Zagreb - Wikipedia Zagreb From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the Croatian capital city. For other uses, see Zagreb (disambiguation). Capital and largest city of Croatia City in City of Zagreb, CroatiaZagrebCityGrad Zagreb City of Zagreb Clockwise, from top: St. Mark's Square, Croatian State Archives, Zagreb Tram, Art Pavilion, Cibona & HOTO towers and Croatian National Theatre. FlagCoat of armsZagrebLocation of Zagreb in CroatiaShow map of CroatiaZagrebZagreb (Europe)Show map of EuropeCoordinates: 45°49′N 15°59′E / 45.817°N 15.983°E / 45.817; 15.983Coordinates: 45°49′N 15°59′E / 45.817°N 15.983°E / 45.817; 15.983Country CroatiaCounty City of ZagrebRC diocese1094Free royal city1242Unified1850Subdivisions17 city districts218 local committees (70 settlements)Government • TypeMayor-Council • MayorMilan Bandić (BM 365) • City Assembly 51 members BM 365, ZL, NS-R (14) SDP, GLAS, HNS, HSS, NH-PS (13) HSLS, NL SŠ (8) HDZ (7) EH-NHR (5) ZN, NL, RF, ZG (4)Area[1] • City641 km2 (247 sq mi) • Urban202.4 km2 (78.1 sq mi) • Metro3,719 km2 (1,436 sq mi)Elevation[2]158 m (518 ft)Highest elevation1,035 m (3,396 ft)Lowest elevation122 m (400 ft)Population (2011 census)[3][4] • City790,017 • Estimate (2019)[5]812,635 • Density4,055/km2 (10,500/sq mi) • Metro1,228,941 • Metro density330/km2 (860/sq mi)Demonym(s)Zagrepčanin (cr)Zagreber (en)Time zoneUTC+1 (CET) • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)Postal codeHR-10 000, HR-10 010, HR-10 020, HR-10 040, HR-10 090Area code+385 1Vehicle registrationZGGDP (PPP)2017 - Total$25 billion / €22.7 billion - Per capita$32,404 / €28,237HDI (2017)0.890[6] – very highWebsitezagreb.hrZagreb (/ˈzɑːɡrɛb, ˈzæɡrɛb, zɑːˈɡrɛb/;[7][8]Croatian pronunciation: [zǎːɡreb] (listen))[9] is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.[10] It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately 122 m (400 ft) above sea level.[11][12] The estimated population of the city in 2018 was 820 678.[13] The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million, approximately a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day. The oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo.[14][15][16][17] The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242.[18][19][20][21][22] In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor,[23][24][25][26]Janko Kamauf. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county (but separated from Zagreb County),[27][28][29][30] and is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts.[31][32][33] Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme[34][35][36] and Sesvete[37][38][39] districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain,[40] making the city's geographical image rather diverse. The city extends over 30 kilometres (19 miles) east-west and around 20 kilometres (12 miles) north-south.[41][42]The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific, and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia.[43][44][45] Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and almost all government ministries.[46][47][48] Almost all of the largest Croatian companies, media, and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road, rail and air networks of Croatia. It is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums, sporting, and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech industries and the service sector. Contents 1 Name 2 History 2.1 Early Zagreb 2.2 16th to 18th centuries 2.3 19th to mid-20th century 2.4 Modern Zagreb 2.5 Area and population development 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Cityscape 3.3 Surroundings 3.4 Demographics 3.4.1 City districts 3.4.2 Settlements 4 Government and politics 4.1 Elections 4.2 Administration 4.3 International relations 4.3.1 Twin towns — sister cities 4.3.2 Partner cities 5 Culture 5.1 Tourism 5.1.1 Souvenirs and gastronomy 5.2 Museums 5.3 Events 5.4 Performing arts 5.5 Recreation and sports 5.6 Religion 6 Economy and infrastructure 6.1 Transport 6.1.1 Highways 6.1.2 Roads Bridges 6.1.3 Public transportation Tram network Suburban rail network 6.1.4 Air traffic 7 Education 7.1 University 8 See also 9 References 9.1 Footnotes 9.2 Citations 9.3 Bibliography 10 External links Name[edit] Sculpture representing the Triune Kingdom Ante Starčević Square The Golden Bull of 1242, whereby King Béla IV proclaimed Gradec a royal free city The etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, and was increasingly used for the city in the 17th century.[49] The name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.[50] The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An even older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag (recorded from c. 1200 and in use until the 18th century). For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, such as Csepreg.[51]The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word *grębъ which means hill, uplift. (However, note Serbo-Croatian brȇg < Proto-Slavic *bergъ, which also means '(smaller) hill', and za brȇg 'to or toward the hill' for the seemingly metathesized variant in Hungarian, Zabrag – modified from assumed *Zabreg because of Hungarian vowel harmony? –, mentioned above.) An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram.[52]The name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period; this name has been classified as "probably of Roman origin"[53] but according to Décsy (1990) it could be an Austrian German reanalysis of *Zugram. [51] In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Agranum (the name of an unrelated Arabian city in Strabo), Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis (also Mons Crecensis, in reference to Grič (Gradec)). In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić (c. 1260–1323) is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water.[54] In another legend,[55][56][57][58][59] a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well (nowadays a fountain in Ban Jelačić Square), using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando! ("Scoop, Manda!").[60] History[edit] Main articles: History of Zagreb and Timeline of Zagreb Kaptol 1686. Zagreb Cathedral end of 19th century Ban Jelačić Square 1903. Croatian Nobles Square in 1930s. The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD.[61] The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited mainly by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, and the larger, western Gradec, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour.[62] During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, and was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital.[63] Early Zagreb[edit] The history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A.D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill; the border between the two being the Medveščak stream. Today the latter is Zagreb's Upper Town (Gornji Grad) and is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242. As a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as well as its own judicial system. 16th to 18th centuries[edit] There were numerous connections between the Kaptol diocese and the free sovereign town of Gradec for both economic and political reasons, but they weren't known as an integrated city, even as Zagreb became the political centre and, representing both Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, first convened at Gradec. Zagreb was chosen as the seat of the Ban of Croatia in 1621 under ban Nikola Frankopan. At the invitation of the Croatian Parliament, the Jesuits came to Zagreb and built the first grammar school, the St. Catherine's Church and monastery. In 1669, they founded an academy where philosophy, theology and law were taught, the forerunner of today's University of Zagreb. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Zagreb was badly devastated by fire and the plague. In 1776, the royal council (government) moved from Varaždin to Zagreb and during the reign of Joseph II Zagreb became the headquarters of the Varaždin and Karlovac general command.[64] 19th to mid-20th century[edit] In the 19th century, Zagreb was the centre of the Croatian National Revival and saw the erection of important cultural and historic institutions. In 1850, the town was united under its first mayor – Janko Kamauf.[64]The first railway line to connect Zagreb with Zidani Most and Sisak was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a gasworks. The Zagreb waterworks was opened in 1878. After the 1880 Zagreb earthquake, up to the 1914 outbreak of World War I, development flourished and the town received the characteristic layout which it has today. The first horse-drawn tram was used in 1891. The construction of the railway lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad, characterised by a regular block pattern that prevails in Central European cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres and cinemas. An electric power plant was built in 1907. Panoramic view of Upper Town – GradecPanoramic view of Zagreb Since 1 January 1877, the Grič cannon is fired daily from the Lotrščak Tower on Grič to mark midday. The first half of the 20th century saw a considerable expansion of Zagreb. Before World War I, the city expanded and neighbourhoods like Stara Peščenica in the east and Črnomerec in the west were created. After the war, working-class districts such as Trnje emerged between the railway and the Sava, whereas the construction of residential districts on the hills of the southern slopes of Medvednica was completed between the two World Wars. In the 1920s, the population of Zagreb increased by 70 percent — the largest demographic boom in the history of the town. In 1926, the first radio station in the region began broadcasting from Zagreb, and in 1947 the Zagreb Fair was opened.[64]During World War II, Zagreb became the capital of the Independent State of Croatia, which was backed by Nazi Germany and the Italians. The history of Zagreb in World War II became rife with incidents of regime terror and resistance sabotage, and the Ustaša regime had thousands of people executed during the war in and near the city. The city was liberated by the Partisans at the end of the war. From 1945 until 1990, Zagreb was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, one of the six constituent socialist republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Modern Zagreb[edit] Column with Statue of Virgin Mary with four Angels, Kaptol Ban Jelačić Square King Tomislav Square The area between the railway and the Sava river witnessed a new construction boom after World War II. After the mid-1950s, construction of new residential areas south of the Sava river began, resulting in Novi Zagreb (Croatian for New Zagreb), originally called "Južni Zagreb" (Southern Zagreb).[65] Today Novi Zagreb is divided in two city districts: Novi Zagreb-zapad (West Novi Zagreb) and Novi Zagreb-istok (East Novi Zagreb) The city also expanded westward and eastward, incorporating Dubrava, Podsused, Jarun, Blato and other settlements. The cargo railway hub and the international airport Pleso were built south of the Sava river. The largest industrial zone (Žitnjak) in the south-eastern part of the city represents an extension of the industrial zones on the eastern outskirts of the city, between the Sava and the Prigorje region. Zagreb also hosted the Summer Universiade in 1987.[64]During the 1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence, it was a scene of some sporadic fighting surrounding its JNA army barracks, but escaped major damage. In May 1995, it was targeted by Serb rocket artillery in two rocket attacks which killed seven civilians. An urbanised area connects Zagreb with the surrounding towns of Zaprešić, Samobor, Dugo Selo and Velika Gorica. Sesvete was the first and the closest area to become a part of the agglomeration and is already included in the City of Zagreb for administrative purposes and now forms the easternmost city district.[66] Area and population development[edit] Year Area (km2) Population (within city limits at that time) Population (within today's city limits) 1368 2,810[nb 1] 1742 3.33 5,600[nb 1] 1805 3.33 7,706[nb 2](~11 000 in total) 1850 25.4 16,036 1857 25.4 16,657 48,266 1869 25.4 19,857 54,761 1880 25.4 30,830 67,188 1890 25.4 40,268 82,848 1900 64.37 61,002 111,565 1910 64.37 79,038 136,351 1921 64.37 108,674 167,765 1931 64.37 185,581 258,024 1948 74.99 279,623 356,529 1953 235.74 350,829 393,919 1961 495.60 430,802 478,076 1971 497.95 602,205 629,896 1981 1,261.54 768,700 723,065 1991 1,715.55 933,914 777,826 2001 641.36 779,145 779,145 2011 641.36 792,875 792,875 The data in column 3 refers to the population in the city borders as of the census in question. Column 4 is calculated for the territory now defined as the City of Zagreb (Narodne Novine 97/10).[67]Geography[edit] Climate[edit] King Tomislav Square Square of the Victims of Fascism. Zagreb (Zagreb, City of Zagreb) Climate chart (explanation)J F M A M J J A S O N D     43     4 −3     39     7 −2     53     12 2     59     16 5     73     22 10     95     25 13     77     27 15     92     26 14     86     22 11     83     16 6     80     9 1     60     5 −2 Average max. and min. temperatures in °CPrecipitation totals in mmSource: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service Imperial conversionJFMAMJJASOND     1.7     39 27     1.5     44 29     2.1     53 35     2.3     61 41     2.9     71 50     3.8     76 55     3     80 58     3.6     79 58     3.4     72 51     3.3     60 43     3.2     48 35     2.3     40 29 Average max. and min. temperatures in °FPrecipitation totals in inchesThe climate of Zagreb is classified as an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), but with significant continental influences and very closely bordering on a humid continental climate (Dfb) as well as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). Zagreb has four separate seasons. Summers are warm, at the end of May the temperatures start rising and it is often pleasant with occasional thunderstorms. Heatwaves can occur but are short-lived. Temperatures rise above 30 °C (86 °F) on an average 14.6 days each summer. Rainfall is abundant in the summertime and it continues to be in autumn as well. Zagreb is Europe's 9th wettest capital, behind Luxembourg and ahead of Brussels, Belgium. Autumn in its early stages is mild with an increase of rainy days and precipitation as well as a steady temperature fall towards its end. Morning fog is common from mid-October to January with northern city districts at the foothills of the Medvednica mountain as well as those along the Sava river being more prone to all-day fog accumulation. Winters are cold with a precipitation decrease pattern. Even though there is no discernible dry season, February is the driest month with 39 mm of precipitation. On average there are 29 days with snowfall with first snow falling in early November. Springs are generally mild and pleasant with frequent weather changes and are windier than other seasons. Sometimes cold spells can occur, mostly in its early stages. The average daily mean temperature in the winter is around 1 °C (34 °F) (from December to February) and the average temperature in the summer is 22.0 °C (71.6 °F).[68]The highest recorded temperature at the Maksimir weather station was 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) in July 1950, and lowest was −27.3 °C (−17.1 °F) in February 1956.[69] A temperature of −30.5 °C (−22.9 °F) was recorded on the since defunct Borongaj Airfield in February 1940.[70] Climate data for Zagreb (1971–2000, extremes 1949–2014) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 19.4(66.9) 22.2(72.0) 26.0(78.8) 30.5(86.9) 33.7(92.7) 37.6(99.7) 40.4(104.7) 39.8(103.6) 34.0(93.2) 28.3(82.9) 25.4(77.7) 22.5(72.5) 40.4(104.7) Average high °C (°F) 3.7(38.7) 6.8(44.2) 11.9(53.4) 16.3(61.3) 21.5(70.7) 24.5(76.1) 26.7(80.1) 26.3(79.3) 22.1(71.8) 15.8(60.4) 8.9(48.0) 4.6(40.3) 15.8(60.4) Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3(32.5) 2.3(36.1) 6.4(43.5) 10.7(51.3) 15.8(60.4) 18.8(65.8) 20.6(69.1) 20.1(68.2) 15.9(60.6) 10.5(50.9) 5.0(41.0) 1.4(34.5) 10.7(51.3) Average low °C (°F) −3.0(26.6) −1.8(28.8) 1.6(34.9) 5.2(41.4) 9.8(49.6) 13.0(55.4) 14.7(58.5) 14.4(57.9) 10.8(51.4) 6.2(43.2) 1.4(34.5) −1.7(28.9) 5.9(42.6) Record low °C (°F) −24.3(−11.7) −27.3(−17.1) −18.3(−0.9) −4.4(24.1) −1.8(28.8) 2.5(36.5) 5.4(41.7) 3.7(38.7) −0.6(30.9) −5.6(21.9) −13.5(7.7) −19.8(−3.6) −27.5(−17.5) Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.2(1.70) 38.9(1.53) 52.6(2.07) 59.3(2.33) 72.6(2.86) 95.3(3.75) 77.4(3.05) 92.3(3.63) 85.8(3.38) 82.9(3.26) 80.1(3.15) 59.6(2.35) 840.1(33.07) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.8 9.4 11.0 13.0 13.5 13.7 11.2 10.4 10.4 10.9 11.3 11.0 135.6 Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 10.3 7.1 1.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.7 29.0 Average relative humidity (%) 82.5 76.4 70.3 67.5 68.3 69.7 69.1 72.1 77.7 81.3 83.6 84.8 75.3 Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.8 98.9 142.6 168.0 229.4 234.0 275.9 257.3 189.0 124.0 63.0 49.6 1,887.5 Percent possible sunshine 23 39 43 45 54 55 63 63 54 41 26 23 47 Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 1 1 4 Source: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service[68][69] and Weather Atlas[71] Climate data for Zagreb Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Mean daily daylight hours 9.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 9.0 9.0 12.3 Source: Weather Atlas[71]Cityscape[edit] St. Mark's Square: Banski dvori (Croatian Government residence), St. Mark's Church, Croatian Parliament Sava flowing through Zagreb. The most important historical high-rise constructions are Neboder on Ban Jelačić Square, Cibona Tower (1987) and Zagrepčanka (1976) on Savska Street, Mamutica in Travno (Novi Zagreb – istok district, built in 1974) and Zagreb TV Tower on Sljeme (built in 1973).[72]In the 2000s, the City Assembly approved a new plan that allowed for the many recent high-rise buildings in Zagreb, such as the Almeria Tower, Eurotower, HOTO Tower, Zagrebtower and one of the tallest skyscrapers Sky Office Tower.[73][74]In Novi Zagreb, the neighbourhoods of Blato and Lanište expanded significantly, including the Zagreb Arena and the adjoining business centre.[75]Due to a long-standing restriction that forbade the construction of 10-story or higher buildings, most of Zagreb's high-rise buildings date from the 1970s and 1980s and new apartment buildings on the outskirts of the city are usually 4–8 floors tall. Exceptions to the restriction have been made in recent years, such as permitting the construction of high-rise buildings in Lanište or Kajzerica.[76] Zagreb sights Banski dvori Kamenita vrata Saint George Slaying the Dragon Serbian Orthodox Cathedral Academy of Music Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall Sljeme cable car Croatian Radiotelevision building National and University Library in Zagreb INA headquarters Surroundings[edit] Further information: Zagreb County, Prigorje, Hrvatsko Zagorje, and Turopolje Sljeme, a peak of the Medvednica mountain Altar of the Homeland Medvedgrad fortress The wider Zagreb area has been continuously inhabited since the prehistoric period, as witnessed by archaeological findings in the Veternica cave from the Paleolithic and excavation of the remains of the Roman Andautonia near the present village of Šćitarjevo. Picturesque former villages on the slopes of Medvednica, Šestine, Gračani and Remete, maintain their rich traditions, including folk costumes, Šestine umbrellas, and gingerbread products. To the north is the Medvednica Mountain (Croatian: Zagrebačka gora), with its highest peak Sljeme (1,035 m), where one of the tallest structures in Croatia, Zagreb TV Tower is located. The Sava and the Kupa valleys are to the south of Zagreb, and the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje is located on the other (northern) side of the Medvednica hill. In mid-January 2005, Sljeme held its first World Ski Championship tournament. From the summit, weather permitting, the vista reaches as far as Velebit Range along Croatia's rocky northern coast, as well as the snow-capped peaks of the towering Julian Alps in neighbouring Slovenia. There are several lodging villages, offering accommodation and restaurants for hikers. Skiers visit Sljeme, which has four ski-runs, three ski-lifts and a chairlift. The old Medvedgrad, a recently restored medieval burg was built in the 13th century on Medvednica hill. It overlooks the western part of the city and also hosts the Shrine of the Homeland, a memorial with an eternal flame, where Croatia pays reverence to all its heroes fallen for homeland in its history, customarily on national holidays. The ruined medieval fortress Susedgrad is located on far-western side of Medvednica hill. It has been abandoned since the early 17th century, but it is visited during the year. Zagreb occasionally experiences earthquakes, due to the proximity of Žumberak-Medvednica fault zone.[77] It's classified as an area of high seismic activity.[78] The area around Medvednica was the epicentre of the 1880 Zagreb earthquake (magnitude 6.3), and the area is known for occasional landslide threatening houses in the area.[79] The proximity of strong seismic sources presents a real danger of strong earthquakes.[79] Croatian Chief of Office of Emergency Management Pavle Kalinić stated Zagreb experiences around 400 earthquakes a year, most of them being imperceptible. However, in case of a strong earthquake, it's expected that 3,000 people would die and up to 15,000 would be wounded.[80] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Zagreb Zagreb by SPOT Satellite Oktogon, urban passageway in city center Tkalčićeva Street Mamutica in East Novi Zagreb city district (Travno local committee area), an apartment complex built in 1974 as the Croatian version of the plattenbau, largest building (by volume) in Zagreb and in Croatia Zagreb is by far the largest city in Croatia in terms of area and population. The official 2011 census counted 792,325 residents,[81][82] although due to a substantial immigrant influx the number of people residing in the city is much higher. Zagreb metropolitan area population is slightly above 1.1 million inhabitants,[83] as it includes the Zagreb County.[84] Zagreb metropolitan area makes approximately a quarter of a total population of Croatia. In 1997, the City of Zagreb itself was given special County status, separating it from Zagreb County,[85] although it remains the administrative centre of both. The majority of its citizens are Croats making up 93% of the city's population (2011 census). The same census records around 55,000 residents belonging to ethnic minorities: 17,526 Serbs (2.22%), 8,119 Bosniaks (1.03%), 4,292 Albanians (0.54%), 2,755 Romani (0.35%), 2,132 Slovenes (0.27%), 1,194 Macedonians (0.15%), 1,191 Montenegrins (0.15%), and a number of other smaller communities.[86] Largest groups of foreign residents[87]Nationality Population (2011)  France 28,818  Italy 8,480  Serbia 6,189  Czech Republic 6,158  China 4,982  Slovenia 3,257  Poland 2,758  Macedonia 2,723  Montenegro 2,711  Algeria 2,703  India 2,698  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,691  Hungary 2,689  Austria 2,673  Albania 2,311 City districts[edit] Main article: Districts of Zagreb Since 14 December 1999 City of Zagreb is divided into 17 city districts (gradska četvrt, pl. gradske četvrti):[4][88] # District Area (km²) Population(2011) Population(2001) Populationdensity (2001) 1. Donji Grad 3.01 37,123 45,108 14,956.2 2. Gornji Grad – Medveščak 10.12 31,279 36,384 3,593.5 3. Trnje 7.37 42,126 45,267 6,146.2 4. Maksimir 14.35 49,448 49,750 3,467.1 5. Peščenica – Žitnjak 35.30 56,446 58,283 1,651.3 6. Novi Zagreb – istok 16.54 59,227 65,301 3,947.1 7. Novi Zagreb – zapad 62.59 58,025 48,981 782.5 8. Trešnjevka – sjever 5.83 55,342 55,358 9,498.6 9. Trešnjevka – jug 9.84 66,595 67,162 6,828.1 10. CČrnomerec 24.33 39,040 38,762 1,593.4 11. Gornja Dubrava 40.28 62,221 61,388 1,524.1 12. Donja Dubrava 10.82 36,461 35,944 3,321.1 13. Stenjevec 12.18 51,849 41,257 3,387.3 14. Podsused – Vrapče 36.05 45,771 42,360 1,175.1 15. Podsljeme 60.11 19,249 17,744 295.2 16. Sesvete 165.26 70,633 59,212 358.3 17. Brezovica 127.45 12,040 10,884 85.4 TOTAL 641.43 792,875 779,145 1,214.9 City districts are subdivided in 218 local committees as primary units of local self-government.[89] Model of the city by Damir Mataušić Settlements[edit] Petar Preradović Square Ilica, the main shopping street in Zagreb The city itself is not the only standalone settlement in the City of Zagreb administrative area – there are a number of larger urban settlements like Sesvete and Lučko and a number of smaller villages attached to it whose population is tracked separately.[3] There are 70 settlements in the City of Zagreb administrative area: Adamovec, population 975 Belovar, population 378 Blaguša, population 594 Botinec, population 9 Brebernica, population 49 Brezovica, population 594 Budenec, population 323 Buzin, population 1,055 Cerje, population 398 Demerje, population 721 Desprim, population 377 Dobrodol, population 1,203 Donji Čehi, population 232 Donji Dragonožec, population 577 Donji Trpuci, population 428 Drenčec, population 131 Drežnik Brezovički, population 656 Dumovec, population 903 Đurđekovec, population 778 Gajec, population 311 Glavnica Donja, population 544 Glavnica Gornja, population 226 Glavničica, population 229 Goli Breg, population 406 Goranec, population 449 Gornji Čehi, population 363 Gornji Dragonožec, population 295 Gornji Trpuci, population 87 Grančari, population 221 Havidić Selo, population 53 Horvati, population 1,490 Hrašće Turopoljsko, population 1,202 Hrvatski Leskovac, population 2,687 Hudi Bitek, population 441 Ivanja Reka, population 1,800 Jesenovec, population 460 Ježdovec, population 1,728 Kašina, population 1,548 Kašinska Sopnica, population 245 Kučilovina, population 219 Kućanec, population 228 Kupinečki Kraljevec, population 1,957 Lipnica, population 207 Lučko, population 3,010 Lužan, population 719 Mala Mlaka, population 636 Markovo Polje, population 425 Moravče, population 663 Odra, population 1,866 Odranski Obrež, population 1,578 Paruževina, population 632 Planina Donja, population 554 Planina Gornja, population 247 Popovec, population 937 Prekvršje, population 809 Prepuštovec, population 332 Sesvete, population 54,085 Soblinec, population 978 Starjak, population 227 Strmec, population 645 Šašinovec, population 678 Šimunčevec, population 271 Veliko Polje, population 1,668 Vuger Selo, population 273 Vugrovec Donji, population 442 Vugrovec Gornji, population 357 Vurnovec, population 201 Zadvorsko, population 1,288 Zagreb, population 688,163 Žerjavinec, population 556 Government and politics[edit] See also: List of mayors of Zagreb and Zagreb Assembly The current mayor of Zagreb is Milan Bandić (BM 365 –Labour and Solidarity Party). He was confirmed as mayor on 4 June 2017 (Zagreb local elections 2017, second round). Two deputy mayors (vice mayoresses) are Jelena Pavičić-Vukičević and Olivera Jurković-Majić. The Zagreb Assembly is composed of 51 representatives. Last elections were held on 21 May 2017 (Zagreb local elections). The current structure of the city assembly by party lines is as follows (2 December 2017):[90]     Groups No. of members per group Graph 2019 BM 365, ZL, NS - R 16 HDZ 7                   Independents 7                   SDP 6                     NHR 5                       Left Bloc 4                         HSLS 3                           GLAS, HSU 3                           Note: Source: [91] Elections[edit] Zagreb local elections, 2017 Zagreb local elections, 2013 Zagreb local elections, 2009 Zagreb local elections, 2005Administration[edit] Zagreb Old City Hall According to the Constitution, the city of Zagreb, as the capital of Croatia, has a special status. As such, Zagreb performs self-governing public affairs of both city and county. It is also the seat of the Zagreb County which encircles Zagreb. The city administration bodies are the Zagreb City Assembly (Gradska skupština Grada Zagreba) as the representative body and the mayor of Zagreb (Gradonačelnik Grada Zagreba) who is the executive head of the city. The City Assembly is the representative body of the citizens of the City of Zagreb elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal suffrage in direct elections by secret ballot using proportional system with d'Hondt method in a manner specified by law. There are 51 representatives in the City Assembly, among them president and vice-presidents of the assembly are elected by the representatives. Zagreb City Administration Prior to 2009, the mayor was elected by the City Assembly. It was changed to direct elections by majoritarian vote (two-round system) in 2009. The mayor is the head of the city administration and has two deputies (directly elected together with him/her). The term of office of the mayor (and his/her deputies) is four years. The mayor (with the deputies) may be recalled by a referendum according to law (not less than 20% of all electors in the City of Zagreb or not less than two-thirds of the Zagreb Assembly city deputies have the right to initiate a city referendum regarding recalling of the mayor; when a majority of voters taking part in the referendum vote in favour of the recall, provided that majority includes not less than one third of all persons entitled to vote in the City of Zagreb, i.e. ⅓ of persons in the City of Zagreb electoral register, the mayor's mandate shall be deemed revoked and special mayoral by-elections shall be held). In the City of Zagreb the mayor is also responsible for the state administration (due to the special status of Zagreb as a "city with county rights", there isn't State Administration Office which in all counties performs tasks of the central government). City administration offices, institutions and services (18 city offices, 1 public institute or bureau and 2 city services) have been founded for performing activities within the self-administrative sphere and activities entrusted by the state administration. The city administrative bodies are managed by the principals (appointed by the mayor for a four-year term of office, may be appointed again to the same duty). The City Assembly Professional Service is managed by the secretary of the City Assembly (appointed by the Assembly). Local government is organised in 17 city districts (or city borroughs) represented by City District Councils. Residents of districts elect members of councils.[92] International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia Twin towns — sister cities[edit] Zagreb is twinned with the following towns and cities:[93][94][95] Bologna, Italy (since 1963) Mainz, Germany (since 1967) Saint Petersburg, Russia (since 1968)[96] Tromsø, Norway (since 1971) Buenos Aires, Argentina (since 1972) Kyoto, Japan (since 1972)[97] Lisbon, Portugal (since 1977)[98][99] Pittsburgh, USA (since 1980) Shanghai, China (since 1980) Budapest, Hungary (since 1994)[100] La Paz, Bolivia (since 2000) Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 2001)[101] Ljubljana, Slovenia (since 2001)[102] Podgorica, Montenegro (since 2006) Tabriz, Iran (since 2006)[103] Ankara, Turkey (since 2008)[104] London, United Kingdom (since 2009) Prizren, Kosovo[a](since 2010) Skopje, North Macedonia (since 2011) Warsaw, Poland (since 2011)[105] Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (since 2014)[106] Rome, Italy (since 2014)[95] Vienna, Austria (since 2014)[95] Petrinja, Croatia (since 2015)[107] Vukovar, Croatia (since 2016)[108] Partner cities[edit] The city has partnership arrangements with: Kraków in Poland (since 1975)[109] Tirana, Albania.[110][111]Culture[edit] Tourism[edit] Zagreb is an important tourist center, not only in terms of passengers traveling from the rest of Europe to the Adriatic Sea, but also as a travel destination itself. Since the end of the war, it has attracted close to a million visitors annually, mainly from Austria, Germany and Italy, and in recent years many tourists from far east (South Korea, Japan, China, and last two years, from India). It has become an important tourist destination, not only in Croatia, but considering the whole region of southeastern Europe. There are many interesting sights and happenings for tourists to attend in Zagreb, for example, the two statues of Saint George, one at the Republic of Croatia Square, the other at Kamenita vrata, where the image of Virgin Mary is said to be only thing that hasn't burned in the 17th-century fire. Also, there is an art installation starting in Bogovićeva street, called Nine Views. Most people don't know what the statue "Prizemljeno Sunce" (The Grounded Sun) is for, and just scrawl graffiti or signatures on it, but it's actually the Sun scaled down, with many planets situated all over Zagreb in scale with the Sun. There are also many festivals and events throughout the year, which made Zagreb a year-round tourist destination for many years already. Points of interest Zagreb Funicular Zrinjevac Gradec Mirogoj Cemetery Esplanade Zagreb Hotel Maksimir Park Eurasian lynx at the Zagreb Zoo Štrukli The historical part of the city to the north of Ban Jelačić Square is composed of the Gornji Grad and Kaptol, a medieval urban complex of churches, palaces, museums, galleries and government buildings that are popular with tourists on sightseeing tours. The historic district can be reached on foot, starting from Jelačić Square, the centre of Zagreb, or by a funicular on nearby Tomićeva Street. Each Saturday, (from April till the end of September), on St. Mark's Square in the Upper town, tourists can meet members of the Order of The Silver Dragon (Red Srebrnog Zmaja), who reenact famous historical conflicts between Gradec and Kaptol. It's a great opportunity for all visitors to take photographs of authentic and fully functional historical replicas of medieval armour. In 2010 more than 600,000[112] tourists visited the city, with a 10%[113] increase seen in 2011. In 2012 a total of 675 707 tourists[114] visited the city. The record number of tourists visited Zagreb in 2017. – 1.286.087, up 16% compared to the year before, which generated 2.263.758 overnight stays, up 14,8%. Souvenirs and gastronomy[edit] Licitar hearts, a popular souvenir Numerous shops, boutiques, store houses and shopping centers offer a variety of quality clothing. There are about fourteen big shopping centers in Zagreb. Zagreb's offerings include crystal, china and ceramics, wicker or straw baskets, and top-quality Croatian wines and gastronomic products. Notable Zagreb souvenirs are the tie or cravat, an accessory named after Croats who wore characteristic scarves around their necks in the Thirty Years' War in the 17th century and the ball-point pen, a tool developed from the inventions by Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, an inventor and a citizen of Zagreb. Many Zagreb restaurants offer various specialties of national and international cuisine. Domestic products which deserve to be tasted include turkey, duck or goose with mlinci (a kind of pasta), štrukli (cottage cheese strudel), sir i vrhnje (cottage cheese with cream), kremšnite (custard slices in flaky pastry), and orehnjača (traditional walnut roll). Museums[edit] Croatian State Archives Mimara Museum Museum of Arts and Crafts Meštrović Pavilion Museum of Contemporary Art Zagreb's numerous museums reflect the history, art and culture not only of Zagreb and Croatia, but also of Europe and the world. Around thirty collections in museums and galleries comprise more than 3.6 million various exhibits, excluding church and private collections. The Archaeological Museum (19 Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square) collections, today consisting of nearly 450,000 varied archaeological artefacts and monuments, have been gathered over the years from many different sources. These holdings include evidence of Croatian presence in the area.[115] The most famous are the Egyptian collection, the Zagreb mummy and bandages with the oldest Etruscan inscription in the world (Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis), as well as the numismatic collection. Modern Gallery (Croatian: Moderna galerija) holds the most important and comprehensive collection of paintings, sculptures and drawings by 19th- and 20th-century Croatian artists. The collection numbers more than 10,000 works of art, housed since 1934 in the historic Vranyczany Palace in the centre of Zageb, overlooking the Zrinjevac Park. A secondary gallery is the Josip Račić Studio at Margaretska 3.[116]Croatian Natural History Museum (1 Demetrova Street) holds one of the world's most important collection of Neanderthal remains found at one site.[117] These are the remains, stone weapons and tools of prehistoric Krapina man. The holdings of the Croatian Natural History Museum comprise more than 250,000 specimens distributed among various collections. Technical Museum (18 Savska Street) was founded in 1954 and it maintains the oldest preserved machine in the area, dating from 1830, which is still operational. The museum exhibits numerous historic aircraft, cars, machinery and equipment. There are some distinct sections in the museum: the Planetarium, the Apisarium, the Mine (model of mines for coal, iron and non-ferrous metals, about 300 m (980 ft) long), and the Nikola Tesla study.[118][119]Museum of the City of Zagreb (20 Opatička Street) was established in 1907 by the Association of the Braća Hrvatskog Zmaja. It is located in a restored monumental complex (Popov toranj, the Observatory, Zakmardi Granary) of the former Convent of the Poor Clares, of 1650.[120] The Museum deals with topics from the cultural, artistic, economic and political history of the city spanning from Roman finds to the modern period. The holdings comprise over 80,000 items arranged systematically into collections of artistic and mundane objects characteristic of the city and its history. Arts and Crafts Museum (10 Republic of Croatia Square) was founded in 1880 with the intention of preserving the works of art and craft against the new predominance of industrial products. With its 160,000 exhibits, the Arts and Crafts Museum is a national-level museum for artistic production and the history of material culture in Croatia.[121]Ethnographic Museum (14 Ivan Mažuranić Square) was founded in 1919. It lies in the fine Secession building of the one-time Trades Hall of 1903. The ample holdings of about 80,000 items cover the ethnographic heritage of Croatia, classified in the three cultural zones: the Pannonian, Dinaric and Adriatic.[122]Mimara Museum (5 Roosevelt Square) was founded with a donation from Ante "Mimara" Topić and opened to the public in 1987. It is located in a late 19th-century neo-Renaissance palace.[123] The holdings comprise 3,750 works of art of various techniques and materials, and different cultures and civilisations. Croatian Museum of Naïve Art (works by Croatian primitivists at 3 Ćirilometodska Street) is one of the first museums of naïve art in the world. The museum holds works of Croatian naïve expression of the 20th century. It is located in the 18th-century Raffay Palace in the Gornji Grad. The museum holdings consist of almost 2000 works of art – paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints, mainly by Croatians but also by other well-known world artists.[124] From time to time, the museum organises topics and retrospective exhibitions by naïve artists, expert meetings and educational workshops and playrooms. The Museum of Contemporary Art was founded in 1954. Its new building hosts a rich collection of Croatian and international contemporary visual art which has been collected throughout the decades from the nineteen-fifties till today. The museum is located in the centre of Novi Zagreb, opened in 2009. The old location, 2 St. Catherine's Square, is part of the Kulmer Palace in the Gornji Grad.[125]Other museums and galleries Valuable historical collections are also found in the Croatian School Museum, the Croatian Hunting Museum, the Croatian Sports Museum, the Croatian Post and Telecommunications Museum, the HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) Glyptotheque (collection of monuments), and the HAZU Graphics Cabinet. The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters (11 Zrinski Square) offers permanent holdings presenting European paintings from the 14th to 19th centuries,[126] and the Ivan Meštrović Studio, (8 Mletačka Street) with sculptures, drawings, lithography portfolios and other items, was a donation of this great artist to his homeland The Museum and Gallery Center (4 Jesuit Square) introduces on various occasions the Croatian and foreign cultural and artistic heritage. The Art Pavilion (22 King Tomislav Square) by Viennese architects Hellmer and Fellmer who were the most famous designers of theatres in Central Europe is a neo-classical exhibition complex and one of the landmarks of the downtown. The exhibitions are also held in the impressive Meštrović building on Žrtava Fašizma Square — the Home of Croatian Fine Artists. The World Center "Wonder of Croatian Naïve Art" (12 Ban Jelačić Square) exhibits masterpieces of Croatian naïve art as well as the works of a new generation of artists. The Modern Gallery (1 Hebrangova Street) comprises all relevant fine artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Museum of Broken Relationships at 2 Ćirilometodska holds people's mementos of past relationships.[127][128][129] It is the first private museum in the country.[130]Lauba House (23a Baruna Filipovića) presents works from Filip Trade Collection, a large private collection of modern and contemporary Croatian art and current artistic production.[131][132] Events[edit] Zagreb won the ‘Best European Christmas Market’ title three years in a row from 2015 to 2017.[133] Croatian National Theatre Golden Pram award of the Zagreb Film Festival Zagreb developed its Advent several years, and it has been awarded Best Christmas Market 3 years in a row.[134] Hosting numerous events for 6 weeks, from December 1 till January 6.[135][136]Zagreb has been, and is, hosting some of the most popular mainstream artists, in the past few years their concerts held the Rolling Stones, U2, Eric Clapton, Deep Purple, Bob Dylan, David Bowie, Roger Waters, Depeche Mode, Prodigy, Beyoncé, Nick Cave, Jamiroquai, Manu Chao, Massive Attack, Metallica, Snoop Dogg, Lady Gaga, Duran Duran as well as some of world most recognised underground artists such as Dimmu Borgir, Sepultura, Melvins, Mastodon and many more. Zagreb is also a home of the INmusic festival, one of the biggest open air festivals in Croatia which is being held every year, usually at the end of June. There are also many jazz festivals like Zagreb Jazz Festival which was the host for some of the most popular artists from world jazz scene like Pat Metheny or Sonny Rollins just to name a few. Zagreb is also home of many others club festivals like Žedno uho where many of indie, rock, metal and electronica artists like Animal Collective, Melvins, Butthole Surfers, Crippled Black Phoenix, NoMeansNo, The National (band), Mark Lanegan, Swans (band), Mudhoney etc. made there performances around the clubs and concert halls of Zagreb. This is mostly recognised because of the city's location, and its good traffic relations with other neighbouring European capital cities such as Vienna and Budapest. This is the effort of Zagreb community to increase the percentage of tourist visits during the summer time, as Croatia, in general, is a popular destination for many people around the globe during the vacation period. Performing arts[edit] There are about 20 permanent or seasonal theatres and stages. The Croatian National Theater in Zagreb was built in 1895 and opened by emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. The most renowned concert hall named "Vatroslav Lisinski", after the composer of the first Croatian opera, was built in 1973. Animafest, the World Festival of Animated Films, takes place every even-numbered year, and the Music Biennale, the international festival of avant-garde music, every odd-numbered year. It also hosts the annual ZagrebDox documentary film festival. The Festival of the Zagreb Philharmonic and the flowers exhibition Floraart (end of May or beginning of June), the Old-timer Rally annual events. In the summer, theatre performances and concerts, mostly in the Upper Town, are organised either indoors or outdoors. The stage on Opatovina hosts the Zagreb Histrionic Summer theatre events. Zagreb is also the host of Zagrebfest, the oldest Croatian pop-music festival, as well as of several traditional international sports events and tournaments. The Day of the City of Zagreb on 16 November is celebrated every year with special festivities, especially on the Jarun lake in the southwestern part of the city. Recreation and sports[edit] Arena Zagreb Maksimir Stadium Snow Queen Trophy is a World Cup alpine ski race in Zagreb. Jarun Lake Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall Zagreb is home to numerous sports and recreational centres. Recreational Sports Center Jarun, situated on Jarun Lake in the southwest of the city, has fine shingle beaches, a world-class regatta course, a jogging lane around the lake, several restaurants, many night clubs and a discothèque. Its sports and recreation opportunities include swimming, sunbathing, waterskiing, angling and other water sports, but also beach volleyball, football, basketball, handball, table tennis, and mini-golf. Dom Sportova, a sport centre in northern Trešnjevka features six halls. The largest two have seating capacity of 5,000 and 3,100 people, respectively.[137] This centre is used for basketball, handball, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, tennis, etc. It also hosts music events. Arena Zagreb was finished in 2008. The 16,500-seat arena[138] hosted the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship. The Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall seats 5,400 people. Alongside the hall is the 94-metre (308 ft) high glass Cibona Tower. Sports Park Mladost, situated on the embankment of the Sava river, has an Olympic-size swimming pool, smaller indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a sunbathing terrace, 16 tennis courts as well as basketball, volleyball, handball, football and field hockey courts. A volleyball sports hall is within the park. Sports and Recreational Center Šalata, located in Šalata, only a couple hundred meters from the Jelačić Square, is most attractive for tennis players. It comprises a big tennis court and eight smaller ones, two of which are covered by the so-called "balloon", and another two equipped with lights. The centre also has swimming pools, basketball courts, football fields, a gym and fitness centre, and a four-lane bowling alley. Outdoor ice skating is a popular winter recreation. There are also several fine restaurants within and near the centre. Maksimir Tennis Center, located in Ravnice east of downtown, consists of two sports blocks. The first comprises a tennis centre situated in a large tennis hall with four courts. There are 22 outdoor tennis courts with lights. The other block offers multipurpose sports facilities: apart from tennis courts, there are handball, basketball and indoor football grounds, as well as track and field facilities, a bocci ball alley and table tennis opportunities. Recreational swimmers can enjoy a smaller-size indoor swimming pool in Daničićeva Street, and a newly opened indoor Olympic-size pool at Utrine sports centre in Novi Zagreb. Skaters can skate in the skating rink on Trg Sportova (Sports Square) and on the lake Jarun Skaters' park. Hippodrome Zagreb offers recreational horseback riding opportunities, while horse races are held every weekend during the warmer part of the year. The 38,923[139]-seat Maksimir Stadium, last 10 years under renovation, is located in Maksimir in the northeastern part of the city. The stadium is part of the immense Svetice recreational and sports complex (ŠRC Svetice), south of the Maksimir Park. The complex covers an area of 276,440 m2 (68 acres). It is part of a significant Green Zone, which passes from Medvednica Mountains in the north toward the south. ŠRC Svetice, together with Maksimir Park, creates an ideal connection of areas which are assigned to sport, recreation and leisure. The latest larger recreational facility is Bundek, a group of two small lakes near the Sava in Novi Zagreb, surrounded by a partly forested park. The location had been used prior to the 1970s, but then went to neglect until 2006 when it was renovated. Some of the most notable sport clubs in Zagreb are: NK Dinamo Zagreb, KHL Medveščak Zagreb, RK Zagreb, KK Cibona, KK Zagreb, KK Cedevita, NK Zagreb, HAVK Mladost and others. The city hosted the 2016 Davis Cup World Group final between Croatia and Argentina. Religion[edit] Churches Zagreb Cathedral exterior St. Mark's Church exterior St. Catherine church Basilica of The Sacred Heart of Jesus Greek Catholic Co-cathedral of Saints Cyril and Methodius Serbian Orthodox Cathedral Evangelical Lutheran Church Church of Lady of Remete Islamic Center Church of Saint Blaise, Zagreb The Archdiocese of Zagreb is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Croatia, serving as its religious centre. The current Archbishop is Josip Cardinal Bozanić. The Catholic Church is the largest religious organisation in Zagreb, Catholicism being the predominant religion of Croatia, with over 1.1 million adherents.[140] Zagreb is also the Episcopal see of the Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Islamic religious organisation of Croatia has the see in Zagreb. Current president is Mufti Aziz Hasanović. There used to be a mosque in the Meštrović Pavilion during World War II[141] at the Žrtava Fašizma Square, but it was relocated to the neighbourhood of Borovje in Peščenica. Mainstream Protestant churches have also been present in Zagreb – Evangelical (Lutheran) Church and Reformed Christian (Calvinist) Church. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is also present in the Zagreb neighbourhood of Jarun whereas Jehovah's Witnesses have their headquarters in Central Zagreb.[142] In total there are around 40 non-Catholic religious organisations and denominations in Zagreb with their headquarters and places of worship across the city making it a large and diverse multicultural community. Economy and infrastructure[edit] Neboder Sky Office Tower Zagrepčanka Centar Strojarska Eurotower Cibona Tower HOTO Tower Panorama Hotel Zagreb Chromos Tower Vjesnik The most important branches of industry are: production of electrical machines and devices, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, food and drink processing. Zagreb is an international trade and business centre, as well as an essential transport hub placed at the crossroads of Central Europe, the Mediterranean and the Southeast Europe.[143] Almost all of the largest Croatian as well as Central European companies and conglomerates such as Agrokor, INA, Hrvatski Telekom have their headquarters in the city. The only Croatian stock exchange is the Zagreb Stock Exchange (Croatian: Zagrebačka burza), which is located in Eurotower, one of the tallest Croatian skyscrapers. According to 2008 data, the city of Zagreb has the highest PPP and nominal gross domestic product per capita in Croatia at $32,185 and $27,271 respectively, compared to the Croatian averages of $18,686 and $15,758.[144]As of May 2015, the average monthly net salary in Zagreb was 6,669 kuna, about €870 (Croatian average is 5,679 kuna, about €740).[145][146] At the end of 2012, the average unemployment rate in Zagreb was around 9.5%.[147] 34% of companies in Croatia have headquarters in Zagreb, and 38.4% of the Croatian workforce works in Zagreb, including almost all banks, utility and public transport companies.[148][149][150]Companies in Zagreb create 52% of total turnover and 60% of total profit of Croatia in 2006 as well as 35% of Croatian export and 57% of Croatian import.[151][152] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Zagreb Highways[edit] Further information: Highways in Croatia Slavonska Avenue The ZET network of daytime tram lines in 2009 (Line 5 has since been extended to Maksimir and Kapelska and Hanuševa stops were removed) Zagreb is the hub of five major Croatian highways. The highway A6 was upgraded in October 2008 and leads from Zagreb to Rijeka, and forming a part of the Pan-European Corridor Vb. The upgrade coincided with the opening of the bridge over the Mura river on the A4 and the completion of the Hungarian M7, which marked the opening of the first freeway corridor between Rijeka and Budapest.[153] The A1 starts at the Lučko interchange and concurs with the A6 up to the Bosiljevo 2 interchange, connecting Zagreb and Split (As of October 2008[update]Vrgorac). A further extension of the A1 up to Dubrovnik is under construction. Both highways are tolled by the Croatian highway authorities Hrvatske autoceste and Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb.[citation needed]Highway A3 (formerly named Bratstvo i jedinstvo) was the showpiece of Croatia in the SFRY. It is the oldest Croatian highway.[154][155] A3 forms a part of the Pan-European Corridor X. The highway starts at the Bregana border crossing, bypasses Zagreb forming the southern arch of the Zagreb bypass and ends at Lipovac near the Bajakovo border crossing. It continues in Southeast Europe in the direction of Near East. This highway is tolled except for the stretch between Bobovica and Ivanja Reka interchanges.[156]Highway A2 is a part of the Corridor Xa.[157] It connects Zagreb and the frequently congested Macelj border crossing, forming a near-continuous motorway-level link between Zagreb and Western Europe.[158] Forming a part of the Corridor Vb, highway A4 starts in Zagreb forming the northeastern wing of the Zagreb bypass and leads to Hungary until the Goričan border crossing. It is often used highway around Zagreb.[159]The railway and the highway A3 along the Sava river that extend to Slavonia (towards Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Osijek and Vukovar) are some of the busiest traffic corridors in the country.[160] The railway running along the Sutla river and the A2 highway (Zagreb-Macelj) running through Zagorje, as well as traffic connections with the Pannonian region and Hungary (the Zagorje railroad, the roads and railway to Varaždin – Čakovec and Koprivnica) are linked with truck routes.[161] The southern railway connection to Split operates on a high-speed tilting trains line via the Lika region (renovated in 2004 to allow for a five-hour journey); a faster line along the Una river valley is currently in use only up to the border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[161][162] Roads[edit] Homeland bridge Roundabout in New Zagreb – west The city has an extensive avenue network with numerous main arteries up to ten lanes wide and Zagreb bypass, a congested four-lane highway encircling most of the city. Traffic jams and daytime parking space are a great problem in the wider city centre area during the rush hour. Finding a parking space is supposed to be made somewhat easier by the construction of new underground multi-story parking lots (Importanne Center, Importanne Gallery, Lang Square, Tuškanac, Kvaternik Square, Klaić Street, etc.). The busiest roads are the main east-west arteries, former Highway "Brotherhood and Unity", consisting of Ljubljanska Avenue, Zagrebačka Avenue and Slavonska Avenue; and the Vukovarska Avenue, the closest bypass of the city centre. The avenues were supposed to alleviate traffic problem, but most of them are today gridlocked at rush hour and others, like Branimirova Avenue and Dubrovnik Avenue which are gridlocked for the whole day.[163][164][165]European routes E59, E65 and E70 serve Zagreb. See also: Zagreb bypass Bridges[edit] Zagreb has seven road traffic bridges across the river Sava, and they all span both the river and the levees, making them all by and large longer than 200 m (660 ft). In downstream order, these are: Name (English) Name (Croatian) Year Finished Type of bridge Road that goes over Other Information Podsused Bridge Podsusedski most 1982 Two-lane road bridge with a commuter train line (not yet completed) Samoborska Road Connects Zagreb to its close suburbs by a road to Samobor, the fastest route to Bestovje, Sveta Nedelja and Strmec. Jankomir Bridge Jankomirski most 1958, 2006 (upgrade) Four lane road bridge Ljubljanska Avenue Connects Ljubljanska Avenue to the Jankomir interchange and Zagreb bypass. Adriatic Bridge Jadranski most 1981 Six lane road bridge (also carries tram tracks) Adriatic Avenue The most famous bridge in Zagreb. The bridge spans from Savska Street in the north to the Remetinec Roundabout in the south. Sava Bridge Savski most 1938 Pedestrian since the construction of the Adriatic Bridge Savska Road The official name at the time of building was New Sava bridge, but it is the oldest still standing bridge over Sava. The bridge is known among experts due to some construction details.[166]Liberty Bridge Most slobode 1959 Four lane road bridge Većeslav Holjevac Avenue It used to hold a pair of bus lanes, but due to the increasing individual traffic and better tram connections across the river, those were converted to normal lanes. Youth Bridge Most mladosti 1974 Six lane road bridge (also carries tram tracks) Marin Držić Avenue Connects eastern Novi Zagreb to the districts of Trnje, Peščenica, Donja Dubrava and Maksimir. Homeland Bridge Domovinski most 2007 Four-lane road bridge (also carries two bicycle and two pedestrian lanes; has space reserved for light railroad tracks) Radnička (Workers') Road This bridge is the last bridge built on Sava to date; it links Peščenica via Radnička street to the Zagreb bypass at Kosnica. It is planned to continue towards Zagreb Airport at Pleso and Velika Gorica, and on to state road D31 going to the south. There are also two rail traffic bridges across the Sava, one near the Sava bridge and one near Mičevec, as well as two bridges that are part of the Zagreb bypass, one near Zaprešić (west), and the other near Ivanja Reka (east). Two additional bridges across the river Sava are proposed: Jarun Bridge and Bundek Bridge. Public transportation[edit] Nextbike Zagreb Main Railway Station ZET tram and city bus Newest model of the Zagreb city trains system Public transportation in the city is organised in several layers: the inner parts of the city are mostly covered by trams, the outer city areas and closer suburbs are linked with buses and rapid transit commuter rail. The public transportation company ZET (Zagrebački električni tramvaj, Zagreb Electric Tram) operates trams, all inner bus lines, and the most of the suburban bus lines, and it is subsidised by the city council. The national rail operator Croatian Railways (Hrvatske željeznice, HŽ) runs a network of urban and suburban train lines in the metropolitan Zagreb area, and is a government-owned corporation. The funicular (uspinjača) in the historic part of the city is a tourist attraction. Taxi market has been liberalized in early 2018[167] and numerous transport companies have been allowed to enter the market; consequently, the prices significantly dropped whereas the service was immensely improved so the popularity of taxis in Zagreb has been increasing from then onwards. Tram network[edit] Main article: Trams in Zagreb Zagreb has an extensive tram network with 15 day and 4 night lines covering much of the inner- and middle-suburbs of the city. The first tram line was opened on 5 September 1891 and trams have been serving as a vital component of Zagreb mass transit ever since. Trams usually travel at speeds of 30–50 kilometres per hour (19–31 miles per hour), but slow considerably during rush hour. The network operates at the curb whereas on larger avenues its tracks are situated inside the green belts. An ambitious program, which entailed replacing old trams with the new and modern ones built mostly in Zagreb by companies Končar elektroindustrija and, to a lesser extent, by TŽV Gredelj, has recently been finished. The new "TMK 2200", trams by the end of 2012 made around 95% of the fleet.[168] Suburban rail network[edit] Main article: Zagreb Commuter Rail The commuter rail network in Zagreb has existed since 1992. In 2005, suburban rail services were increased to a 15-minute frequency serving the middle and outer suburbs of Zagreb, primarily in the east-west direction and to the southern districts. This has enhanced the commuting opportunities across the city.[169]A new link to the nearby town of Samobor has been announced and is due to start construction in 2014. This link will be standard-gauge and tie in with normal Croatian Railways operations. The previous narrow-gauge line to Samobor called Samoborček was closed in the 1970s.[170] Air traffic[edit] Main article: Zagreb International Airport New terminal of the Franjo Tudjman Airport Zagreb Airport (IATA: ZAG, ICAO: LDZA) is the main Croatian international airport, a 17 km (11 mi) drive southeast of Zagreb in the city of Velika Gorica. The airport is also the main Croatian airbase featuring a fighter squadron, helicopters, as well as military and freight transport aircraft.[171] The airport had 2,77 millions of passengers in 2016 with a new passenger terminal being opened in late March 2017 that can accommodate up to 5,5 million passengers. Zagreb also has a second, smaller airport, Lučko (ICAO: LDZL). It is home to sports aeroplanes and a Croatian special police unit, as well as being a military helicopter airbase. Lučko used to be the main airport of Zagreb from 1947 to 1959.[172]A third, small grass airfield, Buševec, is located just outside Velika Gorica. It is primarily used for sports purposes.[173] Education[edit] Further information: List of high schools in Zagreb Great Hall of the Rectorate, University of Zagreb Zagreb has 136 primary schools and 100 secondary schools including 30 gymnasia.[174][175] There are 5 public higher education institution and 9 private professional higher education schools.[176] University[edit] Main article: University of Zagreb Further information: List of universities in Croatia Founded in 1669, the University of Zagreb is the oldest continuously operating university in Croatia and one of the largest[177][178][179][180][181][182] and oldest universities in the Southeastern Europe. Ever since its foundation, the university has been continually growing and developing and now consists of 29 faculties, three art academies and the Croatian Studies Centre. More than 200,000 students have attained the Bachelor's degree at the university, which has also assigned 18,000 Master's and 8,000 Doctor's degrees.[183] As of 2011[update], the University of Zagreb is ranked among 500 Best Universities of the world by the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities. Zagreb is also the seat of two private universities: the Catholic University of Croatia and the Libertas International University; as well as numerous public and private polytehnics, colleges and higher professional schools.[which?] See also[edit] Geography portalEurope portalCroatia portal References[edit] Footnotes[edit] ^ a b from the household census ^ population census without clergy and nobility ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. 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Retrieved 8 December 2008. ^ "Uskoro Samoborček i novi prigradski vlakovi" (PDF). Zagrebački komunalni vjesnik (in Croatian) (№ 362): 11. 28 November 2007. ISSN 1845-4968. Archived from the original (PDF, 134 KB) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008. ^ "Franjo Tuđman Airport terminal". Retrieved 2 July 2006. ^ "Zagreb Airport – History" (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2008. ^ Kosović, Vedran (10 October 1999). "Usprkos teškoćama leti se dalje". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2008. ^ "Primary schools". Republic of Croatia, Ministry of science, education and sports. Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007. ^ "Secondary schools". Republic of Croatia, Ministry of science, education and sports. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007. ^ "Higher education institutions". Republic of Croatia, Ministry of science, education and sports. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007. ^ "About University". Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "Croatia: University of Zagreb – KTH". Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "University of Zagreb – CENTER FOR EUROPEAN EDUCATION". Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "University of Zagreb, Croatia – Europe Engage". Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "University of Zagreb – Top Universities". Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "4th Ensec Conference-Zagreb-Croatia". Retrieved 23 July 2017. ^ "Zagreb in brief". City of Zagreb. Retrieved 11 November 2008. Bibliography[edit] ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}]]> Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. External links[edit] Zagrebat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Zagreb – Official website Zagreb Tourist Board Visit Zagreb - Travel Guide Zagreb Fair Zagreb International airportvtePlaces adjacent to ZagrebZaprešić Varaždin Bjelovar Samobor Zagreb Dugo Selo Karlovac Odra Velika Gorica vteZagrebHistory Timeline Golden Bull of 1242 Gradec Kaptol Krvavi most 1880 earthquake 1895 Emperor Franz Joseph visit Zagreb in World War II 1995 rocket attacks 1995–97 Zagreb crisis MayorsDistricts Brezovica Črnomerec Donja Dubrava Donji grad Gornja Dubrava Gornji Grad–Medveščak Maksimir Novi Zagreb-istok Novi Zagreb-zapad Peščenica-Žitnjak Podsljeme Podsused-Vrapče Sesvete Stenjevec Trešnjevka-jug Trešnjevka-sjever TrnjeBuildings and landmarks 1 Ilica Street Banski dvori Cibona Tower Esplanade Zagreb Hotel General Post Office Kallina House Lotrščak Tower Medvedgrad Meštrović Pavilion Mirogoj Cemetery National Home palace Nine Views Old City Hall Rudolf barracks Stone Gate Villa Rebar Zagrepčanka Sky Office Tower Adriatic Bridge Homeland Bridge HOTO Tower EurotowerSquares and streets Ban Jelačić Square British Square Croatian Nobles Square Dolac Market Eugen Kvaternik Square Ilica Street Krvavi Most Lenuci Horseshoe Nova Ves Oktogon Republic of Croatia Square Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square St. Mark's Square Tkalčićeva Street Square of the Victims of FascismParks, gardens and recreation Lenuci Horseshoe Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square Maksimir Park Botanical Garden Bundek Jarun Medvednica Zagreb ZooPlaces ofworship Zagreb Cathedral St. Mark's Church St. Catherine's Church Orthodox Cathedral Zagreb Mosque Zagreb Synagogue Evangelical Church Greek Catholic Co-cathedral of Saints Cyril and Methodius Basilica of the Heart of Jesus Church of Saint BlaiseCulture Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb Gavella Drama Theatre Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall National and University Library Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra The Cravat RegimentGalleries and museums Archaeological Museum Art Pavilion Croatian History Museum Croatian Museum of Naïve Art Croatian Natural History Museum Croatian Railway Museum Ethnographic Museum Ferdinand Budicki Automobile Museum Glyptotheque Klovićevi Dvori Gallery Lauba Mimara Museum Modern Gallery Museum of Arts and Crafts Museum of Broken Relationships Museum of Contemporary Art Strossmayer Gallery Technical Museum Zagreb City MuseumEducation High schools in Zagreb Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts University of Zagreb Academies: Dramatic Art Fine Arts Music Faculties: Architecture Chemical Engineering Dental Medicine Economics and Business Electrical Engineering and Computing Geodesy Humanities and Social Sciences Medicine Science Teacher EducationSports venues Arena Zagreb Dom Sportova Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall Maksimir Stadium Kranjčevićeva Stadium ŠRC Sesvete Stadium NŠC Stjepan Spajić StadiumTransport Zagreb International Airport Zagreb Glavni kolodvor Zagreb Zapadni railway station Funicular Trams Commuter Rail Metro (proposed)Events Animafest Zagreb INmusic Festival Music Biennale Zagreb Zagreb Film Festival ZagrebDox Zagreb Fair Subversive FestivalSport events Golden Spin Hanžeković Memorial Snow Queen Trophy Zagreb IndoorsCategory:Zagreb vteHistory of ZagrebEvolution Andautonia Gradec Kaptol Zagreb Novi Zagreb City of Zagreb Zagreb County TimelineEvents Golden Bull of 1242 Croatian Parliament The Great Zagreb Earthquake Visit of Emperor Franz Joseph Summer Universiade in Zagreb Eurovision Song Contest 1990 Zagreb rocket attacks Zagreb Stock ExchangeStructures Zagreb Cathedral St. Mark's Church Medvedgrad Arena Zagreb Ban Jelačić Square St. Mark's Square Pleso AeroportBuildings Cibona Tower Eurotower Sky Office Tower Zagrepčanka Zagrebtower HOTO Tower Vjesnik Neboder - Ilica 1 Chromos Tower vteCounty seats of Croatia    Bjelovar, Bjelovar-BilogoraSlavonski Brod, Brod-PosavinaDubrovnik, Dubrovnik-NeretvaPazin, Istria Karlovac, KarlovacKoprivnica, Koprivnica-KriževciKrapina, Krapina-ZagorjeGospić, Lika-Senj Čakovec, MeđimurjeOsijek, Osijek-BaranjaPožega, Požega-SlavoniaRijeka, Primorje-Gorski Kotar Sisak, Sisak-MoslavinaSplit, Split-DalmatiaŠibenik, Šibenik-KninVaraždin, Varaždin Virovitica, Virovitica-PodravinaVukovar, Vukovar-SrijemZadar, ZadarZagreb, Zagreb vteCounties of Croatia Bjelovar-Bilogora Brod-Posavina Dubrovnik-Neretva Istria Karlovac Koprivnica-Križevci Krapina-Zagorje Lika-Senj Međimurje Osijek-Baranja Požega-Slavonia Primorje-Gorski Kotar Šibenik-Knin Sisak-Moslavina Split-Dalmatia Varaždin Virovitica-Podravina Vukovar-Srijem Zadar Zagreb City of Zagreb vteCities and towns of Croatia by population100,000+ Osijek Rijeka Split Zagreb35,000+ Bjelovar Dubrovnik Karlovac Kaštela Pula Samobor Šibenik Sisak Slavonski Brod Varaždin Velika Gorica Vinkovci Zadar10,000+ Beli Manastir Belišće Benkovac Čakovec Crikvenica Đakovo Daruvar Donji Miholjac Duga Resa Dugo Selo Garešnica Gospić Imotski Ivanec Ivanić-Grad Jastrebarsko Kastav Knin Koprivnica Krapina Križevci Kutina Labin Makarska Metković Našice Nova Gradiška Novi Marof Novska Ogulin Omiš Opatija Petrinja Pleternica Ploče Popovača Poreč Požega Rovinj Sinj Slatina Solin Sveta Nedelja Sveti Ivan Zelina Trogir Umag Valpovo Virovitica Vrbovec Vukovar Zaprešić Županja vteCapitals of European states and territoriesCapitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. 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A MAD Show Ireland The Late Late Show You're a Star Israel Latvia Eirodziesma Dziesma Lithuania Macedonia Malta Malta Song for Europe Malta Eurovision Song Contest Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland Concours Eurovision Die Grosse Entscheidungsshow United Kingdom YugoslaviaOther awards Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE OGAE Video Contest OGAE Second Chance Contest Barbara Dex AwardTelevisionand concerts Eurovision Song Contest Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision Song Contest's Greatest Hits Category Preceded byRotterdam, Netherlands (1953) World Gymnaestrada host city1957 Succeeded byStuttgart, West Germany (1961) Preceded byKobe, Japan (1985) Universiade host city1987 Succeeded byDuisburg, West Germany (1989) Authority control GND: 4108914-5 ISNI: 0000 0004 0396 1851 LCCN: n79116205 MusicBrainz: 55f3682e-ff80-4f11-9ec9-8923608a6ee1 NARA: 10046428 NDL: 00628568 NKC: ge134603 SELIBR: 160693 VIAF: 123146146 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 123146146 Retrieved from "" Categories: ZagrebCapitals in EuropeCities and towns in CroatiaCounties of CroatiaFormer counties of CroatiaPopulated places in the City of ZagrebPopulated places on the SavaPopulated places established in the 11th century11th-century establishments in Croatia1094 establishments in EuropeZagreb County (former)Hidden categories: CS1 Croatian-language sources (hr)Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Portuguese-language sources (pt)CS1 Hungarian-language sources (hu)CS1 Slovenian-language sources (sl)All articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from October 2015CS1 Serbian-language sources (sr)Articles with short descriptionUse dmy dates from December 2016EngvarB from December 2016Coordinates on WikidataPages using infobox settlement with possible demonym listArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles containing Croatian-language textArticles containing potentially dated statements from October 2008All articles containing potentially dated statementsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2012Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2019Portal templates with all redlinked portalsWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiersWikipedia articles with NARA identifiersWikipedia articles with NDL identifiersWikipedia articles with NKC identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikivoyage Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages AfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛالعربيةAragonésAsturianuАварAzərbaycancaবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaChi-ChewaChiShonaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeitschDeutschDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGaelgGagauzGàidhligGalego客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaInterlingueИронÍslenskaItalianoעבריתJawaქართულიҚазақшаKernowekKiswahiliКомиKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаلۊری شومالیLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLingálaLivvinkarjalaLumbaartMagyarМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMaltiMāoriमराठीმარგალურიمصرىBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄МонголNāhuatlDorerin NaoeroNa Vosa VakavitiNederlandsनेपाली日本語НохчийнNordfriiskNorfuk / PitkernNorskNorsk nynorskNovialOccitanОлык марийOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیPapiamentuPiemontèisPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaRomânăRumantschRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаSarduScotsSesothoShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСловѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟŚlůnskiکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaqbaylitТатарча/tatarçaไทยТоҷикӣTürkçeTürkmençeTwiУдмуртУкраїнськаاردوئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVahcuenghVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükVõroWalonWinarayWolofייִדישYorùbá粵語ZazakiŽemaitėška中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 16 July 2019, at 16:46 (UTC). 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