizes Suez Canal". BBC. 26 July 1956.  ^ Samir A. Mutawi (18 July 2002). Jordan in the 1967 War. Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-52858-0. Although Eshkol denounced the Egyptians, his response to this development was a model of moderation. His speech on 21 May demanded that Nasser withdraw his forces from Sinai but made no mention of the removal of UNEF from the Straits nor of what Israel would do if they were closed to Israeli shipping. The next day Nasser announced to an astonished world that henceforth the Straits were, indeed, closed to all Israeli ships  ^ Spencer, Tucker. Encyclopedia or the Arab-Israeli Conflict. p. 175.  ^ "War of Attrition".  ^ Serene Assir (23 July 2005). "Shock in Sharm". Al-Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ Meron Stefanos on the torture houses in north Sinai ^ Sound of Torture documentary ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/04/egypt-sinai-gaza-tunnels-sanctions-sisi-terrorist.html# ^ Leonard, William R. and Michael H. Crawford, The Human Biology of Pastoral Populations, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 67 ISBN 978-0521780162 Further reading[edit] Gardner, Ann. "At Home in South Sinai". Nomadic Peoples 2000. Vol. 4, Iss. 2; pp. 48–67. Detailed account of Bedouin women H. J. L. Beadnell (May 1926). "Central Sinai". Geographical Journal. 67 (5): 385–398. doi:10.2307/1782203. JSTOR 1782203.  C. W. Wilson (1873). "Recent Surveys in Sinai and Palestine". Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 43: 206–240. doi:10.2307/1798627. JSTOR 1798627.  Jacobs, Jessica (2006). "Tourist Places and Negotiating Modernity: European Women and Romance Tourism in the Sinai". In Minca, Claudio; Oakes, Tim. Travels in Paradox: Remapping Tourism. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2876-5. Retrieved 7 January 2010.  Teague, Matthew; Moyer, Matt (March 2009). "The Sinai's Separate Peace". National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. 215 (3): 99–121. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved 7 January 2010.  Jarvis, C.S.,Yesterday and To-day in Sinai (Edinburgh/London: W. Blackwood & Sons, 1931). New terrorist challenges in the Sinai peninsula, prominent jihadists organisations, Strategic Impact (52), issue: 3 / 2014, pp. 39-47External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sinai Peninsula. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sinai Peninsula.Guide to Sinai, covering background information on history, flora, fauna, desert, Bedouin, safaris and geology of Sinai Sinai Local Magazine The Complete Guide To: The Sinai, The Independent, 15 March 2008. Sinai in ancient Egypt Broadcasting videos from Sinai Images of the Sinai Desert IRIN humanitarian news: EU grant to tackle rural poverty in South Sinai Sinai trekking and safari: route maps and photo archivevte Egypt topicsHistoryChronology Prehistoric Ancient topics Achaemenid Ptolemaic Battle of Actium Lighthouse of Alexandria Roman Diocese of Egypt Library of Alexandria Christian Sassanid Muslim Muslim conquest Islamization Fustat Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty Fatimid Caliphate Crusader invasions Ayyubid dynasty Mamluk Sultanate Mamluk Ottoman Egypt Eyalet Muhammad Ali dynasty Al-Nahda Khedivate Ethiopian–Egyptian War ‘Urabi revolt Modern French occupation Revolt of Cairo British occupation 1919 revolution World War II Sultanate Kingdom 1948 Arab–Israeli War Republic Nasser era 1952 coup d'état Land reform Suez Crisis United Arab Republic Six-Day War Sadat era Yom Kippur War Libyan–Egyptian War Assassination of Anwar Sadat Mubarak era 2010s crisis 2013 Rabaa massacreBy topic 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TaiwanDependencies andother territories British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau vtePeople and things in the QuranCharactersNon-humans Allāh ("The God") Names of Allah found in the Quran, such as Karīm (Generous) Beings in Paradise Ghilmān or Wildān ḤūrAnimalsRelated The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The namlah (female ant) of Solomon The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah The nāqat (she-camel) of SalehNon-related Dābbat al-Arḍ (Beast of the Earth) Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah ("Lion", "beast of prey" or "hunter")Angels Angels of Hell Mālik Zabāniyah Angel of the Trumpet (Isrāfīl or Raphael) Jibrīl (Gabriel) Mīkāl (Michael) ‘Izrā’īl Malakul-Mawt (Azrael, Angel of Death) Riḍwān Munkar Nakir Harut and Marut Kirāman Kātibīn (Honourable Scribes) Raqib AtidJinn ‘Ifrīt Jann Mārid ("Rebellious one") Shayāṭīn (Demons) Iblīs the (Chief) Shayṭān (Devil) Qarīn ProphetsMentioned Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Isḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael) Dhabih Ullah Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (Solomon son of David) ‘Uzair (Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (John the Baptist the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob) Isrā’īl (Israel) Yūnus (Jonah) Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish (or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūt ("Companion of the Whale") Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (Joseph son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)Ulu-l-‘Azm Muḥammad Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad ʿĪsā (Jesus) Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary) Mūsā Kalīmullāh (Moses He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (Abraham Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)Debatable ones Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmān Maryam (Mary) Ṭālūt (Saul or Gideon?) Implied Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamū’īl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)People of ProphetsEvil ones Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn (Pharaoh of Moses' time) Hāmān Jālūt (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abī Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)Good ones Adam's immediate relatives Martyred son Wife Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’at Fir‘awn (Āsiyá bint Muzāḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister People of Abraham Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother People of Jesus Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife People of Joseph Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians ‘Azīz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyān ibn Al-Walīd)) Wife of ‘Azīz (Zulaykhah) Mother People of Solomon Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier ZaydImplied or not specified Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub ShaddadGroupsMentioned Aṣḥāb al-Jannah People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden Aṣḥāb as-Sabt (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian apostles Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus) Companions of Noah's Ark Aṣḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lūṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of NoahTribes, ethnicities or families A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins) ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Tubba‘ (People of Tubba) People of Saba’ or Sheba Quraysh Thamūd (people of Saleh) Aṣḥāb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland") ‘Ajam Ar-Rūm (literally "The Romans") Banī Isrā’īl (Children of Israel) Mu’tafikāt (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood") Qawm Yūnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayt ("People of the Household") Household of Abraham Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad Household of Salih People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad) Aṣḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad) Anṣār (Muslims of Medina who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers') Muhajirun (Emigrants from Mecca to Medina) People of Mecca Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab) Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh) Implicitlymentioned Amalek Ahl as-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of QubaReligious groups Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kāfirūn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kitāb) Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil) Ruhban (Christian monks) Qissis (Christian priest) Yahūd (Jews) Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi Sabians Polytheists Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham and LotLocationsMentioned Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Holy Land") 'Blessed' Land In the Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan) Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills") Iram dhāt al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars) Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāt Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca) Bakkah Ḥaraman Āminan ("Sanctuary (which is) Secure") Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah Saba’ (Sheba) ‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba) Rass Al-Jannah (Paradise, literally "The Garden") Jahannam (Hell) In Mesopotamia: Al-Jūdiyy Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed") Bābil (Babylon) Qaryat Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh) Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma‘ al-Baḥrayn Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabīl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa) Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai) Mount Sinai or Mount TaborReligious locations Bay'a (Church) Miḥrāb Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration") Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Sacred Grove") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Farthest Place-of-Prostration") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: Masjid Qubā’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque Salat (Synagogue) Implied Antioch Antakya Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār an-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier") Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile River Palestine River Paradise of ShaddadPlant matter Baṣal (Onion) Fūm (Garlic or wheat) Shaṭ’ (Shoot) Sūq (Plant stem) Zar‘ (Seed)Fruits ‘Adas (Lentil) Baql (Herb) Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Qith-thā’ (Cucumber) Rummān (Pomegranate) Tīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zaytūn (Olive) In Paradise Forbidden fruit of AdamBushes, trees or plants Plants of Sheba Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (Lote-tree) Līnah (Tender Palm tree) Nakhl (Date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidrat al-Muntahā Zaqqūm Islamic holy books Al-Injīl (The Gospel of Jesus) Al-Qur’ān (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrāhīm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) At-Tawrāt (The Torah) Ṣuḥuf-i-Mūsā (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone Az-Zabūr (The Psalms of David) Umm al-Kitāb ("Mother of the Book(s)")Objects of people or beings Heavenly Food of Christian Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Tābūt as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of IsrafilMentioned idols (cult images) 'Ansāb Idols of Israelites: Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites Idols of Noah's people: Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq Idols of Quraysh: Al-Lāt Al-‘Uzzá Manāt Jibt and Ṭāghūt Celestial bodiesMaṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'): Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawākib (Planets) Al-Arḍ (The Earth) Nujūm (Stars) Ash-Shams (The Sun)Liquids Mā’ (Water or fluid) Nahr (River) Yamm (River or sea) Sharāb (Drink) Events, incidents, occasions or times Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Qadr Mubahalah Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of Marib in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage Treaty of HudaybiyyahBattles or military expeditions Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Days Al-Jumu‘ah (The Friday) As-Sabt (The Sabbath or Saturday) Days of battles Days of Hajj Doomsday Months of the Islamic calendar Four holy months Ramaḍān Pilgrimages Al-Ḥajj (literally "The Pilgrimage", the Greater Pilgrimage) Al-‘Umrah (The Lesser Pilgrimage) Times for Prayer or RemembranceTimes for Duʿāʾ ('Invocation'), Ṣalāh and Dhikr ('Remembrance', including Taḥmīd ('Praising'), Takbīr and Tasbīḥ): Al-‘Ashiyy (The Afternoon or the Night) Al-Ghuduww ("The Mornings") Al-Bukrah ("The Morning") Aṣ-Ṣabāḥ ("The Morning") Al-Layl ("The Night") Al-‘Ishā’ ("The Late-Night") Aẓ-Ẓuhr ("The Noon") Dulūk ash-Shams ("Decline of the Sun") Al-Masā’ ("The Evening") Qabl al-Ghurūb ("Before the Setting (of the Sun)") Al-Aṣīl ("The Afternoon") Al-Aṣr ("The Afternoon") Qabl ṭulū‘ ash-Shams ("Before the rising of the Sun") Al-Fajr ("The Dawn") Implied Event of Ghadir Khumm Laylat al-Mabit The first pilgrimage Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship) Authority control WorldCat Identities GND: 4104369-8 NARA: 10046260 NDL: 00628596 VIAF: 162783451 Coordinates: 29°30′N 33°50′E / 29.500°N 33.833°E / 29.500; 33.833 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sinai_Peninsula&oldid=855900632" Categories: Sinai PeninsulaPeninsulas of AsiaPeninsulas of EgyptGeography of Western AsiaLandforms of the Middle EastLandforms of Western AsiaNorth Sinai GovernorateSouth Sinai GovernorateHebrew Bible regionsHistory of IsraelHistory of the Middle EastLandforms of the Red SeaSuez CanalWestern AsiaHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksUse dmy dates from April 2018Articles containing Hebrew-language textArticles containing Classical Syriac-language textArticles containing Arabic-language textArticles containing Egyptian Arabic-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2014Articles needing additional references from March 2015All articles needing additional referencesArticles which use infobox templates with no data rowsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2017Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011Wikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with NARA identifiersWikipedia articles with NDL identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersCoordinates on Wikidata Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikivoyage Languages AfrikaansአማርኛالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐAsturianuАварAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFøroysktFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGaelgGalego한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaქართულიҚазақшаKiswahiliKurdîКыргызчаLadinoLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLingálaMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuМонголNederlands日本語NorskNorsk nynorskOccitanOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیPiemontèisPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaSoomaaligaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்ไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوTiếng ViệtWinaray吴语Yorùbá粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 21 August 2018, at 15:51 (UTC). 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For more information about Sinai check the Wikipedia article here

ZME Science posts about Sinai

Five unique and marvelous libraries from around the world

Thu, Nov 8, 2012

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