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"Vegan" redirects here. For other uses, see Vegan (disambiguation). For notable vegans, see List of vegans.
Clockwise from top-left:Seitan pizza; roasted sprouts, tofu, and pasta; cocoa–avocado brownies; leek-and-bean cassoulet with dumplings.
Vegan /ˈviːɡən/ VEE-gən
Elimination of the use of animal products, particularly in diet
Al-Maʿarri (c. 973 – c. 1057)[a]
Roger Crab (1621–1680)
Johann Conrad Beissel (1691–1768)
James Pierrepont Greaves (1777–1842)
Amos Bronson Alcott (1799–1888)
Sarah Bernhardt (1844–1923)
Donald Watson (1910–2005)
Term coined by
Donald Watson, November 1944
List of vegans
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.[b] A follower of either the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances.[c] The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animals for any purpose.[d] Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.
Well-planned vegan diets can reduce the risk of some types of chronic disease, including heart disease. They are regarded as appropriate for all stages of life including during infancy and pregnancy by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,[e]Dietitians of Canada, and the British Dietetic Association. The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children, adolescents nor during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[f] Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and phytochemicals; and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.[g] Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues. Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements. Vitamin B12 supplementation is especially important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage.
Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian", but from 1951 the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals". Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s, especially in the latter half. More vegan stores opened and vegan options became increasingly available in supermarkets and restaurants in many countries.
1.1 Strict vegetarians
1.2 Vegetarian Society
1.3 Coining the term vegan (1944)
2 Increasing interest
2.1 Alternative food movements
2.2 Into the mainstream (2010s)
3 Veganism by country
4 Animal products
4.2 Eggs, dairy products, honey, silk
4.3 Pet food
5 Vegan diet
5.2 Plant milk, cheese, mayonnaise
5.3 Egg replacements
5.4 Raw veganism
5.5.2 Vitamin B12
5.5.4 Vitamin D
5.5.6 Omega-3 fatty acids, iodine
5.6 Health research
5.7 Professional and government associations
5.8 Pregnancy, infants and children
6 Personal items
7.1 Ethical veganism
7.2 Environmental veganism
7.3 Feminist veganism
7.3.2 Animal and human abuse parallels
7.3.3 Capitalism and feminist veganism
11 External links
Further information: History of vegetarianism
The origin of the English term vegetarian is unknown. The earliest-known use is attributed to the actress Fanny Kemble, writing around 1839 in Georgia in the United States.[h] The practice can be traced to Indus Valley Civilization in 3300–1300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent, Archeological evidence suggest that the religion was followed, rather flourished, 5000 to 8000 years ago amongst the people of Indus Valley civilization, who lived in the geographical area now in Pakistan. Even within the vegetarian regime, strict dietary codes are specified that restrict even the use of many products of plant origin. This makes the practice of vegetarianism at least 8000 years old, if not older, and a scientifically well founded way of life. Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; Greek philosophers such as Empedocles, Theophrastus, Plutarch, Plotinus, and Porphyry; and the Roman poet Ovid and the playwright Seneca the Younger. The Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism, but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he ever advocated any form of vegetarianism at all. He almost certainly prohibited his followers from eating beans and from wearing woolen garments.Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but even kept his distance from cooks and hunters". One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maʿarri (c. 973 – c. 1057).[a] Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, and the view—espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium ("On Abstinence from Animal Food", c. 268 – c. 270)—that if humans deserve justice, then so do animals.
Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. A minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely. In 1813 the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors", and in 1815 William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne. Lambe called animal food an "habitual irritation", and argued that "milk eating and flesh eating are but branches of a common system, and they must stand or fall together".Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham diet—mostly fruit, vegetables, water, and bread made at home with stoneground flour—became popular as a health remedy in the 1830s in the United States. Several vegan communities were established around this time. In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844,[i] and in England James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838.
Further information: Vegetarian Society
Fruitlands, a short-lived vegan community established in 1844 by Amos Bronson Alcott in Harvard, Massachusetts.
Mahatma Gandhi, Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931, with Henry Salt on his right[j]
In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House. Alcott House also helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent.The Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884:
There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the latter more moderate division.
An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leather, which suggests the presence of vegans within the membership who rejected animal use entirely, not only in diet. By the 1886 publication of Henry S. Salt's A Plea for Vegetarianism and Other Essays, he asserts that, "It is quite true that most—not all—Food Reformers admit into their diet such animal food as milk, butter, cheese, and eggs..." The first known vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon's No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, was published in London in 1910. The consumption of milk and eggs became a battleground over the following decades. There were regular discussions about it in the Vegetarian Messenger; it appears from the correspondence pages that many opponents of veganism came from vegetarians.
During a visit to London in 1931, Mahatma Gandhi—who had joined the Vegetarian Society's executive committee when he lived in London from 1888 to 1891—gave a speech to the Society arguing that it ought to promote a meat-free diet as a matter of morality, not health. Lacto-vegetarians acknowledged the ethical consistency of the vegan position but regarded a vegan diet as impracticable and were concerned that it might be an impediment to spreading vegetarianism if vegans found themselves unable to participate in social circles where no non-animal food was available. This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in 1935 stated: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."
Coining the term vegan (1944)
The Vegan News
first edition, 1944Donald Watson
front row, fourth left, 1947
In August 1944, several members of the Vegetarian Society asked that a section of its newsletter be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. When the request was turned down, Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester branch, set up a new quarterly newsletter in November 1944, priced tuppence. He called it The Vegan News. He chose the word vegan himself, based on "the first three and last two letters of 'vegetarian'" because it marked, in Mr Watson's words, "the beginning and end of vegetarian", but asked his readers if they could think of anything better than vegan to stand for "non-dairy vegetarian". They suggested allvega, neo-vegetarian, dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivores, and beaumangeur.
The first edition attracted more than 100 letters, including from George Bernard Shaw, who resolved to give up eggs and dairy. The new Vegan Society held its first meeting in early November at the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London. Those in attendance were Donald Watson, Elsie B. Shrigley, Fay K. Henderson, Alfred Hy Haffenden, Paul Spencer and Bernard Drake, with Mme Pataleewa (Barbara Moore, a Russian-British engineer) observing.World Vegan Day is held every 1 November to mark the founding of the Society and the month of November is considered by the Society to be World Vegan Month.
Barbara Moore attended the first meeting of the Vegan Society as an observer.
The Vegan News changed its name to The Vegan in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers. It published recipes and a "vegan trade list" of animal-free products, such as Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi shoe polish, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue. Vegan books appeared, including Vegan Recipes by Fay K. Henderson and Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children by Kathleen V. Mayo.
The Vegan Society soon made clear that it rejected the use of animals for any purpose, not only in diet. In 1947 Watson wrote: "The vegan renounces it as superstitious that human life depends upon the exploitation of these creatures whose feelings are much the same as our own ...". From 1948 The Vegan's front page read: "Advocating living without exploitation", and in 1951 the Society published its definition of veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals." In 1956, its vice-president, Leslie Cross, founded the Plantmilk Society; and in 1965, as Plantmilk Ltd and later Plamil Foods, it began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.
The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson's newsletter. In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit. According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese, or milk".
Alternative food movements
In the 1960s and 1970s, a vegetarian food movement emerged as part of the counterculture in the United States that focused on concerns about diet, the environment, and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening. One of the most influential vegetarian books of that time was Frances Moore Lappé's 1971 text, Diet for a Small Planet. It sold more than three million copies and suggested "getting off the top of the food chain".
The following decades saw research by a group of scientists and doctors in the United States, including physicians Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, John A. McDougall, Michael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, who argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health. They produced a series of books that recommend vegan or vegetarian diets, including McDougall's The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins's Diet for a New America (1987), which associated meat eating with environmental damage, and Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease (1990). In 2003 two major North American dietitians' associations indicated that well-planned vegan diets were suitable for all life stages. This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).
In the 1980s, veganism became associated with punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge, hardline, and hardcore punk in the United States; and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom. This association continues on into the 21st century, as evinced by the prominence of vegan punk events such as Fluff Fest in Europe.
Into the mainstream (2010s)
See also: 2010s in food and List of vegans
Interest in veganism in the 2010s was reflected in Wikipedia, where vegan pages received more views than vegetarian ones.
The vegan diet became increasingly mainstream in the 2010s, especially in the latter half. The European Parliament defined the meaning of vegan for food labels in 2010, in force as of 2015[update]. Chain restaurants began marking vegan items on their menus and supermarkets improved their selection of vegan processed food. The English Wikipedia article on veganism was viewed 73,000 times in August 2009 but 145,000 times in August 2013. Articles on veganism were viewed more during this period than articles on vegetarianism in the English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish Wikipedias. In 2016, Google searches for "vegan" increased by 90%, up from a 32% increase the previous year.
The global mock-meats market increased by eighteen percent between 2005 and 2010, and in the United States by eight percent between 2012 and 2015, to $553 million a year. The Vegetarian Butcher (De Vegetarische Slager), the first known vegetarian butcher shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010, while America's first vegan butcher, the Herbivorous Butcher, opened in Minneapolis in 2016. By 2016, forty-nine percent of Americans were drinking plant milk, although 91 percent still drank dairy milk. In the United Kingdom, the plant milk market increased by 155 percent in two years, from 36 million litres in 2011 to 92 million in 2013. The country has seen a 185% increase in new vegan products between 2012 and 2016. In 2011, Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious in Dortmund and Veganz in Berlin.
Veganism has risen in popularity in Hong Kong and China, as well, particularly among millennials. China's vegan market is estimated to rise by more than 17 percent between 2015 and 2020, which is expected to be "the fastest growth rate internationally in that period". This exceeds the projected growth in the second and third fastest-growing vegan markets internationally in the same period, the United Arab Emirates (10.6%) and Australia (9.6%) respectively. In total, as of 2016[update], the largest share of vegan consumers globally currently reside in Asia Pacific with 9 percent of people following a vegan diet.
Veganz in Berlin, Europe's first vegan supermarket
Countering the image of self-deprivation projected by vegan straight edges and animal rights activists, veganism was promoted as glamorous; in 2015, the editor of Yahoo! Food declared that it had become "a thing". Celebrities, athletes, and politicians adopted vegan diets—some seriously, some part-time. The idea of the "flexi-vegan" gained currency: New York Times food columnist Mark Bittman, in VB6 (2013), recommended eating vegan food until 6 pm. In 2013, the Oktoberfest in Munich—traditionally a meat-heavy affair—offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history.
Critics of veganism questioned the evolutionary legitimacy and health effects of a vegan diet, and pointed to longstanding philosophical traditions which held that humans are superior to other animals. Celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain wrote in 2000 that "[v]egetarians, and their Hezbollah-like splinter-faction, the vegans, are a persistent irritant to any chef worth a damn". Several vegetarian writers argued that the restrictions of a vegan lifestyle are impractical, and that vegetarianism is a better goal.
Veganism by country
See also: Vegetarianism by country § Demographics
Australia: Australians topped Google's worldwide searches for the word "vegan" between mid-2015 and mid-2016. A Euromonitor International study concluded the market for packaged vegan food in Australia would rise 9.6% per year between 2015 and 2020, making Australia the third-fastest growing vegan market behind China and the United Arab Emirates.
Austria: In 2013, Kurier estimated that 0.5 percent of Austrians practised veganism, and in the capital, Vienna, 0.7 percent.
Belgium: A 2016 iVOX online study found that out of 1000 Dutch-speaking residents of Flanders and Brussels of 18 years and over, 0.3 percent were vegan.
Germany: As of 2016[update], data estimated that people following a vegan diet in Germany varied between 0.1% and 1% of the population (between 81,000 and 810,000 persons).
India: In the 2005–06 National Health Survey, 1.6% of the surveyed population reported never consuming animal products. Veganism was most common in the states of Gujarat (4.9%) and Maharashtra (4.0%).
Israel: Five percent (approx. 300,000) in Israel said they were vegan in 2014, making it the highest per capita vegan population in the world. A 2015 survey by Globes and Israel's Channel 2 News similarly found 5% of Israelis were vegan. Veganism increased among Israeli Arabs. The Israeli army made special provision for vegan soldiers in 2015, which included providing non-leather boots and wool-free berets.
Italy: Between 0.6 and three percent of Italians were reported to be vegan as of 2015[update].
Netherlands: In 2014, the Dutch Society for Veganism (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme) estimated there were 45,000 Dutch vegans (0.27 percent), based on their membership growth.
Sweden: Four percent said they were vegan in a 2014 Demoskop poll.
Switzerland: The Vegan Society Switzerland (Vegane Gesellschaft Schweiz) estimated in 2016 that one percent of the population was vegan.
United Kingdom: In the UK, where the tofu and mock-meats market was worth £786.5 million in 2012, two percent said they were vegan in a 2007 government survey. A 2016 Ipsos MORI study commissioned by the Vegan Society, surveying almost 10,000 people aged 15 or over across England, Scotland, and Wales, found that 1.05 percent were vegan; the Vegan Society estimates that 542,000 in the UK follow a vegan diet. According to a 2018 survey by Comparethemarket.com, the number of people who identify as vegans in the United Kingdom has risen to over 3.5 million, which is approximately seven percent of the population, and environmental concerns were a major factor in this development.
United States: Estimates of vegans in the U.S. vary from 2% (Gallup, 2012) to 0.5% (Faunalytics, 2014). According to the latter, 70% of those who adopted a vegan diet abandoned it. Top Trends in Prepared Foods 2017, a report by Research and Markets, estimated that "6% of US consumers now claim to be vegan, up from just 1% in 2014."
Further information: Rendering (food processing)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Animal products.
Mock meats in Veganz, a vegan supermarket in Berlin
Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, animal seafood, eggs, dairy, or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool, and silk), toiletries, and similar. Ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or use of animal products, and rejects the commodification of animals altogether.:62 The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is free of animal involvement as far as possible and practical, including animal testing, but "recognises that it is not always possible to make a choice that avoids the use of animals".
An important concern is the case of medications, which are routinely tested on animals to ensure they are effective and safe, and may also contain animal ingredients, such as lactose, gelatine, or stearates. There may be no alternatives to prescribed medication or these alternatives may be unsuitable, less effective, or have more adverse side effects. Experimentation with laboratory animals is also used for evaluating the safety of vaccines, food additives, cosmetics, household products, workplace chemicals, and many other substances.
Philosopher Gary Steiner argues that it is not possible to be entirely vegan, because animal use and products are "deeply and imperceptibly woven into the fabric of human society". Animal products in common use include albumen, allantoin, beeswax, blood, bone char, bone china, carmine, casein, castoreum, cochineal, elastin, emu oil, gelatin, honey, isinglass, keratin, lactic acid, lanolin, lard, rennet, retinol, shellac, squalene, tallow (including sodium tallowate), whey, and yellow grease. Some of these are chemical compounds that can be derived from animal products, plants, or petrochemicals. Allantoin, lactic acid, retinol, and squalene, for example, can be vegan. These products and their origins are not always included in the list of ingredients.
Some vegans will not buy woollen jumpers, silk scarves, leather shoes, bedding that contains goose down or duck feathers, pearl jewellery, seashells, ordinary soap (usually made of animal fat), or cosmetics that contain animal products. They avoid certain vaccines; the flu vaccine, for example, is usually grown in hens' eggs, although an effective alternative, Flublok, is widely available in the United States. Non-vegan items acquired before they became vegan might be donated to charity or used until worn out. Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives, are made of petroleum-based products, which has triggered criticism because of the environmental damage involved in their production.
Eggs, dairy products, honey, silk
Modern methods of factory farming are considered highly unethical by most vegans.
The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude dairy products. Ethical vegans avoid them on the premise that their production causes animal suffering and premature death. In egg production, most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs. To obtain milk from dairy cattle, cows are made pregnant to induce lactation; they are kept lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves are separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk replacer to retain the cow's milk for human consumption. Male calves are slaughtered at birth, sent for veal production, or reared for beef.
Vegan groups disagree about insect products. Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk, and other insect products as suitable for vegans, Insect products can be defined much more widely, as commercial bees are used to pollinate about 100 different food crops, including almonds, avocado, broccoli, cucumbers, peaches, pears, sunflowers, and tomatoes.
See also: Vegetarian and vegan dog diet, Dog food § Vegetarian and vegan dog food, Cat food § Vegetarian or vegan food, and Cat health § Diet and nutrition
Due to the environmental impact of meat-based pet food and the ethical problems it poses for vegans, some vegans extend their philosophy to include the diets of pets. This is particularly true for domesticated cats and dogs, for which vegan pet food is both available and nutritionally-complete, such as Vegepet. However, this practice has been met with caution and criticism, especially toward vegan cat diets due to felids being obligate carnivores. Furthermore, although nutritionally-complete vegan pet diets are comparable to meat-based ones for cats and dogs, as of August 2015[update] many commercial vegan pet food brands do not meet the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) regulations for nutritional adequacy.
Vegan cuisine at Wikibook Cookbooks
Warm tofu (soybean curd) with garlic sauce. Soybeans are a source of complete protein.
Vegan diets are based on grains and other seeds, legumes (particularly beans), fruits, vegetables, edible mushrooms, and nuts.Meatless products based on soybeans (tofu), or wheat-based seitan are sources of plant protein, commonly in the form of vegetarian sausage, mince, and veggie burgers.
Dishes based on soybeans are a staple of vegan diets because soybeans are a complete protein; this means they contain all the essential amino acids for humans and can be relied upon entirely for protein intake.[k] They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant. Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh and textured vegetable protein (TVP); also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces.
Plant milk, cheese, mayonnaise
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Plant milk.
Nutritional content of cows', soy, and almond milk
Cows' milk(whole, vitamin D added)
Silk almond milk(unsweetened original; fortified)
Dietary energy per 240 mL cup
620 kJ (149 kcal)
330 kJ (80 kcal)
120 kJ (29 kcal)
Saturated fat (g)
Vitamin B12 (µg)
Vitamin A (IU)
Vitamin D (IU)
Plant milks—such as soy milk, almond milk, grain milks (oat milk and rice milk), hemp milk, and coconut milk—are used in place of cows' or goats' milk.[l] Soy milk provides around 7 g of protein per cup (240 mL or 8 fl oz), compared with 8 g of protein per cup of cow's milk. Almond milk is lower in dietary energy, carbohydrates, and protein. Soy milk should not be used as a replacement for breast milk for babies. Babies who are not breastfed may be fed commercial infant formula, normally based on cows' milk or soy. The latter is known as soy-based infant formula or SBIF.
Butter and margarine can be replaced with alternate vegan products.Vegan cheeses are made from seeds, such as sesame and sunflower; nuts, such as cashew,pine nut, and almond; and soybeans, coconut oil, nutritional yeast, tapioca, and rice, among other ingredients; and can replicate the meltability of dairy cheese. Nutritional yeast is a common substitute for the taste of cheese in vegan recipes. Cheese substitutes can be made at home, including from nuts, such as cashews.
Further information: Egg substitutes
Commercial egg substitutes are available for cooking and baking. The protein in eggs thickens when heated and binds other ingredients together. For pancakes a tablespoon of baking powder can be used instead of eggs. Silken (soft) tofu and mashed potato can also be used. Aquafaba from chickpeas can be used as an egg replacement and whipped like egg whites.
Main article: Raw veganism
Raw veganism, combining veganism and raw foodism, excludes all animal products and food cooked above 48 °C (118 °F). A raw vegan diet includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, and sea vegetables. There are many variations of the diet, including fruitarianism.
Further information: Protein quality, Pea protein, Protein (nutrient), Protein–energy malnutrition, Rice protein, Soy protein, and Hemp protein
Rice and beans is a common vegan protein combination.
Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third, and ovo-lacto vegetarians half. Sources of plant protein include legumes such as soy beans (consumed as tofu, tempeh, textured vegetable protein, soy milk, and edamame), peas, peanuts, black beans, and chickpeas (the latter often eaten as hummus); grains such as quinoa, brown rice, corn, barley, bulgur, and wheat (the latter eaten as bread and seitan); and nuts and seeds. Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.
Soy beans and quinoa are known as complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed human requirements. Mangels et al. write that consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein—0.8 g/kg (0.36 g/lb) of body weight—in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids. In 2012, the United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program.
The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal may not be necessary. Mangels et al. write that there is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake; but erring on the side of caution, they recommend a 25 percent increase over the RDA for adults, to 1.0 gram per kilogram (0.45 g/lb) of body weight.
Further information: Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin B12 § Supplements, and Food fortification
Tahini miso soup with brown rice, turnips, squash, radishes and nori (an edible seaweed). Nori has been cited as a plant source of B12, but the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics established in 2016 that is not an adequate source of this vitamin. Vegans need to consume regularly fortified foods or supplements containing B12.
Vitamin B12 is a bacterial product needed for cell division, the formation and maturation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA, and normal nerve function. A deficiency may cause megaloblastic anaemia and neurological damage, and, if untreated, may lead to death.[m] The high content of folacin in vegetarian diets may mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, so it may go undetected until neurological signs in the late stages are evident, which can be irreversible, such as neuropsychiatric abnormalities, neuropathy, dementia and, occasionally, atrophy of optic nerves. Vegans sometimes fail to obtain enough B12 from their diet because among non-fortified foods, only those of animal origin contain sufficient amounts.[n] The best source is ruminant food. Vegetarians are also at risk, as are older people and those with certain medical conditions. A 2013 study found that "vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegans should take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."[o]
B12 is produced in nature only by certain bacteria and archaea; it is not made by any animal, fungus, or plant. It is synthesized by some gut bacteria in humans and other animals, but humans cannot absorb the B12 made in their guts, as it is made in the colon which is too far from the small intestine, where absorption of B12 occurs.Ruminants, such as cows and sheep, absorb B12 produced by bacteria in their guts.
Animals store vitamin B12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of B12.
It has been suggested that nori (an edible seaweed), tempeh (a fermented soybean food), and nutritional yeast may be sources of vitamin B12.[p][q] In 2016, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics established that nori, fermented foods (such as tempeh), spirulina, chlorella algae, and unfortified nutritional yeast are not adequate sources of vitamin B12 and that vegans need to consume regularly fortified foods or supplements containing B12. Otherwise, vitamin B12 deficiency may develop, as has been demonstrated in case studies of vegan infants, children, and adults.
Vitamin B12 is mostly manufactured by industrial fermentation of various kinds of bacteria, which make forms of cyanocobalamin, which are further processed to generate the ingredient included in supplements and fortified foods. The Pseudomonas denitrificans strain was most commonly used as of 2017[update]. It is grown in a medium containing sucrose, yeast extract, and several metallic salts. To increase vitamin production, it is supplemented with sugar beet molasses, or, less frequently, with choline. Certain brands of B12 supplements are vegan.
Further information: Calcium in biology, Calcium carbonate, Calcium citrate, and Disorders of calcium metabolism
Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling, and hormonal secretion. Ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.:35–74
High-calcium foods may include fortified plant milk or fortified tofu. Plant sources include broccoli, turnip, bok choy, collards, and kale; the bioavailability of calcium in spinach is poor. Vegans should make sure they consume enough vitamin D, which is needed for calcium absorption.
A 2007 report based on the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which began in 1993, suggested that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake. The study found that vegans consuming at least 525 mg of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups.[r] A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant.[s]
Further information: Vitamin D deficiency, Rickets, and Hypervitaminosis D
Most people can obtain enough vitamin D by exposure to sunlight in the spring, summer, and fall.
Vitamin D (calciferol) is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, enabling mineralization of bone, and bone growth. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; together with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis. Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; outdoor exposure is needed because UVB radiation does not penetrate glass. It is present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks, and beef liver, and in some mushrooms.
Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. People with little sun exposure may need supplements. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn. According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can obtain and store sufficient vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer, and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommend 5–30 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week. Tanning beds emitting 2–6% UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable.
Vitamin D comes in two forms. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun or consumed from food, usually from animal sources. Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. When produced industrially as supplements, vitamin D3 is typically derived from lanolin in sheep's wool. However, both provitamins and vitamins D2 and D3 have been discovered in Cladina spp. (especially Cladina rangiferina) and these edible lichen are harvested in the wild for producing vegan vitamin D3. Conflicting studies have suggested that the two forms of vitamin D may or may not be bioequivalent. According to researchers from the Institute of Medicine, the differences between vitamins D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated exhibit identical responses in the body.
Further information: Human iron metabolism, Iron supplement, and Iron deficiency
Oatmeal with blueberries, toasted almonds and almond milk; one packet of instant oatmeal contains 8.2 mg of iron.
In some cases iron and the zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be 5–15 percent compared to 18 percent from a nonvegetarian diet.Iron-deficiency anemia is found as often in nonvegetarians as in vegetarians, though studies have shown vegetarians' iron stores to be lower.
Mangels et al. write that, because of the lower bioavailability of iron from plant sources, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences established a separate RDA for vegetarians and vegans of 14 mg for vegetarian men and postmenopausal women, and 33 mg for premenopausal women not using oral contraceptives. Supplements should be used with caution after consulting a physician, because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to organs. This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed.
High-iron vegan foods include soybeans, blackstrap molasses, black beans, lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu, and lima beans. Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time, such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Coffee and some herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain tannins such as turmeric, coriander, chiles, and tamarind.
Omega-3 fatty acids, iodine
Further information: Essential fatty acid interactions, Iodine in biology, and Iodine deficiency
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in leafy green vegetables and nuts, and in vegetable oils such as canola and flaxseed oil. EPA and DHA, the other primary omega-3 fatty acids, are found only in animal products and algae.Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, dairy products are relied upon for iodine delivery because of low levels in the soil. Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.
Further information: Vegan nutrition
Vegan products in a supermarket (Oceanside, California, 2014)
As of 2014[update], few studies were rigorous in their comparison of omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan diets, making it difficult to discern whether health benefits attributed to veganism might also apply to vegetarian diets or diets that include moderate meat intake.
In preliminary clinical research, vegan diets lowered the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and ischemic heart disease. A 2016 systematic review from observational studies of vegetarians showed reduced body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose levels, possibly indicating lower risk of ischemic heart disease and cancer, but having no effect on mortality, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and mortality from cancer.
Eliminating all animal products may increase the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in up to 80% of vegans that do not supplement with vitamin B12. Vegans might be at risk of low bone mineral density without supplements. Lack of B12 inhibits normal function of the nervous system.
Professional and government associations
The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada state that properly planned vegan diets are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation. They indicate that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that its adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder rather than cause one. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council similarly recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age. The British National Health Service's Eatwell Plate allows for an entirely plant-based diet, as does the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPlate. The USDA allows tofu to replace meat in the National School Lunch Program. The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend a vegan diet for babies, children and adolescents, or for women pregnant or breastfeeding.
Pregnancy, infants and children
Further information: Nutrition and pregnancy
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada consider well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets "appropriate for individuals during all stages of the lifecycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes". The German Society for Nutrition cautioned against a vegan diet for pregnant women, babies, and children as of 2011[update]. The position of the Canadian Pediatric Society is that "well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets with appropriate attention to specific nutrient components can provide a healthy alternative lifestyle at all stages of fetal, infant, child and adolescent growth. Attention should be given to nutrient intake, particularly protein, vitamins B12 and D, essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, and calcium.
According to a 2015 systematic review, there is little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies meant that the effects of diet could not be distinguished from confounding factors. It concluded: "Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements." A daily source of vitamin B12 is important for pregnant and lactating vegans, as is vitamin D if there are concerns about low sun exposure.[t] Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children. A doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.
Vegan diets have attracted negative attention from the media because of cases of nutritional deficiencies that have come to the attention of the courts, including the death of a baby in New Zealand in 2002 due to hypocobalaminemia, i.e. vitamin B12 deficiency.
Further information: Testing cosmetics on animals
Vegan soap made from olive oil; soap is usually made from tallow (animal fat).
Vegans do not use personal care products or household cleaners that contain animal products. Animal ingredients are ubiquitous because they are cheap. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through the rendering process, and some of that material, particularly the fat, ends up in toiletries. Common ingredients include tallow in soap and collagen-derived glycerine, used as a lubricant and humectant in many haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foams, soaps and toothpastes.
Lanolin from sheep's wool is often found in lip balm and moisturizers. Stearic acid is a common ingredient in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos; as with glycerine, it can be plant-based but is usually animal-derived. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers, as is allantoin—from the comfrey plant or cows' urine—in shampoos, moisturizers, and toothpaste.Carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades.
Vegan Society sunflower:
certified vegan, no animal testingPETA bunny:
certified vegan, no animal testing
no animal testing, might not be vegan
Animal Ingredients A to Z (2004) and Veganissimo A to Z (2013) list which ingredients might be animal-derived. The British Vegan Society's sunflower logo and PETA's bunny logo mean the product is certified vegan, which includes no animal testing. The Leaping Bunny logo signals no animal testing, but it might not be vegan. The Vegan Society criteria for vegan certification are that the product contain no animal products, and that neither the finished item nor its ingredients have been tested on animals by, or on behalf of, the manufacturer or by anyone over whom the manufacturer has control. Its website contains a list of certified products, as does Australia's Choose Cruelty Free.
Beauty Without Cruelty, founded as a charity in 1959, was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of animal-free personal care products. Several international companies produce animal-free products, including clothes, shoes, fashion items, and candles.
Vegans avoid clothing that incorporates silk, wool (including lambswool, shearling, cashmere, angora, mohair, and a number of other fine wools), fur, feathers, pearls, animal-derived dyes, leather, snakeskin, and any other kind of skin or animal product. Most leather clothing is made from cow skins. Vegans regard the purchase of leather, particularly from cows, as financial support for the meat industry.:115 Vegans may wear clothing items and accessories made of non-animal-derived materials such as hemp, linen, cotton, canvas, polyester, artificial leather (pleather), rubber, and vinyl.:16 Leather alternatives can come from materials such as cork, piña (from pineapples), and mushroom leather.
Further information: Carnism and Ethics of eating meat
Pigs, as well as chicken and cattle, are often denied freedom of movement and other basic rights.
Ethical veganism is based on opposition to speciesism, the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of species membership alone. Divisions within animal rights theory include the utilitarian, protectionist approach, which pursues improved conditions for animals. It also pertains to the rights-based abolitionism, which seeks to end human ownership of non-humans. Abolitionists argue that protectionism serves only to make the public feel that animal use can be morally unproblematic (the "happy meat" position).:62–63
Law professor Gary Francione, an abolitionist, argues that all sentient beings should have the right not to be treated as property, and that adopting veganism must be the baseline for anyone who believes that non-humans have intrinsic moral value.[u]:62 Philosopher Tom Regan, also a rights theorist, argues that animals possess value as "subjects-of-a-life", because they have beliefs, desires, memory and the ability to initiate action in pursuit of goals. The right of subjects-of-a-life not to be harmed can be overridden by other moral principles, but Regan argues that pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough. Philosopher Peter Singer, a protectionist and utilitarian, argues that there is no moral or logical justification for failing to count animal suffering as a consequence when making decisions, and that killing animals should be rejected unless necessary for survival. Despite this, he writes that "ethical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances", and that he is "not too concerned about trivial infractions".
An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich, also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism harms animals, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can. For Francione, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can never be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control. By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms.:72–73
Philosopher Val Plumwood maintained that ethical veganism is "subtly human-centred", an example of what she called "human/nature dualism" because it views humanity as separate from the rest of nature. Ethical vegans want to admit non-humans into the category that deserves special protection, rather than recognize the "ecological embeddedness" of all. Plumwood wrote that animal food may be an "unnecessary evil" from the perspective of the consumer who "draws on the whole planet for nutritional needs"—and she strongly opposed factory farming—but for anyone relying on a much smaller ecosystem, it is very difficult or impossible to be vegan.
Bioethicist Ben Mepham, in his review of Francione and Garner's book The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?, concludes that "if the aim of ethics is to choose the right, or best, course of action in specific circumstances 'all things considered', it is arguable that adherence to such an absolutist agenda is simplistic and open to serious self-contradictions. Or, as Farlie puts it, with characteristic panache: 'to conclude that veganism is the "only ethical response" is to take a big leap into a very muddy pond'." He cites as examples the adverse effects on animal wildlife derived from the agricultural practices necessary to sustain most vegan diets and the ethical contradiction of favoring the welfare of domesticated animals but not that of wild animals; the imbalance between the resources that are used to promote the welfare of animals as opposed to those destined to alleviate the suffering of the approximately one billion human beings who undergo malnutrition, abuse, and exploitation; the focus on attitudes and conditions in western developed countries, leaving out the rights and interests of societies whose economy, culture and, in some cases, survival rely on a symbiotic relationship with animals.
David Pearce, a transhumanist philosopher, has argued that humanity has a "hedonistic imperative" to not merely avoid cruelty to animals or abolish the ownership of non-human animals, but also to redesign the global ecosystem such that wild animal suffering ceases to exist. In the pursuit of abolishing suffering itself, Pearce promotes predation elimination among animals and the "cross-species global analogue of the welfare state". Fertility regulation could maintain herbivore populations at sustainable levels, "a more civilised and compassionate policy option than famine, predation, and disease". The increasing number of vegans and vegetarians in the transhumanism movement has been attributed in part to Pearce's influence.
A growing political philosophy that incorporates veganism as part of its revolutionary praxis is veganarchism, which seeks "total abolition" or "total liberation" for all animals, including humans. Veganarchists identify the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and non-human, and advocate for the adoption of a vegan lifestyle within a stateless society. The term was popularized in 1995 with Brian A. Dominick's pamphlet Animal Liberation and Social Revolution, described as "a vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism".Direct action is a common practice among veganarchists (and anarchists generally) with groups like the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and Revolutionary Cells – Animal Liberation Brigade (RCALB) often engaging in such activities, sometimes violently and criminally, to further their goals.
Further information: Environmental vegetarianism, Feed conversion ratio, and Vegan organic gardening
Paul Watson, founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
Environmental vegans focus on conservation, rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that fishing, hunting, trapping and farming, particularly factory farming, are environmentally unsustainable. In 2010, Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society called pigs and chicken "major aquatic predators", because livestock eat 40 percent of the fish that are caught. Since 2002[update], all Sea Shepherd ships have been vegan for environmental reasons. This specific form of veganism focuses its way of living on how to have a sustainable way of life without consuming animals.
According to a 2006 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report, Livestock's Long Shadow, 222 million tonnes of meat were produced globally in 1999. The report posits that around 26 percent of the planet's terrestrial surface is devoted to livestock grazing. In the United States ten billion land animals are killed every year for human consumption, and in 2005 48 billion birds were killed globally.
The UN report also concluded that livestock farming (mostly of cows, chickens and pigs) affects the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change. Livestock consumed 1,174 million tonnes of food in 2002—including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest—and in 2001 consumed 45 million tonnes of roots and vegetables and 17 million tonnes of pulses. As of 2006[update], the livestock industry accounted for nine percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, 37 percent of methane, 65 percent of nitrous oxide, and 68 percent of ammonia. Livestock waste emitted 30 million tonnes of ammonia a year, which is involved in the production of acid rain. A 2017 study published in the journal Carbon Balance and Management found animal agriculture's global methane emissions are 11% higher than previous estimates based on data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A June 2018 study published in Science asserted that the adoption of plant-based diets in the United States alone could cut greenhouse gas emissions by 61% to 73%, and the global adoption of a vegan diet would reduce the use of agricultural land by 75%.
A 2010 UN report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, argued that animal products "in general require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives".:80 It proposed a move away from animal products to reduce environmental damage.[v] A 2007 Cornell University study concluded that vegetarian diets use the least land per capita, but require higher quality land than is needed to feed animals. A 2015 study published in Science of the Total Environment determined that significant biodiversity loss can be attributed to the growing demand for meat, which is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction, with species-rich habitats being converted to agriculture for livestock production. A 2017 study by the World Wildlife Fund found that 60% of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of feed crop cultivation needed to rear tens of billions of farm animals, which puts an enormous strain on natural resources resulting in an extensive loss of lands and species. Livestock make up 60% of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). As for birds, 70% are domesticated, such as poultry, whereas only 30% are wild. In November 2017, 15,364 world scientists signed a warning to humanity calling for, among other things, "promoting dietary shifts towards mostly plant-based foods".
A 2018 report published in PNAS asserted that farmers in the United States could sustain more than twice as many people than they do currently if they abandoned rearing farm animals for human consumption and instead focused on growing plants.
See also: Vegetarian ecofeminism
One of the leading activists and scholars of feminist animal rights is Carol J. Adams. Her premier work, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (1990), sparked what was to become a movement in animal rights as she noted the relationship between feminism and meat consumption. Since the release of The Sexual Politics of Meat, Adams has published several other works including essays, books, and keynote addresses. Adams ideals are carried out thoroughly, and in one of her speeches, "Why feminist-vegan now?"—adapted from her original address at the "Minding Animals" conference in Newcastle, Australia (2009)—Adams states that "the idea that there was a connection between feminism and vegetarianism came to [her] in October 1974", illustrating that the concept of feminist veganism has been around for nearly half a century. Other authors have also paralleled Adams' ideas while expanding on them. Angella Duvnjak states in "Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice" that she was met with opposition to the connection of feminist and veganism ideals, although the connection seemed more than obvious to her and other scholars (2011). Other scholars elaborate on the connections between feminism, such as Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights. Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth.
Animal and human abuse parallels
Some of the main concepts of feminist veganism is that is the connection between the violence and oppression of animals. For example, Marjorie Spiegal compares the consumption or servitude of animals for human gain to slavery. Animals are purchased from a breeder, used for personal gain—either for further breeding or manual labor—and then discarded, most frequently as food. This capitalist use of animals for personal gain has held strong, despite the work of animal rights activists and ecofriendly feminists.
Similar notions that suggest animals—like fish, for example—feel less pain are brought forth today as a justification for animal cruelty. The feminist side of the argument, however, suggests that there is no rationalization for treating animal lives with lesser reverence than human lives, even if the theory that animals are less capable of pain is verifiable.
Another connection between feminism and veganism is the parallel of violence against women or other minority members and the violence against animals. Animal rights activists closely relates animal cruelty to feminist issues. This connection is even further mirrored as animals that are used for breeding practices are compared to human trafficking victims and migrant sex workers. Hamilton points out that violent "rapists sometimes exhibit behavior that seems to be patterned on the mutilation of animals" suggesting there is a trend between the violence towards rape victims and animal cruelty previously exhibited by the rapist.
The violence connection is not limited to sexual acts, however. It is a common fact the prevalence of violence against animals are more defined in those with psychopathic disorders. This mirroring of violence against animals and violence against weaker animals lead the pioneers of feminist veganism to suggest that there is a correspondence between violence against humans and animals, supporting feminist veganism.
Capitalism and feminist veganism
Another way that feminist veganism relates to feminist thoughts is through the capitalist means of the production itself. Carol J. Adams mentions Barbara Noske talking about "meat eating as the ultimate capitalist product, because it takes so much to make the product, it uses up so many resources". The capitalization of resources for meat production is argued to be better used for production of other food products that have a less detrimental impact on the environment.
Vegan graffiti showing an enclosed V in Lisbon, Portugal.
Main article: Vegetarian and vegan symbolism
Multiple symbols have been developed to represent veganism. Several are used on consumer packaging, including the Vegan Society trademark and Vegan Action logo, to indicate products without animal-derived ingredients. Various symbols may also be used by members of the vegan community to represent their identity and in the course of animal rights activism, such as a vegan flag.
^ a b "[Al-Maʿarri's] diet was extremely frugal, consisting chiefly of lentils, with figs for sweet; and, very unusually for a Muslim, he was not only a vegetarian, but a vegan who abstained from meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and honey, because he did not want to kill or hurt animals, or deprive them of their food."
^ For veganism and animals as commodities:
Helena Pedersen, Vasile Staescu (The Rise of Critical Animal Studies, 2014): "[W]e are vegan because we are ethically opposed to the notion that life (human or otherwise) can, or should, ever be rendered as a buyable or sellable commodity."
Gary Steiner (Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, 2013): " ... ethical veganism, the principle that we ought as far as possible to eschew the use of animals as sources of food, labour, entertainment and the like ... [This means that animals] ... are entitled not to be eaten, used as forced field labor, experimented upon, killed for materials to make clothing and other commodities of use to human beings, or held captive as entertainment."
Gary Francione ("Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline", 2012): "Ethical veganism is the personal rejection of the commodity status of nonhuman animals ..."
^ Laura Wright (The Vegan Studies Project, 2015): "[The Vegan Society] definition simplifies the concept of veganism in that it assumes that all vegans choose to be vegan for ethical reasons, which may be the case for the majority, but there are other reasons, including health and religious mandates, people choose to be vegan. Veganism exists as a dietary and lifestyle choice with regard to what one consumes, but making this choice also constitutes participation in the identity category of 'vegan'."
Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (Becoming Vegan, 2013): "There are degrees of veganism. A pure vegetarian or dietary vegan is someone who consumes a vegan diet but doesn't lead a vegan lifestyle. Pure vegetarians may use animal products, support the use of animals in research, wear leather clothing, or have no objection to the exploitation of animals for entertainment. They are mostly motivated by personal health concerns rather than by ethical objections. Some may adopt a more vegan lifestyle as they are exposed to vegan philosophy."
Laura H. Kahn, Michael S. Bruner ("Politics on Your Plate", 2012): "A vegetarian is a person who abstains from eating NHA [non-human animal] flesh of any kind. A vegan goes further, abstaining from eating anything made from NHA. Thus, a vegan does not consume eggs and dairy foods. Going beyond dietary veganism, 'lifestyle' vegans also refrain from using leather, wool or any NHA-derived ingredient."
Vegetarian and vegan diets may be referred to as plant-based and vegan diets as entirely plant-based.
^ Gary Francione (The Animal Rights Debate, 2010): "Although veganism may represent a matter of diet or lifestyle for some, ethical veganism is a profound moral and political commitment to abolition on the individual level and extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or using of animal products.":62
This terminology is controversial within the vegan community. While some vegan leaders, such as Karen Dawn, endorse efforts to avoid animal consumption for any reason; others, including Francione, believe that veganism must be part of an holistic ethical and political movement in order to support animal liberation. Accordingly, the latter group rejects the label "dietary vegan", referring instead to "strict vegetarians", "pure vegetarians", or followers of a "plant-based" diet.
^ American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2009): "It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes."
^ Cite error: The named reference Germany was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
^ Winston J. Craig (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009): "Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B-12. ... A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases."
^ Fanny Kemble (Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, 1839): "The sight and smell of raw meat are especially odious to me, and I have often thought that if I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian, probably, indeed, return entirely to my green and salad days."
Another early use was by the editor of The Healthian, a journal published by Alcott House, in April 1942: "To tell a man, who is in the stocks for a given fault, that he cannot be so confined for such an offence, is ridiculous enough; but not more so than to tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature, and contrary to reason."
^ In 1838 William Alcott, Amos's cousin, published Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages (1838). The word vegetarian appears in the second edition but not the first.
^ Mahatma Gandhi, address to the Vegetarian Society, 20 November 1931): "I feel especially honoured to find on my right, Mr. Henry Salt. It was Mr. Salt's book 'A Plea for Vegetarianism', which showed me why apart from a hereditary habit, and apart from my adherence to a vow administered to me by my mother, it was right to be a vegetarian. He showed me why it was a moral duty incumbent on vegetarians not to live upon fellow-animals. It is, therefore, a matter of additional pleasure to me that I find Mr. Salt in our midst."
^ Mangels, Messina and Messina (The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets, 2011): "Soy protein products typically have a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) ... >0.9, which is similar to that of meat and milk protein. Consequently, consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 0.8 mg/kg body weight [bw]), for protein entirely in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids. ... Formal recognition of the high quality of soy protein came in the form of a ruling by the USDA [United States Department of Agriculture] allowing soy protein to replace 100 percent of meat protein in the Federal School Lunch Program."
^ Plant-milk brands include Dean Foods' Silk soy milk and almond milk; Blue Diamond's Almond Breeze, Taste the Dream's Almond Dream, and Rice Dream; and Plamil Foods' Organic Soya and Alpro's Soya. Vegan ice-creams include Swedish Glace, Food Heaven, Tofutti, Turtle Mountain's So Delicious and Luna & Larry's Coconut Bliss.
^ The RDA for B12 for adults (14+ years) is 2.4 micrograms (µg) a day, rising to 2.4 and 2.6 µg during pregnancy and lactation respectively. For infants and children, it is 0.4 µg for 0–6 months, 0.5 µg for 7–12 months, 0.9 µg for 1–3 years, 1.2 µg for 4–8 years, and 1.8 µg for 9–13 years.
^ Reed Mangels (2006): "Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B12. Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B12. Animals get their vitamin B12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B12 or from the bacteria present in their rumen and then the animal can become a source of vitamin B12 itself. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B12 added to them. Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B12 in their diet."
^ Roman Pawlak, et al. (Nutrition Reviews, 2013): "The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."
^ Other sources of B12 cited are miso, edible seaweeds (arame, wakame and kombu), spirulina and rainwater. Barley malt syrup, shiitake mushrooms, parsley, and sourdough bread have also been referenced, but may be sources of inactive B12.
^ Red Star developed Vegetarian Support Formula as a nutritional supplement especially for vegetarians and vegans ... Two teaspoons of flakes or one teaspoon of powdered Vegetarian Support Formula provides one microgram of Vitamin B12 ..."
^ Appleby et al. (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007): "We observed similar fracture rates among meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A 30% higher fracture rate among vegans compared with meat eaters was halved in magnitude by adjustment for energy and calcium intake and disappeared altogether when the analysis was restricted to subjects who consumed at least 525 mg/day calcium, a quantity equal to the UK EAR. ... In conclusion, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians in this study. The higher fracture risk among vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. Vegans, who do not consume dairy products, a major source of calcium in most diets, should ensure that they obtain adequate calcium from suitable sources such as almonds, sesame seeds, tahini (sesame paste), calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified drinks and low-oxalate leafy green vegetables such as kale ..."
National Institutes of Health, 2013: "In the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, bone fracture risk was similar in meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but higher in vegans, likely due to their lower mean calcium intake."
^ Annabelle M. Smith (International Journal of Nursing Practice, 2006): "The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive."
^ Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2009): "Key nutrients in pregnancy include vitamin B-12, vitamin D, iron, and folate whereas key nutrients in lactation include vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and zinc. Diets of pregnant and lactating vegetarians should contain reliable sources of vitamin B-12 daily. Based on recommendations for pregnancy and lactation, if there is concern about vitamin D synthesis because of limited sunlight exposure, skin tone, season, or sunscreen use, pregnant and lactating women should use vitamin D supplements or vitamin D–fortified foods. No studies included in the evidence-analysis examined vitamin D status during vegetarian pregnancy. Iron supplements may be needed to prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia, which is common in pregnancy. Women capable of becoming pregnant as well as women in the periconceptional period are advised to consume 400 μg folate daily from supplements, fortified foods, or both. Zinc and calcium needs can be met through food or supplement sources as identified in earlier sections on these nutrients."
^ Gary Francione (2009): "We all believe it's wrong to inflict unnecessary suffering and death on animals. ... So now the next question becomes 'what do we mean by necessity?' Well, whatever it means, whatever abstract meaning it has, if it has any meaning whatsoever, its minimal meaning has to be that it's wrong to inflict suffering and death on animals for reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience ... Problem is 99.9999999 percent of our animal use can only be justified by reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience."
^ United Nations Environment Programme (2010): "Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth, increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.":82
^ Geert Jan van Gelder, Gregor Schoeler, "Introduction", in Abu l-Ala al-Maarri, The Epistle of Forgiveness Or A Pardon to Enter the Garden, Volume 2, New York and London: New York University Press, 2016, xxvii.
^ Records of Buckinghamshire, Volume 3, BPC Letterpress, 1870, 68.
^ Karen Iacobbo, Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarian America: A History, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, 3.
^ a b J. E. M. Latham, Search for a New Eden, Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999, 168.
^ Richard Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010, 11.
^ Iacobbo and Iacobbo 2004, 132.
^ a b c d Watson, Donald (15 December 2002). "Interview with Donald Watson" (PDF) (Transcript). Interviewed by George D. Rodger. The Vegan Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
Watson, Donald (11 August 2004). "24 Carrot Award: Donald Watson". Vegetarians in Paradise (e-Zine). 6 (10). Interviewed by George D. Rodger. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
I invited my early readers to suggest a more concise word to replace 'non-dairy vegetarian.' Some bizarre suggestions were made like 'dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivore, beaumangeur', et cetera. I settled for my own word, 'vegan', containing the first three and last two letters of 'vegetarian'—'the beginning and end of vegetarian.' The word was accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary and no one has tried to improve it.
^ a b c Donald Watson, "The Early History of the Vegan Movement", The Vegan, Autumn 1965, 5–7; Donald Watson, Vegan News, first issue, November 1944.
^ Helena Pedersen, Vasile Staescu, "Conclusion: Future Directions for Critical Animal Studies", in Nik Taylor, Richard Twine (eds.), The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre, Routledge, 2014 (262–276), 267.
^ Gary Steiner, Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, Columbia University Press, 2013, 206.
^ Gary Francione, "Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline", in David M. Kaplan, The Philosophy of Food, University of California Press, 2012 (169–189) 182.
^ Laura Wright, The Vegan Studies Project: Food, Animals, and Gender in the Age of Terror, University of Georgia Press, 2015, 2.
^ Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina, Becoming Vegan: Express Edition, Summertown: Book Publishing Company, 2013, 3.
^ Laura H. Kahn, Michael S. Bruner, "Politics on Your Plate: Building and Burning Bridges across Organics, Vegetarian, and Vegan Discourse", in Joshua Frye (ed.), The Rhetoric of Food: Discourse, Materiality, and Power, Routledge, 2012, 46.
^ Tuso, P. J.; Ismail, M. H.; Ha, B. P.; Bartolotto, C (2013). "Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets". The Permanente Journal. 17 (2): 61–66. doi:10.7812/TPP/12-085. PMC 3662288 . PMID 23704846.
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^ Greenebaum, Jessica (1 March 2012). "Veganism, Identity and the Quest for Authenticity" (PDF). Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 15 (1): 129–144. doi:10.2752/175174412x13190510222101. ISSN 1552-8014.
^ a b Watson, Paul (21 September 2010). "Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson: 'You don't watch whales die and hold signs and do nothing'". The Guardian (Interview). Interviewed by Michael Shapiro. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
Stop eating the ocean. Don't eat anything out of the ocean – there is no such thing as a sustainable fishery. If people eat meat, make sure it's organic and isn't contributing to the destruction of the ocean because 40 percent of all the fish that's caught out of the ocean is fed to livestock – chickens on factory farms are fed fish meal. And be cognizant of the fact that if the oceans die, we die. Therefore our ultimate responsibility is to protect biodiversity in our world's oceans.
Matthew Cole, "Veganism", in Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz (ed.), Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, ABC-Clio, 2010 (239–241), 241.
^ a b c Glick-Bauer, M; Yeh, M. C (2014). "The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection". Nutrients. 6 (11): 4822–4838. doi:10.3390/nu6114822. PMC 4245565 . PMID 25365383.
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^ "Healthy Eating Guidelines for Vegans". Dietitians of Canada. 27 November 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018. A healthy vegan diet can meet all your nutrient needs at any stage of life including when you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for older adults.
^ Garton, Lynne (October 2017). "Food Fact Sheet (Vegetarian Diets)" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of life and have many benefits.
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^ a b Di Genova T, Guyda H (2007). "Infants and children consuming atypical diets: Vegetarianism and macrobiotics". Paediatr Child Health (Review). 12 (3): 185–8. doi:10.1093/pch/12.3.185. PMC 2528709 . PMID 19030357.
^ a b c d Rizzo G, Laganà AS, Rapisarda AM, La Ferrera GM, Buscema M, Rossetti P, et al. (2016). "Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation". Nutrients (Review). 8 (12): 767. doi:10.3390/nu8120767. PMC 5188422 . PMID 27916823.
^ a b c Melina V, Craig W, Levin S (2016). "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets". J Acad Nutr Diet. 116 (12): 1970–1980. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025. PMID 27886704. Fermented foods (such as tempeh), nori, spirulina, chlorella algae, and unfortified nutritional yeast cannot be relied upon as adequate or practical sources of B-12.39,40 Vegans must regularly consume reliable sources— meaning B-12 fortified foods or B-12 containing supplements—or they could become deficient, as shown in case studies of vegan infants, children, and adults.
^ a b Hannibal, L; Lysne, V; Bjørke-Monsen, A. L.; Behringer, S; Grünert, S. C.; Spiekerkoetter, U; Jacobsen, D. W.; Blom, H. J. (2016). "Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency". Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 3: 27. doi:10.3389/fmolb.2016.00027. PMC 4921487 . PMID 27446930.
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^ Donald Watson, Vegan News, No. 1, November 1944, 2; Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951.
^ a b "Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream". CBS News. Associated Press. 5 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
Nijjar, Raman (4 June 2011). "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet". CBC News. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
Molloy, Antonia (31 December 2013). "No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
^ a b c d Tancock, Kat (13 January 2015). "Vegan cuisine moves into the mainstream – and it's actually delicious". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
Crawford, Elizabeth (17 March 2015). "Vegan is going mainstream, trend data suggests". FoodNavigator-USA. William Reed Business Media. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
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Jones-Evans, Dylan (24 January 2018). "The rise and rise of veganism and a global market worth billions". WalesOnline. Media Wales. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
^ Rod Preece, Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008, 12.
^ Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1863, 197–198.
^ The Healthian, 1(5), April 1842, 34–35.
Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
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John Davis, "Prototype Vegans", The Vegan, Winter 2010, 22–23 (also here).
^ Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times. Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA). ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8.
^ Spencer, Colin. The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House. pp. 33–68, 69–84. ISBN 978-0874517606.
^ Tähtinen, Unto. Ahimsa: Non-violence in Indian tradition. London: , Rider and Company (1976).
^ a b Daniel A. Dombrowski, "Vegetarianism and the Argument from Marginal Cases in Porphyry", Journal of the History of Ideas, 45(1), January–March 1984, 141–143. doi:10.2307/2709335 JSTOR 2709335
Daniel A. Dombrowski, The Philosophy of Vegetarianism, University of Massachusetts Press, 1984, 2.
^ For Thiruvalluvar, see G. U. Pope, "Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary", W.H. Allen, & Co, 1886, 160.
^ Kahn, Charles H. (2001). Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief History. Indianapolis, Indiana and Cambridge, England: Hackett Publishing Company. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-87220-575-8.
^ Cornelli, Gabriele; McKirahan, Richard (2013). In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. p. 168. ISBN 978-3-11-030650-7.
^ a b c d Zhmud, Leonid (2012). Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Translated by Windle, Kevin; Ireland, Rosh. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 200, 235. ISBN 978-0-19-928931-8.
^ D. S. Margoliouth, "Abu‘l-'Alā al-Ma‘arrī's Correspondence on Vegetarianism", The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 34(02), 1902 (289–332), 290. doi:10.1017/s0035869x0002921x JSTOR 25208409
^ James Gregory, Of Victorians and Vegetarians, I. B. Tauris, 2007.
^ a b "International Health Exhibition", The Medical Times and Gazette, 24 May 1884, 712.
^ James C. Whorton, Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, 69–70: "Word of these cures of pimples, consumption, and virtually all ailments in between was widely distributed by his several publications ..."
Percy Bysshe Shelley, A Vindication of Natural Diet, London: F. Pitman, 1884 ; William Lambe, Joel Shew, Water and Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 [London, 1815].
^ Lambe 1854, 55, 94.
^ Andrew F. Smith, Eating History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2013, 29–35 (33 for popularity); Whorton 2014, 38ff.
^ Hart 1995, 14; Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, 2010.
^ William A. Alcott, Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men and By Experience in All Ages, Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1838; Vegetable Diet, New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1851.
^ Gregory 2007, 22.
^ a b Gandhi, Mahatma (20 November 1931). "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism". EVU News (Speech). Vol. 1998 no. 1. London, England (published 1998). pp. 11–14. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018 – via International Vegetarian Union and London Vegetarian Society.
^ Axon, William E. A. (December 1893). "A Forerunner of the Vegetarian Society". Vegetarian Messenger. Manchester, England: Vegetarian Society. pp. 453–55. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018 – via International Vegetarian Union.
^ Jackie Latham, "The political and the personal: the radicalism of Sophia Chichester and Georgiana Fletcher Welch", Women's History Review, 8(3), 1999 (469–487), 474. doi:10.1080/09612029900200216 PMID 22619793
^ David Grumett, Rachel Muers, Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet, Routledge, 2010, 64.
^ "History of Vegetarianism: The Origin of Some Words", International Vegetarian Union, 6 April 2010.
^ Stephens, Henry Salt (1886). "5: Sir Henry Thompson on "Diet."". A Plea for Vegetarianism and Other Essays. p. 57.
^ Rupert Wheldon, No Animal Food, New York and New Jersey: Health Culture Co., 1910.
^ Leah Leneman, "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909–1944",Society and Animals, 7(3), 1999 (219–228), 221–223.
^ Stanley A. Wolpert, Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, Oxford University Press, 2002, 21–22, 161.
^ Leneman 1999, 226.
^ "11th IVU World Vegetarian Congress 1947", Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, International Vegetarian Union.
^ Lowbridge, Caroline (30 December 2017). "Veganism: How a maligned movement went mainstream". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Donald Watson, Vegan News, February 1945, 2–3.
^ a b Richard Farhall, "The First Fifty Years: 1944–1994", iii (full names of members on following pages), published with The Vegan, 10(3), Autumn 1994, between pp. 12 and 13.
^ "World Vegan Month". The Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018. Every November we celebrate World Vegan Day and World Vegan Month, as well as the formation of The Vegan Society.
^ The Vegan, 1(5), November 1945; for 500, The Vegan, 10(3), Autumn 1994, iv.
^ For an example of the vegan trade list, The Vegan, 2(2), Summer 1946, 6–7.
^ Joanne Stepaniak, The Vegan Sourcebook, McGraw Hill Professional, 2000, 5; The Vegan, Autumn 1949, 22.
^ a b Matthew Cole, "'The greatest cause on earth': The historical formation of veganism as an ethical practice", in Nik Taylor, Richard Twine (eds.), The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre, Routledge, 2014 (203–224), 203.
^ Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951, 6–7.
^ Ling, Arthur (Autumn 1986). "The Milk of Human Kindness". Vegan Views (Interview). 37 (Autumn 1986). Interviewed by Harry Mather. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
"Arthur Ling, Plamil". Plamil Foods. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
"The Plantmilk Society", The Vegan, X(3), Winter 1956, 14–16.
^ Stepaniak 2000, 6–7; Linda Austin and Norm Hammond, Oceano, Arcadia Publishing, 2010, 39.
^ a b Dinshah, Freya (2010). "American Vegan Society: 50 Years" (PDF). American Vegan. 2. Vol. 10 no. 1 (Summer 2010). Vineland, NJ: American Vegan Society. p. 31. ISSN 1536-3767. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Stepaniak 2000, 6–7; Preece 2008, 323.
^ "History". American Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Stepaniak 2000, 3.
^ Iacobbo, Karen and Michael Iacobbo. "Chapter 9: Peace, Love, and Vegetarianism: The Counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s", In Vegetarian America: A History. Westport: Praeger, 2004.
^ Andrew F. Smith, Eating History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2013, 197; Wright 2015, 34.
^ Aubrey, Allison (22 September 2016). "If You Think Eating Is A Political Act, Say Thanks To Frances Moore Lappe". The Salt. NPR. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
^ Frances Moore Lappé, Diet for a Small Planet: How to Enjoy a Rich Protein Harvest by Getting Off the Top of the Food Chain, Friends of the Earth/Ballantine, 1971; Smith 2013, 197.
^ For health professionals' interest in vegetarian diets in the last quarter of the 20th century: Donna Maurer, Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment?, Temple University Press, 2002, 23; for Ornish and Barnard, 99–101.
For McDougall: Karen Iacobbo, Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarians and Vegans in America Today, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, 75.
For Ornish, Campbell, Esselstyn, Barnard, and Greger: Kathy Freston, Veganist, Weinstein Publishing, 2011. Ornish, from 21; Campbell, 41; Esselstyn, 57; Barnard, 73; Greger, 109.
^ For McDougall Plan: Iacobbo and Iacobbo 2006, 75; for Robbins: Wright 2015, 35, and Preece 2008, 327; for Ornish: Maurer 2002, 99–101.
^ Joan Sabaté, "The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(3), September 2003, 502S–507S. PMID 12936940
"Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(6), June 2003, 748–765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142 PMID 12826028
^ For Freedman and Barnouin: Wright 2015, 104; for Earthlings: Wright 2015, 149.
For Campbell and Esselstyn: Gupta, Sanjay (25 August 2011). "Gupta: Becoming heart attack proof". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
For Eating Animals: Yonan, Joe (22 November 2009). "Book Review: Eating Animals by Jonathan Safran Foer". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
For Esselystyn and Forks over Knives: Martin, David S. (25 November 2011). "The 'heart attack proof' diet?". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
^ Haenfler, Ross (2006). Straight Edge: Hardcore Punk, Clean Living Youth, and Social Change. Rutgers University Press. pp. 53, 427–8. ISBN 0-8135-3851-3.
^ Tilbürger, Len; Kale, Chris P. (2014). 'Nailing Descartes to the Wall': animal rights, veganism and punk culture (Zine). Active Distribution. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018 – via The Anarchist Library.
^ Kuhn, Gabriel (2010). Sober Living for the Revolution: Hardcore Punk, Straight Edge, and Radical Politics. PM Press. p. 137. ISBN 1604860510. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
^ Sanna, Jacopo (20 September 2017). "The Sincere and Vibrant World of the Czech DIY Scene". Bandcamp. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
Every year, at the end of July, the small and grassy airport of Rokycany, a small Czech town a few miles east of Plzeň, fills with people for a gathering called Fluff Fest. Attendance is a summer ritual for many European fans of punk, hardcore, crust, and screamo. Featuring more than a hundred bands, tons of vegan food, a fanzine library, and various workshops, Fluff Fest has established itself as the main DIY hardcore punk event in Europe, growing every year since its inaugural edition in 2000.
^ a b Meat Atlas Archived 11 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Heinrich Böll Foundation, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2014, 57.
Chalabi, Mona (9 January 2014). "Meat atlas shows Latin America has become a soybean empire". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
^ Nick Pendergrast, "Environmental Concerns and the Mainstreaming of Veganism", in T. Raphaely (ed.), Impact of Meat Consumption on Health and Environmental Sustainability, IGI Global, 2015, 106.
^ a b Hancox, Dan (1 April 2018). "The unstoppable rise of veganism: how a fringe movement went mainstream". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
^ "European Parliament legislative resolution of 16 June 2010", European Parliament: "The term 'vegan' shall not be applied to foods that are, or are made from or with the aid of, animals or animal products, including products from living animals."
^ Rynn Berry, "Veganism", The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, 2007, 604–605.
^ "Google Trends shows 90% increase in 'vegan' searches in 2016". Vegan Food & Living. Anthem Publishing. 4 January 2017. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
According to search engine giant Google, the search interest for 'vegan' spiked in 2015, increasing 32 percent from the previous year, a figure than can be attributed to the plethora of positive news stories about plant-based diets and the growing number of vegans. Encouragingly, this trend showed no signs of slowing down in 2016 however as Google Trends show an astonishing 90% increase in 'vegan' searches in last 12 months.
^ a b Burt, Kate (18 May 2012). "Is this the end of meat?". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
^ a b Shah, Allie (8 January 2016). "Nation's first vegan butcher shop to open in Minneapolis Jan. 23". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
The Herbivorous Butcher is scheduled to open on Jan. 23  in northeast Minneapolis. [...] The opening of a vegan butcher shop is yet another sign of the rise of fake meat in American diets. Since 2012, sales of plant-based meat alternatives have grown 8 percent, to $553 million annually, according to the market research firm, Mintel.
^ Walraven, Michel (14 September 2011). "Vegetarian butchers make a killing". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
The first Vegetarian Butcher shop opened its doors in October 2010 in The Hague. Now, less than a year later, there are 30 spread all over the country. The display counter of these shops challenges even a staunchly carnivorous stomach not to rumble; the fake meat products are almost indistinguishable from the real thing.
^ Locker, Melissa (7 January 2016). "A Vegan 'Butcher Shop' Is Opening in Minnesota". TIME. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
Gajanan, Mahita (29 January 2016). "The Herbivorous Butcher: sausage and steak – but hold the slaughter". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018. The Walches soon took their products on the road, selling them at farmers’ markets and breweries across the midwest, before returning to Minneapolis and opening the Herbivorous Butcher on 23 January . More than 5,000 patrons visited the shop on its opening weekend.
^ "US sales of dairy milk turn sour as non-dairy milk sales grow 9% in 2015". Mintel. April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
The continued popularity of non-dairy milk is troubling for the dairy milk category with Mintel research revealing that half (49 percent) of Americans consume non-dairy milk, including 68 percent of parents and 54 percent of children under age 18. What's more, seven in 10 (69 percent) consumers agree that non-dairy milk is healthy for kids compared to 62 percent who agree that dairy milk is healthy for kids. [...] While an overwhelming majority of Americans consume dairy milk (91 percent), it is most commonly used as an addition to other food (69 percent), such as cereal, or as an ingredient (61 percent). Just 57 percent of consumers drink dairy milk by itself.
^ Khomami, Nadia (8 February 2015). "From Beyoncé to the Baftas, vegan culture gets star status". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018. In 2012 there were an estimated 150,000 vegans in the UK, a number thought to have increased dramatically. Mintel's 2014 report on the market for dairy drinks, milk and cream, showed the non-dairy market jumping from 36m litres in 2011 to 92m litres in 2013, an increase of 155%. Plant-based, non-dairy foods are worth £150.6m a year and sales of soya-based alternatives to yoghurt are rising by 8% year on year.
^ Wandel, Hannah (10 March 2011). Witkop, Nathan, ed. "Europe's first vegan supermarket opens in Dortmund". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
^ a b Mesure, Susie (8 December 2013). "Veganism 2.0: Let them eat kale". The Independent. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
One further example of how plant-based diets are becoming mainstream will arrive in Britain next year, when a German-owned chain of vegan supermarkets opens its first outlet in London. Veganz, which is a European first in offering a full range of vegan grocery products, opened its first store in Berlin in 2011. It is expanding fast and aims to have 21 outlets across Europe by the end of 2015.
^ a b c Moon, Louise (28 October 2017). "Inside Hong Kong's growing appetite for veganism". Hong Kong (Health & Environment). South China Morning Post. Alibaba Group. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
In contrast, Hong Kong residents in 2015 consumed the highest amount of meat and seafood in the world, at 140kg per capita, a study by global market research company Euromonitor found. Yet in the five years from 2015 to 2020, China's vegan market is expected to rise by more than 17 per cent – marking the fastest growth rate internationally in that period and offering proof the trend has filtered into the region in recent years.
^ a b c d White, Victoria (24 May 2016). "Euromonitor launches new Ethical Labels database". New Food. Russell Publishing. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018. The top three fastest growing vegan markets between 2015 and 2020 are China at 17.2 percent, United Arab Emirates at 10.6 percent, and Australia at 9.6 percent.
"Sales growth of the vegan market between 2015 and 2020 worldwide, by country". Euromonitor International. May 2016. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018 – via Statista.
According to the report, China was projected to be the fastest growing market for vegan products between 2015 and 2020, with a growth rate of 17.2 percent. As of 2016, Asia Pacific held the largest share of vegan consumers globally, with approximately nine percent of people following a vegan diet in this area. [...] China, the United Arab Emirates and Australia were forecast to be the fastest growing markets for vegan products between 2015 and 2020. Australia's vegan market was projected to have a growth rate of 9.6 percent during the period considered.
^ a b Cormack, Lucy (4 June 2016). "Australia is the third-fastest growing vegan market in the world". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
The Brewers are an example of the increasing move towards veganism in Australia, now the third-fastest growing vegan market in the world, after the United Arab Emirates and China. Data from market researcher Euromonitor International has shown Australia's packaged vegan food market is currently worth almost $136 million, set to reach $215 million by 2020.
^ Gordinier, Jeff (29 September 2015). "Vegans Go Glam". The New York Times. Calabasas, California. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018. The evidence is bountiful—at restaurants on both coasts and in cookbooks, on blogs and throughout social media. 'Being a vegan has crossed over into fashion territory,' said Kerry Diamond, the editor of Yahoo Food and the editorial director of Cherry Bombe magazine. Decades back 'there was nothing chic about it,' she said. 'Now it's become a thing.'
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The culinary cornerstones of the Munich festival, which runs this year from Sept. 21 to Oct. 6, include roast pork, ham hock, and weisswurst—a white sausage that complements the 40 different types of local beer. But this year, breaking with a 200-year-old tradition, Oktoberfest is catering to vegans. Claudia Bauer of the Munich City Council, which organizes the festival, says the move is a sign of the times.
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Avivi, Yuval (6 March 2014). "Is Tel Aviv's vegan craze here to stay?". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2018. Another poll, published by the Panels Institute in advance of the new season of the reality cooking show 'Master Chef' in January 2014 found that 8% of Israelis define themselves as vegetarians and 5% as vegans. In that same poll, 13% of the respondents said that they are considering adopting a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle in the near future, while almost 25% said that they had reduced their meat consumption in the last year.
Cohen, Tova (21 July 2015). "In the land of milk and honey, Israelis turn vegan". Tel Aviv: Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. A study prepared for the Globes newspaper and Israel's Channel Two found 5 percent of Israelis identify as vegan and 8 percent as vegetarian while 13 percent are weighing going vegan or vegetarian. In 2010 just 2.6 percent were vegetarian or vegan.
^ "Veganism in Israel (Society & Culture: Veganism)". The Jewish Virtual Library. AICE. February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. Israel is home to the largest percentage of vegans per capita in the world. Approximately 5 percent of Israelis (approximately 300,000) are vegans according to a 2015 survey by Globes and Israel's Channel 2 News, compared to 2 percent of U.S. and U.K. citizens and only 1 percent of Germans. Hence, it’s not surprising that more than 400 certified vegan restaurants can be found in Tel Aviv alone.
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Cheslow, Daniella (10 December 2015). "As More Israelis Go Vegan, Their Military Adjusts Its Menu". The Salt. NPR. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. The Israeli military, it turns out, was surprisingly eager to help. A military spokesman tells The Salt that vegans serve in all capacities, including as combat soldiers. Vegan soldiers wear wool-free berets and leather-free boots, and they get an additional stipend to supplement their food, the military says.
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There are over half a million vegans in Britain—at least 1.05% of the 15 and over population*—new research commissioned by The Vegan Society in partnership with Vegan Life magazine, has found. At least 542,000 people in Britain are now following a vegan diet and never consume any animal products including meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs and honey. This is a whopping increase since the last estimate of 150,000 ten years ago, making veganism one of Britain's fastest growing lifestyle movements. [...] *There are 51 million people in England, Scotland and Wales aged 15 and over.
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[A]ccording to a new survey by comparethemarket.com, there has been a significant spike in the number of people going vegan in the UK since 2016, with more than 3.5 million Brits now identifying as such. The research means that seven per cent of Great Britain's population are now shunning animal products altogether for life less meaty—and cheesy. [...] Supported by Gresham College professor Carolyn Roberts, the research suggests that environmental concerns are largely responsible for edging people towards a vegan diet, as Brits strive to reduce their carbon footprint.
^ Newport, Frank (26 July 2012). "In U.S., 5% Consider Themselves Vegetarians". Gallup. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018. Vegetarianism in the U.S. remains quite uncommon and a lifestyle that is neither growing nor waning in popularity. The 5% of the adult population who consider themselves to be vegetarians is no larger than it was in previous Gallup surveys conducted in 1999 and 2001. The incidence of veganism is even smaller, at a scant 2% of the adult population.
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Consumers' diets are diverse, and while most claim not to follow a specific diet, there is a gradual shift occurring in response to health trends. Interestingly, 44% of consumers in Germany follow a low-meat diet, which is a significant increase from 2014 (26%). Similarly, 6% of US consumers now claim to be vegan, up from just 1% in 2014.
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^ Mangels et al. 2011, 207–208; "Vitamin D: Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin D", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
^ Wang, Ting; Bengtsson, Göran; Kärnefelt, Ingvar; Björn, Lars Olof (1 September 2001). "Provitamins and vitamins D2 and D3 in Cladina spp. over a latitudinal gradient: possible correlation with UV levels" (PDF). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. Elsevier. 62 (1–2): 118–122. doi:10.1016/S1011-1344(01)00160-9. PMID 11693362. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
^ Watson, Elaine (13 March 2012). "Veggie vitamin D3 maker explores novel production process to secure future supplies". NutraIngredients-USA. William Reed Business Media. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
The D3 is currently wild harvested from lichen that grows on rocks, trees and other locations in North America, Asia and Scandinavia [...] It is collected in buckets and washed at source, and then put through a multi-step process of extraction (using ethanol), purification and concentration in the UK before it is added to a vegetable oil carrier (medium chain triglycerides). It is then shipped over to GHT in canisters to be made into finished products (sprays, softgels etc).
Watson, Elaine (7 December 2012). "Lichen-based vegan vitamin D3 gains momentum as Nordic Naturals introduces new product". NutraIngredients-USA. William Reed Business Media. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 209.
^ Ross et al. (Institute of Medicine) 2011, 75.
^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 141.
^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 138ff, 143–144. For a detailed discussion, "Iron", Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 2001, 290–393.
^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 146].
^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 143.
^ "Iron: Health Risks from Excessive Iron", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
^ Davida Gypsy Breier, Reed Mangels, Vegan & Vegetarian FAQ, The Vegetarian Resource Group, 2001, 27.
^ a b Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, 142; Reed Mangels, "Iron in the Vegan Diet", The Vegetarian Resources Group.
^ Sanders Tom A (1999). "The nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 58 (2): 265–9. doi:10.1017/S0029665199000361. PMID 10466165.
^ "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1.1–1.6 g/day.
^ "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Adequate Intakes for EPA and DHA have not been determined.
^ Paul N. Appleby, et al., "The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3), September 1999, 525S–531S.
^ "Iodine", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The RDA is 110 mcg (0–six months), 130 mcg (7–12 months), 90 mcg (1–8 years), 120 mcg (9–13 years), 150 mcg (14+). The RDA for pregnancy and lactation is 220 and 290 mcg respectively.
^ Turner-Mcgrievy, G; Harris, M (2014). "Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome". Current Diabetes Reports. 14 (9): 524. doi:10.1007/s11892-014-0524-y. PMID 25084991.
^ Le, L. T; Sabaté, J (2014). "Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: Findings from the Adventist cohorts". Nutrients. 6 (6): 2131–47. doi:10.3390/nu6062131. PMC 4073139 . PMID 24871675.
^ Tuso, P. J; Ismail, M. H; Ha, B. P; Bartolotto, C (2013). "Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets". The Permanente Journal. 17 (2): 61–66. doi:10.7812/TPP/12-085. PMC 3662288 . PMID 23704846.
^ Huang, R. Y; Huang, C. C; Hu, F. B; Chavarro, J. E (2016). "Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 31 (1): 109–16. doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7. PMC 4699995 . PMID 26138004.
^ Dinu, M; Abbate, R; Gensini, G. F; Casini, A; Sofi, F (2017). "Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57 (17): 3640–3649. doi:10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447. PMID 26853923.
^ Woo, K. S; Kwok, T. C; Celermajer, D. S (2014). "Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health". Nutrients. 6 (8): 3259–3273. doi:10.3390/nu6083259. PMC 4145307 .
^ "Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia - Symptoms". National Health Service, England. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ Venkatramanan S, Armata IE, Strupp BJ, Finkelstein JL (2016). "Vitamin B-12 and Cognition in Children". Adv Nutr (Review). 7 (5): 879–88. doi:10.3945/an.115.012021. PMC 5015033 . PMID 27633104.
^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Dietitians of Canada. 103 (6): 748–765. 2003. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12826028.
^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009. pp. 1266–1282.
^ "Dietary Guidelines for Australia" (PDF). Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
^ "Government recognises vegan diet as viable option for all Australians" (Press release). Vegan Australia. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013 – via News International.
^ "The eatwell plate", National Health Service; "The vegan diet", National Health Service.
^ "What Foods Are in the Protein Foods Group?". United States Department of Agriculture.
^ "Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group". United States Department of Agriculture.
^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), July 2009, 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027 PMID 19562864
^ Minoli Amit, "Position statement: Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents", Paediatric Child Health, 15(5), 2010, 303–314, 1 June 2010, reaffirmed 1 February 2016. PMID 21532796
^ a b Piccoli, GB; Clari, R; Vigotti, FN; Leone, F; Attini, R; Cabiddu, G; Mauro, G; Castelluccia, N; Colombi, N; Capizzi, I; Pani, A; Todros, T; Avagnina, P (April 2015). "Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review". BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 122 (5): 623–633. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.13280. PMID 25600902.
^ "Nutrition considerations", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2009; 109(7): doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027 PMID 19562864
^ M. R. Pepper, M. M. Black, "B12 in fetal development", Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 22(6), August 2011, 619–623. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.05.005 PMID 21664980
^ Ann Reed Mangels and V. Messina, "Considerations in planning vegan diets: Infants", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101(6), June 2001. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00169-9 PMID 11424546
^ "Vitamins, supplements and nutrition in pregnancy", National Health Service, UK.
^ Amy Schweitzer, "Dietary Supplements During Pregnancy", The Journal of Perinatal Education, 15(4), Fall 2006, 44–45. doi:10.1624/105812406X107834
^ a b Animal Ingredients A to Z, E. G. Smith Collective, 2004, 3rd edition; Lars Thomsen and Reuben Proctor, Veganissimo A to Z, The Experiment, 2013 (first published in Germany, 1996).
"Animal-Derived Ingredients Resource". PETA. 18 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Mestel, Rosie (20 April 2012). "Cochineal and Starbucks: Actually, this dye is everywhere". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Raymond Eller Kirk, Donald Frederick Othmer, Kirk-Othmer Chemical Technology of Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, 535.
^ a b "Certification". Vegan Awareness Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Croswell, Alexis (5 February 2014). "How to Read a Cruelty-Free Cosmetics Label". One Green Planet. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
"FAQ: Are all Leaping Bunny companies vegan (i.e., manufactured without animal by-products)?". Leaping Bunny. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
The Leaping Bunny list does not provide information about the composition of ingredients. Because ingredient information is available—and required by law—we know that conscientious consumers can read labels to discover whether products are vegan or not. For this reason, Leaping Bunny chooses to focus its resources on validating information that is not readily available to consumers, such as animal testing claims. Many Leaping Bunny companies are committed to manufacturing natural and vegan products; however, the Leaping Bunny Program can only certify the animal testing component of this process.
^ "Trademark search". The Vegan Society. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ "Choose Cruelty Free list (vegan) Archives". Choose Cruelty Free. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Linzey, Andrew. "Dowding, Lady Muriel", Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 1998, 139
"About Beauty Without Cruelty (The History of Beauty Without Cruelty)". Beauty Without Cruelty. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Morgan, Brittney (18 February 2016) [10 June 2015]. "13 Cool Vegan-Friendly Businesses That Inspire". Business News Daily. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ a b Joanne Stepaniak (2000). The Vegan Sourcebook. ISBN 9780071392211.
^ Phloem (29 June 2017). "These are the five most innovative materials being used in vegan fashion". The Flaming Vegan. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Hickey, Shane (21 December 2014). "Wearable pineapple fibres could prove sustainable alternative to leather". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ Gary Francione, Erik Marcus (2013). "Animals as Persons: Erik Marcus Debates Professor Francione on Abolition vs. Animal Welfare" (PDF). Columbia University Press. p. 150. Retrieved 25 February 2007. (Francione) Pursuing improved welfare conditions is like campaigning for 'conscientious rapists' who will rape without beating. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Eric Prescott, "I'm Vegan: Gary Francione, Vimeo, 2009, from 00:13:53.
^ Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights, University of California Press, 1983, 243, 333–339.
^ Peter Singer, Practical Ethics, Cambridge University Press, 1999, 50; Singer 1999, 60–61.
^ Peter Singer and Jim Mason, The Way We Eat, Rodale, 2006, 281–282.
^ Bruce Friedrich, "Personal Purity vs. Effective Advocacy", PETA, 2006.
^ Val Plumwood, "Gender, Eco-Feminism and the Environment", in Robert White (ed.), Controversies in Environmental Sociology, Cambridge University Press, 2004, 52–53.
^ Val Plumwood, The Eye of the Crocodile, edited by Lorraine Shannon, Canberra: Australian National University E Press, 2012, 87.
^ "Professor Ben Mepham – Founder Director of the Food Ethics Council". Food Ethics Council. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
^ a b Mepham, B (Mar 2011). "The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?". Animals (Book Review). 1 (4): 200–204. doi:10.3390/ani1010200. PMC 4552207 .
^ Thweatt-Bates, Jeanine (2016). Cyborg Selves: A Theological Anthropology of the Posthuman. London: Routledge, 100–101 (first published 2012).
^ Hughes, James J. (2007). "The Compatibility of Religious and Transhumanist Views of Metaphysics, Suffering, Virtue and Transcendence in an Enhanced Future", Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, 20.
^ a b Pearce, David (2015) [Originally published in 2009]. "Reprogramming Predators: the case for high-tech Jainism and a pan-species welfare state". HedWeb.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
^ Pearce, David (16 September 2009). "The Genomic Bodhisattva". H+ Magazine (Interview). Interviewed by James Kent. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
Jewish Nobel Laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer described life for factory-farmed animals as 'an eternal Treblinka': a world of concentration camps extermination camps and industrialized mass-killing. Strip away our ingrained anthropocentric bias, and what we do to other sentient beings is barbaric. Combating great evil justifies heroic personal sacrifice; going vegan entails mild personal inconvenience. The non-human animals we factory-farm and kill are functionally akin to human babies and toddlers. Babies and toddlers need looking after, not liberating. As the master species we have a duty of care to lesser beings, just as we have a duty of care to vulnerable and handicapped humans. As our mastery of technology matures, I think we need to build a cross-species global analogue of the welfare state.
^ Verchot, Manon (30 September 2014). "Meet the people who want to turn predators into herbivores". TreeHugger. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
^ Pearce, David (30 July 2014). "The Radical Plan to Phase Out Earth's Predatory Species" (Interview). Interviewed by George Dvorsky. io9. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
Carnivorous predators keep populations of herbivores in check. Plasmodium-carrying species of the Anopheles mosquito keep human populations in check. In each case, a valuable ecological role is achieved at the price of immense suffering and the loss of hundreds of millions of lives. What's in question isn't the value of the parasite or predator's ecological role, but whether intelligent moral agents can perform that role better. On some fairly modest assumptions, fertility regulation via family planning or cross-species immunocontraception is a more civilised and compassionate policy option than famine, predation and disease. The biggest obstacle to a future of compassionate ecosystems is the ideology of traditional conservation biology—and unreflective status quo bias.
^ Fairlie, Simon (2010). Meat: A Benign Extravagance. Chelsea Green Publishing. 230–231. ISBN 1603583254.
^ Dominick, Brian. Animal Liberation and Social Revolution: A vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism, third edition, Firestarter Press, 1997, pp. 5–6.
^ Watson, Paul (6 May 2014). "V". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
So why are all the meals on Sea Shepherd ships vegan? The answer is because vegetarianism and especially veganism are powerful alternatives to eight billion human beings and their domestic animals eating the oceans alive. The diversity in our ocean is being diminished more and more every day and when diversity collapses, interdependence between species collapses and the result is a dead ocean. And a dead ocean means death to all creatures big and small because if the ocean dies, we all die. [...] Sea Shepherd's position is that all commercial fisheries must be shut down so fish can have a chance to recover. The only relatively 'sustainable' fisheries are artisanal fishing by fishermen working from very small boats out of tiny ports in India, Africa, etc. We need to remove the corporations, the big trawlers, seiners, and long-liners, the heavy gear, the big nets, the long lines and the factory ships if our oceans are going to be saved.
^ Henning Steinfeld, et al., Livestock's Long Shadow, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, 2006, xx.
^ Bland, Alastair (1 August 2012). "Is the Livestock Industry Destroying the Planet?". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018. The global scope of the livestock issue is huge. A 212-page online report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization says 26 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface is used for livestock grazing.
^ Gaverick Matheny, "Least Harm: A Defense of Vegetarianism from Steven Davis's Omnivorous Proposal", Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16(5), 2003, 505–511.
^ Steinfeld et al. 2006, 132.
^ Steinfeld et al. 2006, 3, 74.
^ Steinfeld et al. 2006, 12, 42. The roots, vegetables and pulses are mostly cassava, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cabbage, plantain, peas, and beans.
^ Steinfeld et al. 2006, 272.
^ "Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2009", United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.
^ Wolf, Julie; Asrar, Ghassem R.; West, Tristram O. (29 September 2017). "Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock". Carbon Balance and Management. 12 (16). doi:10.1186/s13021-017-0084-y. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
"Methane emissions from cattle are 11% higher than estimated". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 29 September 2017. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
^ Gander, Kashmira (1 June 2018). "Want to Save the Planet? Go Vegan, Study Says". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
^ a b Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, International Panel for Resource Management, United Nations Environment Programme, June 2010.
^ Carus, Felicity (2 June 2010). "UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
"Energy and Agriculture Top Resource Panel's Priority List for Sustainable 21st Century", United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Brussels, 2 June 2010.
For an opposing position, Simon Fairlie, Meat: A Benign Extravagance, Chelsea Green Publishing, 2010.
^ Christian J. Peters, Jennifer Wilkins, Gary W. Ficka, "Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example", Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22(2), June 2007, 145–153. doi:10.1017/S1742170507001767
Lang, Susan S. (4 October 2007). "Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report". Cornell Chronicle. Cornell University. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
^ Brian Machovia, K. J. Feeley, W. J. Ripple, "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption", Science of The Total Environment, 536, 1 December 2015, 419–431. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022 PMID 26231772
Morell, Virginia (11 August 2015). "Meat-eaters may speed worldwide species extinction, study warns". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aad1607. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
^ Smithers, Rebecca (5 October 2017). "Vast animal-feed crops to satisfy our meat needs are destroying planet". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
^ Carrington, Damian (21 May 2018). "Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
^ Bar-On, Yinon M; Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron (2018). "The biomass distribution on Earth". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 201711842. doi:10.1073/pnas.1711842115.
^ Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF (13 November 2017). "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice". BioScience. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix125.
^ Kaplan, Karen (26 March 2018). "By going vegan, America could feed an additional 390 million people, study suggests". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
If U.S. farmers took all the land currently devoted to raising cattle, pigs and chickens and used it to grow plants instead, they could sustain more than twice as many people as they do now, according to a report published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
^ Adams, C. J. (2010). "Why feminist-vegan now?". Feminism & Psychology. 20 (3): 302–317. doi:10.1177/0959353510368038.
^ a b c Duvnjak, Angella (6 September 2011). "Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice". Outskirts. University of Western Australia (published May 2011). 24. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
^ a b c Hamilton, Carrie (2017). "sex, work, meat: the feminist politics of veganism". Feminist Review. 114 (1): 112–129. doi:10.1057/s41305-016-0011-1.
^ "Vegan Feminist: An Interview with Carol J. Adams.: at USF Libraries". eds.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
^ Yacoubou, Jeanne (2006). "Vegetarian Certifications on Food Labels: What Do They Mean?". Vegetarian Journal. 17 (3): 25. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
^ Basas, Carrie Griffin (2011). ""V" is for Vegetarian: FDA-Mandated Vegetarian Food Labeling". Utah Law Review. 4: 1275. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1434040.
^ Starostinetskaya, Anna (17 July 2017). "New Flag Launches to Unite Vegans Across the Globe". VegNews. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
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