skiing

Skiing - Wikipedia Skiing From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is the latest accepted revision, reviewed on 20 May 2018. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about snow skiing. For water skiing, see Waterskiing. For other uses, see Skiing (disambiguation). Alpine skiers. Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS). Contents 1 History 2 Types 2.1 Alpine 2.2 Nordic 2.3 Telemark 3 Competition 4 Equipment 5 Technique 6 On other surfaces 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History[edit] Play media Video demonstration of a variety of ski techniques used in the 1940s. Main article: History of skiing Skiing has a history of almost five millennia.[1] Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now China, according to an interpretation of ancient paintings.[2][3] The word "ski" is one of a handful of words Norway has exported to the international community. It comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood".[4][5] Asymmetrical skis were used at least in northern Finland and Sweden until the late 19th century. On one leg the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding and on the other a shorter ski for kicking. The bottom of the short ski was either plain or covered with animal skin to aid this use, while the long ski supporting the weight of the skier was treated with animal fat in a similar manner to modern ski waxing. Early skiers used one long pole or spear. The first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.[6] Until the mid-19th-century skiing was primarily used for transport, and since then has become a recreation and sport.[7] Military ski races were held in Norway during the 18th century,[8] and ski warfare was studied in the late 18th century.[9] As equipment evolved and ski lifts were developed skiing evolved into two main genres during the late 19th and early 20th century, Alpine and Nordic. Types[edit] Alpine[edit] Main article: Alpine skiing Also called downhill skiing, alpine skiing typically takes place on a piste at a ski resort. It is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot. Because the alpine equipment is somewhat difficult to walk in, ski lifts, including chairlifts, bring skiers up the slope. Backcountry skiing can be accessed by helicopter, snowcat, hiking and snowmobile. Facilities at resorts can include night skiing, après-ski, and glade skiing under the supervision of the ski patrol and the ski school. Alpine skiing branched off from the older Nordic skiing around the 1920s when the advent of ski lifts meant that it was not necessary to walk any longer. Alpine equipment specialized to where it can only be used with the help of lifts. Nordic[edit] Spring ski touring on Hardangervidda, Norway Main article: Nordic skiing The Nordic disciplines include cross-country skiing and ski jumping, which both use bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Cross-country skiing may be practiced on groomed trails or in undeveloped backcountry areas. Ski jumping skiing is practiced at certain areas that are deemed for ski jumping only. Telemark[edit] Main article: Telemark skiing Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline. It is named after the Telemark region of Norway. Using equipment similar to Nordic skiing, the ski bindings having the ski boot attached only at the toe. This allows the skier to raise his/her heel throughout the turn. Competition[edit] The following disciplines are sanctioned by the FIS. Many have their own world cups and are in the Winter Olympic Games. Cross-country: The sport encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths. Such races occur over homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic (in-track) and free-style events, where the skiers may employ skate skiing. It also encompasses cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation, and cross-country ski orienteering events, sanctioned by the International Orienteering Federation, and biathlon a combination of cross-country and shooting. Ski jumping: contested at the Olympics, the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, the summer FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping, and the FIS Ski-Flying World Championships Nordic combined: contested at the Olympics and at the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, it is a combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Alpine skiing disciplines include combined, downhill, slalom, giant slalom, Super-G, and Para-alpine there are also combined events that include two event. One run of each even like one run of Super-G and one run of Slalom skiing this is called a Super Combined. Dual slalom events, where racers ski head-to-head, was invented in 1941 and has been a recurring event, since 1960.[10] Speed skiing dates from 1898 with official records being set as of 1932 with an 89-mile-per-hour (143 km/h) run by Leo Gasperi. It became an FIS sport in the 1960s and a demonstration Olympic sport at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville.[11] Freestyle skiing: includes mogul skiing, aerials, ski cross, half-pipe, and slopestyle. Snowboard competition includes slopestyle, cross, half-pipe, alpine, parallel slalom, and parallel giant slalom. Other competition includes grass skiing and Telemark. Skiboarding: consists of a combination of skiing and snowboarding. It uses ski boots with a snowboard. Equipment[edit] A collection of differing types of alpine skis, with nordic and telemark skis at far left. From right: a group of powder skis, a group of twin-tip skis, a group of carving (parabolic) skis, and then an older-type non-sidecut alpine ski along with the non-alpine skis. Equipment used in skiing includes: Skis, which may have skins applied or be textured for uphill traction or wax applied for minimizing sliding friction. Twin-tip skis are designed to move forwards or backwards. Boots and bindings Poles Helmets and ski suits Ski goggles Skiing gloves Technique[edit] Technique has evolved along with ski technology and ski geometry. Early techniques included the telemark turn, the stem, the stem Christie, snowplough, and parallel turn. New parabolic designs like the Elan SCX have enabled the more modern carve turn. On other surfaces[edit] Originally and primarily a winter sport, skiing can also be practiced indoors without snow or outdoors on grass, on dry ski slopes, with ski simulators, or with roller skis. Some places use a treadmill like surface. With sand skiing the skier slides on sand, using conventional skis, ski poles, bindings and boots.[12] Gallery[edit] Giant Slalom Ski Racer Freestyle switch 720 mute grab A ski jumper using the V-style Cross country skiing—free-style or skate-skiing Dry slope racing A skier with a disability on a sit-ski, using two outriggers. See also[edit] Snowboarding Skiboarding References[edit] ^ Formenti; et al. (2005). "Human locomotion on snow: determinants of economy and speed of skiing across the ages" (PDF). Proc. R. Soc. B. Retrieved 2016-09-02. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Editors (25 January 2006). "Ancient paintings suggest China invented skiing". China Today. Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.  ^ Marquand, Edward (March 15, 2006). "Before Scandinavia: These could be the first skiers". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ The cradle of skiing (Norway – the official site in the United States) ^ Skiing and the Creation of a Norwegian Identity (Norway – the official site in the United States) ^ Hergstrom, P (1748). Beschreibung von dem unter schwedischer Krone gehörigen Lappland. Leipzig: von Rother.  ^ Saur, Lasse (1999): Norske ski - til glede og besvær. Research report, Høgskolen i Finnmark. ^ Bergsland, Einar (1946): På ski. Oslo: Aschehoug. ^ "How concern for the national health and military preparedness led France to build the infrastructure for Chamonix, 1924". Retrieved 17 July 2014.  ^ Lizza, Chris I. (1997). "The first dual slalom duel". Skiing Heritage Journal. International Skiing History Association. 10 (3): 42. ISSN 1082-2895.  ^ Lipsyte, Robert (2009). Vizard, Frank, ed. Why a Curveball Curves: The Incredible Science of Sports. Popular mechanics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 224. ISBN 9781588167941.  ^ "Fastest sand skiing". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2018-03-26.  External links[edit] Media related to Skiing at Wikimedia Commons v t e Skiing and snowboarding History of skiing Nordic skiing Competitive Cross-country skiing Paralympic Ski jumping Ski flying Nordic combined Endurance Ski marathon Ski orienteering Ski touring Recreational Cross-country skiing Backcountry skiing Roller skiing Skijoring Alpine skiing Olympic disciplines Slalom Giant slalom Super-G Downhill Combined Other disciplines Extreme skiing Glade skiing Heliskiing Para-alpine skiing Speed skiing Other skiing Biathlon Indoor skiing Night skiing Ski archery Ski mountaineering Telemark skiing Freestyle skiing Aerial skiing Freeriding Freeskiing Half-pipe skiing Mogul Ski ballet Ski cross Slopestyle Snowboarding Alpine Backcountry Big air Freeriding Freestyle Half-pipe Slopestyle Snowboard racing Snowboard cross Technique / learning Carved turn Jump turn Parallel turn Pivot turn Snowplough Stem christie Ski school Ski simulator Snowboard tricks Equipment / venues Bindings Boots Half-pipe Superpipe Helmet Monoski Poles Skins Skis Snowboard Suit Wax Resorts / amenities Chairlift Dry ski slope Gondola lift Piste Ski lift Ski tunnel Snow grooming Snowmaking Surface lift Trail Category:Skiing Category:Snowboarding v t e Orienteering History of orienteering List of orienteering events Sport disciplines IOF-governed Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering IARU-governed Amateur radio direction finding Fox Oring Radio Orienteering in a Compact Area Other sports Canoe orienteering Car orienteering Mountain marathon Mounted orienteering Rogaining Related Adventure racing Alleycat race Fell running Relay race Transmitter hunting Equipment Event Control point Course Map Personal Compass hand protractor thumb Eye protectors Gaiters Headlamp Exceptions Backpacking GPS Whistle Fundamentals Map orienteering map Navigation cardinal direction resection route choice wayfinding waypoint Racing hiking running walking skiing mountain biking Organisations / lists International Orienteering Federation members List of clubs List of orienteers by country innovators List of events Non-sport related Adventure travel Bicycle touring Climbing Hiking Hunting Location-based game geocaching poker run Scoutcraft orienteering Backpacking wilderness Competitions Foot orienteering World Championships Junior World Cup World Games European Championships Open events O-Ringen Jukola Tiomila Kainuu Orienteering Week Jan Kjellström Festival Ski orienteering World Championships Junior World Cup MTB orienteering World Championships Trail orienteering World Championships Category WikiProject Authority control GND: 4077484-3 NDL: 00571663 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skiing&oldid=842132761" Categories: SkiingPartial squatting positionHidden categories: CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.Wikipedia pending changes protected pagesUse dmy dates from July 2012Wikipedia articles with GND identifiersArticles containing video clips Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikinews Languages AfrikaansAlemannischÆngliscالعربيةAragonésAsturianuAymar aruAzərbaycancaবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБългарскиBoarischBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFurlanGaeilgeGalego한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתҚазақшаКыргызчаLatviešuLietuviųLivvinkarjalaMagyarМакедонскиमराठीBahasa Melayuမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlNederlands日本語NorskOccitanPolskiPortuguêsRuna SimiРусскийСаха тылаसंस्कृतम्ScotsShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்Татарча/tatarçaТоҷикӣTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng Việt粵語中文Kabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 20 May 2018, at 12:55. 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